Noam Chomsky

E Vicipaedia
Salire ad: navigationem, quaerere

Abraham Noam Chomsky ([ˈnoʊm ˈtʃɒmski]; natus Avram Noam Chomsky Philadelphiae die 7 Decembris 1928) est linguista Americanus philosophiae[1] scientiarumque cognitivarum peritus, qui etiam activismo politico incumbit.

Institute Professor est et professor emeritus Facultatis Linguisticae & Philosophiae apud MIT, ubi plus quinquaginta annos munere functus est.[2] Chomsky "pater linguisticae contemporaneae" dictus est,[3][4][5] atque magnus philosophiae analyticae auctor.[1] Opera eius ad doctrinas scientificas (sicut informaticam, mathematicam, psychologiam) multum contulerunt.[6][7]

Chomsky, insignis culturae auctor,[8] in notitiam omnium venit anarcho-syndicalismi socialismique libertariani fautor et politicae externae Americanae[9] capitalismique[10] reprehensor. Libro Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media inscripto, quem una cum Eduardo S. Herman scripsit et anno 1988 edidit, se ad publicorum mediorum criticam confert et specimen propagandae proponit.

Secundum catalogum Arts and Humanities Citation Index anno 1992 editum, Chomsky ab anno 1980 ad annum 1992 saepius ullo scholastico alio citatus est, omniumque temporum octavus inter plurimum citatorum.[11][12][13][14] Plures etiam quam centum libros protulit.[15] Chomsky bonas gratias accepit propter hierarchiae Chomskianae, doctrinae grammaticae universalis, theorematis Chomsky–Schützenberger excogitationem.

De vita et vitae cursu[recensere | fontem recensere]

Noam Chomsky, parentibus Iudaeis genitus, in East Oak Lane, uberi Philadelphiae Pennsilvaniensis vicinia, die 7 Decembris 1928 in lucem editus est. Pater, Gulielmus Chomsky (1896–1977), oriundus ex Ucraina, munere professoris linguae Hebraicae apud Gratz College fungebatur ac socius societatis IWW erat. Elsie Chomsky mater (Simonofsky nata in regione quae postmodo Ruthenia Alba facta est) in Civitatibus Foederatis adoleverat et, quod de marito non dici potest, "communi dialecto Anglica Neo-Eboracensi" loquebatur.[conv. 1] Parentium autem amborum sermo patrius Iudaeogermanicus erat, sed Chomsky dixit vetitum fuisse hoc sermone loqui.[16] Chomsky, quamquam mater activismi radicalis annorum 1930 particeps fuit, potius ab avunculo affectus est, qui, cum nunquam quartam classem praeterierit, actorum diurnorum tabernulam possidebat, quae "fori intellectualis" loco fungebatur, ubi "professores huius et illius rei omnem per noctem inter se certabant."[conv. 2][17] Chomsky etiam affectus est rebus radicalibus Hebraicis Zionisticisque, et in librariis versando anarchisticis.[17]

Familiam in "gettone Iudaeo" habitavisse describit,[conv. 3] qui in partibus Iudaeogermanica et Hebraica scissus sit, suamque familiam huic pertinuisse eumque "in cultura et litteris Hebraicis mers[isse],"[conv. 4] licet potius de "vico clauso culturali quam physico"[conv. 5] loquatur.[18] Contentionem quoque describit Chomsky cum Catholicis Hibernicis et Theodiscis et antisemitismo mediis annibus 1930. Memoria "convivia cervisialia"[conv. 6] tenet, casum Lutetiae Theodiscis celebrantium.[18] De ironia, in Domu Iesuitica in Media America annibus 1980 habitandi, inter pueritiam, inquit Chomsky, "Sola eramus familia Iudaea. Magno Catholicorum in terrore adolevi, quippe qui, cum ad scholam is, te feriant. Eos sciebam, cum ab illo aedificio extrema via venirent, quod Iesuitica schola erat, dementes esse antisemitistas. Longo tempore opus fuit, ut pueritiae memorias convincerem."[conv. 7][19]

Noam Chomsky.

Commentarium primum Chomsky, cum annum decimum gerebat discipulusque in Oak Lane Country Day School erat, de fascismi extensionis comminatione post Barcinonis casum inter Bellum Civile Hispanicum scripsit. Ex quo annum duodecimum tertiumve decimum egit, plenius se ad res civiles anarchistas convertit.[20]

Cum apud Central High School of Philadelphia gradum acceperit, Chomsky philosophiae linguisticaeque anno 1945 apud Universitatem Pennsylvaniensem studere coepit, talibus philosophis qualibus C. West Churchman et Nelson Goodman linguistaque Zellig Harris docentibus. Inter Harris doctrinas erat transformationem munere fungentem analysis mathematicae structurae linguarum. Chomsky de legibus morphophonemicis in anni 1951 thesi magistri, The Morphophonemics of Modern Hebrew (sc. "de Morphophonemica Linguae Hebraicae Hodiernae") appellata, locutus est. Notiones civiles quoque Harris partes gesserunt in eis Chomsky formandis.[21] Chomsky anno 1949 Artium Baccalaureum accepit, annoque 1951 Magistrum Artium.

Anno 1949, Carolam Schatz linguistam in matrimonium duxit, annosque 59 una remanserunt, usque ad mortem illius cancere mense Decembre 2008 effectam.[22] Duas genuerunt filias, Avivam (n. 1957) et Dianam (n. 1960), et filium unum, Harry (n. 1967). Una cum uxore, Chomsky tempus anno 1953 habuit in HaZore'a, kibbutz in Israël sito. Ipse, colloquio utrum mansio ei erat frustrationi rogatus, inquit, "Non ita, id amavi," quamquam "nationalismum ferventem" et "atmosphaeram ideologicam subire nequieba[t]"[conv. 8] ineuntibus annis 1950, cum Stalin a multis sinistrarum partium defenderetur, qui rebus et illius aetatis et futuris Sovieticis speciem dare pulchram solebant.[23] Chomsky se dicit vidisse multa bona in kibbutz, in quo genitores liberique una habitabant in domibus divisis, et rogatus an sint "praecepta discenda ab historia kibbutzim,"[conv. 9] respondit,[24][25] "non nullis modis, kibbutzim proprius ad perfectionem anarchistam ierunt quam ullus conatus alius, qui longius quam momentum breve superaverit ante eius deletionem, aut qui tam magnus fuerit. His modis, apprime suaves et prosperos eos puto fuisse; nisi casu personali, sine dubio ipse ibi vixissem — quanto temporis, difficile coniectu."[conv. 10]

Chomsky PhD in linguistica ab Universitate Pennsylvaniensi anno 1955 accepit. Partem exquaesitionis doctoralis apud Universitatem Harvardianam tamquam Harvard Junior Fellow egit. In thesi sua, rationes linguisticas confirmare coepit, quas extendit in anni 1957 libro Syntactic Structures, uno ex illustrissimis operibus linguisticis eius.

Principale aedificium MIT.

Chomsky cohorti Massachusettensis Instituti Technologiae (MIT) anno 1955 se adiunxit, et anno 1961 professor confertus in Facultate Linguarum Hodiernarum et Linguisticae (hodie Facultate Linguisticae et Philosophiae) factus est. Ab anno 1966 ad annum 1976, Ferrari P. Ward Professorship of Modern languages and Linguistics tenebat, et anno 1976 munus Institute Professor ei datum est. Anno 2012, continue apud MIT 57 annos docuit.

Mense Februario 1967, Chomsky unus ex principibus adversariis Belli Vietnamiensis factus est propter commentarium suum, The Responsibility of Intellectuals ("de Responsabilitate Intellectualium"),[26] in The New York Review of Books proditum. Secuta est American Power and the New Mandarins, anni 1969 commentariorum collectio. Critica eius civilitatis rerum externarum Civitatum Foederatarum et ad legitimitatem potestatis Americanae spectantia multas controversias creaverunt,[27][28] et publicationibus et nuntiorum emissariis internationalibus quaeri solet ut sententias suas explanet. Anno 1997, Acroasin Huizinga Lugduni Batavorum protulit, eo titulo: Intellectuals and the State ("de Intellectualibus et Statu").

Mortis minas Chomsky propter critica eius civilitatis rerum externarum Americanae concepit.[29] Theodori Kaczynski, fortasse melius nomine Unabomber noti, indici interficiendorum intererat; eo spatio, quo Kaczynski liber erat, Chomsky omnes epistulas et mandata ne materiae displosivae eis inesset indagari habebat.[29] Se dicit vigilum tectorum custodia solere uti, praecipue cum in campis MIT versatur, licet de hac re abnuat.[29]

Lexingtoniae in Massachusetta incolit, et commeare solet, de rebus civilibus acroases proferens.

De cogitationibus[recensere | fontem recensere]

Linguistica[recensere | fontem recensere]

Crystal 128 up.png Commentatio principalis: Linguistica


Linguistica Chomskiana, libro Syntactic Structures incepta, destillatione operis sui Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory (1966, 75) (scilicet "Structura Logica Theoriae Linguisticae"), linguisticae structurali obstans grammaticam transformationalem praefert. Quae loquellas,[conv. 11] id est verborum sequentias, censet syntaxin grammatica formali definitam habere; grammatica vacanti contextu in primis, legibus transformationalibus extenta.

Fortasse hoc est facultati valentissimum et tempore maxime probatum contributum, quod ad scientiam linguae componendam grammatica formali uti "productivitatem" linguae et "creativitem" intuetur. Cuiusdam linguae grammatica formalis abilitatem locutoris auditorisque numeri loquellarum, et novarum, infiniti afferendi et interpretandi, cum legum grammaticalium quantitate finita et verborum, exponere potest. Chomsky confessus Pāṇini multa debere est, propter rationem eius generativae grammaticae explicitae, licet rationes eius rationalistis quoque cognitionibus de scientia a priori habita nectantur.

Saepe perperam dicitur Chomsky linguam omnino innatam esse arguisse, atque grammaticam universalem comperisse. Re vera, Chomsky modo et infantem humanum et iuvenem felem animadvertit cogitatione inductiva uti posse, sed ambo si eisdem rebus linguisticis subiciantur, infans humanus semper intellegentiae abilitatem adquirat et linguam producendi, feles autem nunquam alterutram. Chomsky quicquam sit haec facultas, quam homo habet quaque felis eget, "mechanismum linguae adquirendae"[conv. 12] appellavit, et suasit ut una ex linguisticae curis sit, hic mechanismus quid sit, qualesque coactus comprehensioni linguarum humanarum sint, invenire. Universalia, quae ex his compulsionibus extrahantur, "grammatica universalis" esse dici solent.[30]

Principiorum et Parametrorum (P&P) disciplina — anno 1979 Acroasi Pisarum ostensa, postea nomine Lectures on Government and Binding: The Pisa Lectures (LGB) provulgata — haec de grammatica ait universali: principia grammaticalia, quae linguis subsint, innata esse et immobilia, et differentias inter mundi linguas parametris cerebralibus definiri posse (puta parametra pro-drop, quae ostendunt, utrum subiectum explicitum semper requiratur, sicut Anglice, annon, sicut Latine ["ego sum" ↔ "sum"]), quae saepe ad switches connectuntur. (Hinc vocabulum "principia et parametra," huic disciplinae saepe datum.) Sic liber cuidam linguae studens solummodo rebus lexicalibus (vocabulis, morphematibus grammaticalibus, idiomatibus) egeat, et parametris quoque, quod nonnullis magni momenti exemplis fieri possit.

Huius sententiae fautores arguunt velocitatem, qua liberi linguam discant, inedicabiliter citam esse, nisi ei abilitatem linguis discendis habeant innatam. Similitudo passuum, quibus liberi patriae linguae student, atque hi errores, qui fieri solent a liberis discentibus, dum alia errorum genera, quae logica videntur (invenirenturque, secundum Chomsky, si omnino generalis, potius quam cuique linguae specialis, eruditionis mechanismus usui esset), nunquam fiunt, innatitatis thesis causa ostenduntur.

Recentius eius Programmate Minimalistico (1995), concepto Principiorum et Parametrorum detento, Chomsky meliorationem gravem machinae linguisticae ad exemplar LGB adtinenti efficere conatur, omnibus praeter nuda elementaria eius exuendis. Disciplinam generalem ad linguae humanae architecturam spectantem advocat, quae oeconomiae formaeque optimae principiis operam det, et disciplinae ad generationem pertinenti derivationali redeat, potius quam theoriae P&P classicae disciplinae aliquam repraesentationali.

Rationes Chomskianae multum eos adfecerunt, qui liberorum linguae adquisitionem investigant, licet multi in his rebus versantes ut puta Elizabetha Bates[31] et Michael Tomasello[32] contra theorias Chomskii arguant, advocantque theorias potius emergentisticas connexionisticasve: linguam explanandam censent mechanismis generalibus in cerebro sitis, qui multiplicibus et extensis rebus circumiectis socialibus, in quibus lingua adhibetur et discitur, se intermisceant.

Phonologiam tractans notissimum forsitan opus Chomskii est The Sound Pattern of English (1968; sc. "de Forma Sonorum Linguae Anglicae"), una cum Morris Halle scriptum et saepe tantummodo nomine SPE appellatum. Hoc opus huius facultatis progressionem valde affecit. Quamquam ex hoc tempore theoria phonologica "phonologiam SPE" multis modis excessit, systema SPE praecursor fuisse dicitur theoriarum phonologicarum maximi momenti hodiernarum, inter quas phonologia autosegmentalis, phonologia lexicalis, theoria optimalitatis. Chomsky iam de phonologia non scribit.

Grammatica generativa[recensere | fontem recensere]

Crystal 128 up.png Commentatio principalis: Grammatica generativa


Disciplina Chomskiana ad syntaxin inspiciendam, quae grammatica generativa appellari solet, grammaticam quasi corpus scientiae a locutoribus cuiusdam linguae habitum videt. Ex annibus 1960, Chomsky multum huius scientiae censuit esse innatum, quapropter liberis solum non nulla sermonis eis patrii localia discenda sunt.[33] Corpus innatum scientiae linguae saepe grammatica universalis nominatur. Potentissimum, sententia Chomskii, Grammaticae Universalis existentiae indicium in eo est, quod liberi tam cito linguam patriam feliciter adquirunt, atque quod immane exstat spatium inter stimulos linguisticos, quibus liberi praebentur, et opulentem scientiam linguisticam, quam obtinent. Ecce theoria paupertatis stimuli. Hoc spatium scientia Grammaticae Universalis continuetur.

Theoriae Chomskii, quippe quae linguisticam valdissime adfecerunt, critica quoque acceperunt. Chomskianae grammaticae generativae continua critica ad eius Anglocentrismum et Eurocentrismum spectant, quod linguistae in hac traditione versantes de Universali Grammatica res dicere soleant, quae ex parvae studio linguarum quantitatis elata sint, interdumque solum unius linguae. In primis, Eurocentrismus per nimiam linguae Anglicae factam emphasin exhibita sit. Nunc autem centenis linguis non nulla saltem opera intra analyses Chomskianas data est.[34][35][36][37][38] Diversitate linguarum, quae derivationibus Grammaticae Universalis definitae sunt, non obstante, critici formalismos linguisticae Chomskianae esse Anglocentricos dicunt, et harum linguarum linguae Anglicae dissimilium detorquere proprietates.[39][40][41] Cognitionem Chomskii ideo formam esse imperialismi linguistici.[42] Linguistas Chomskianos ceteroquin ut quales cuiusdam linguae phrases bene formatae sint sciant in praesagitione locutorum, quibus haec lingua sit patria, nimis incumbere. Quod propter methodologiam incusatum est. Non nulli psychologi et psycholinguistae, doctrinae Chomskianae generaliter amici, arguerunt linguistas Chomskianos parum operae rebus experimentalibus ex language processing obtentis dare, quam ob rem theoriae eorum psychologice inexplebiles fiant. Critici alii (vide "Eruditio linguae") utrum Grammaticam componere Universalem deceat ad liberorum adquisitionem linguisticam explanandam, in dubio habent, quia dominio generales (domain-general) eruditionis mechanismos satisfaciant.

Nunc sunt multi et diversi grammaticae generativae rami, ita ut constitutiones tamquam grammatica syntagmatica nuclearis, grammatica lexico-functionalis, grammatica categorialis combinatoria Chomskianae generativaeque fere dici possint.

Hierarchia Chomskiana[recensere | fontem recensere]

Crystal 128 up.png Commentatio principalis: Hierarchia Chomskiana


Chomsky diversa linguarum formalium genera scrutatus est, ut cognosceret utrum proprietates linguae humanae graves capere possent. Ponit hierarchia Chomskiana grammaticas formales in classes (seu greges), quibus est semper maior potestas expressiva; id est, omnis classis maiorem numerum linguarum formalium classe priori progenerare potest. Chomsky arguit quibusdam linguae humanae partibus, ut formentur, multipliciore opus esse grammatica formali (secundum hierarchiam illam), quam aliis. Dum lingua regularis, exempli gratia, sat potens sit ut linguae Anglicae morphologia describatur, non ita de syntaxi Anglica agitur. Non solum linguisticam sed etiam informaticam tangit hierarchia Chomskiana (praesertim quod ad compilatrorum comparationem et automatorum theoriam spectat).[43] Est enim similitudo inter linguae hierarchiam Chomskianam et diversa automatorum genera, ita ut theoremata de linguis sive linguas (grammaticas) sive automata tractent.

Potest etiam fieri ut linguae Serie potestatum formali tractentur.[44] Series potestatum formalis, necnon nexus inter linguas et semigreges, in Marcelli Pauli Schützenberger animo volvebatur cum apud Sorbonam versabatur. Series potestatum formalis Seriei Taylor, in cursu calculi usui, similis est, et his maxime linguis, quarum verba (symbola terminalia) commutativa sunt, prodest.[45]

De rebus civilibus[recensere | fontem recensere]

Crystal 128 up.png Commentatio principalis: Civilitas Noam Chomsky


Unam legis e paginis de
anarchismo
disserentibus

Anarchy-symbol.svg


Chomsky dixit suas "sententias personales admodum traditionales anarchistas, cum originibus in Illuminatione et liberalismo classico" esse,[conv. 13][46] et socialismum libertarianum laudavit.[47] Quamquam ambiguitatem lemmatum cavet, sententiae eius civiles ad sinistram pertinere dici solent,[48][49][50][51] seseque anarchosyndicalisticum esse dixit.[52] Socius est societatum Campaign for Peace and Democracy et Industrial Workers of the World syndicatus internationalis,[53] nec non societatis International Organization for a Participatory Society, quam putat "longe nos conferre" posse "ad conatus disperse in orbe terrarum factos unificandos eosque in vim potentem efficientemque conformare."[conv. 14][54][55] De anarchismo librum, Chomsky on Anarchism nomine, qui acroases et scripta Chomskii ad anarchismum spectantia colligeret, AK Press societas litteraria collectiva anno 2006 protulit.

Chomsky in activismo civili partes egit omnem per vitam suam adultam, et sententiae de civilitate rebusque internationalibus, quas sonuit, late citantur et circumferuntur. Chomsky suas sententias esse illas, quas potentes audire nolint, dixit, quam ob rem Americanum dissidentem civilum esse habetur.

Ait Chomsky auctoritatem, nisi aliter demonstratam, natura illegitimam esse, et in eis, qui auctoritate utantur, indicii pondus esse; hoc pondus, si excusari nequeat, subvertendum esse, cum iniusta sit auctoritas auctoratatis causa. Auctoritatis iustae exempli causa Chomsky adultum, qui liberum, ne in via autocinetorum plena eat, prohibentem excogitavit.[56] Paulum discriminis moralis inter 'veram' servitutem (chattel slavery) et "servitudinem salariariam," id est sese patrono conducere, esse decertat. Quod impetum esse in libertatem individualem factum putat. Operariis locum laborandi possidendum et gubernendum esse habet, quod etiam (ut notat ille) Puellae Lowell Mill credebant.[57]

Vehementer incusavit Chomsky civilitatem rerum externarum Americanam. Duplice norma Civitates Foederatas uti habet, quae democratiam libertatemque adnuntient dum antidemocraticas tyrannicasque organizationes adiuvent, sicut Chiliam Augusto Pinochet regnante. Quod putat magnas in violationes iurum humanorum defluere. Arguere solet Civitatum Foederatarum interventus in civitatibus aliis factos, inter quos operam ad Contras Nicaraguae datam, quam rem multum repugnavit, ulli tromocratiae definitioni convenire,[58] et enim "definitioni publicae in Americano Codice et Exercitus Enchiridiis inventae ineuntibus annis 1980."[conv. 15][59][60] Ante eius casum, Unionis quoque Sovieticae imperialismum Chomsky condemnavit; anno 1986, verbi gratia, inter cursum quaestionum et respondorum post acroasin, quae apud Universidad Centroamericana "José Simeón Cañas" dederat, cum provocatus sit de modo, quo "de Americae Septentrionalis imperialismo et Russico imperialismo eadem anima loqui"[conv. 16] potuerit, Chomsky respondit: "Una e mundi veritatibus est superpotentias esse duas, alteram, quae sit immanis et quae, ut evenit, in cervice tua caligam suam teneat; alteram, quae sit minor et quae, ut evenit, in aliorum cervicibus caligam suam teneat. Quemquam in Orbi Tertio viventem puto graviter errare, si in illusiones de his rebus cadat."[conv. 17][61]

De Usamae bin Laden morte, Chomsky inquit:

Nobis est rogandum, quo modo reaguerimus, si Iracenses manus in Georgii W. Bush domum appulerint, eum occiderint, corpusque suum in Atlantico deiacuerint. Sine controversia, scelera eius valde ultra ea bin Laden excesserunt, neque is est 'suspectus' sed sine controversia 'imperator' qui iussit 'summum scelus internationale' contrahi, 'quod modo in hoc ab aliis belli sceleribus discrepet, quod in eo ipso omnium rerum malum accumulatum concludat' (ut Iudicia Norimbergensia revocem), propter quae malefactores Nazistae ad furcam damnati sunt: centena milia mortuorum, milliones profugorum, deletionem multi nationis, amaram dissensionem sectarianam, quae in regionis reliquum effudit.[conv. 18][62]

Unam legis e paginis de
socialismo
libertariano
disserentibus

Media Civitatum Foederatarum contendit late munere fungi "sacerdotii empticii"[63] rectionis et corporationum Americanarum, cum haec tria communibus causis intexantur. In illustra Gualterio Lippmann relatione, Chomsky una cum coscriptore Eduardo S. Herman in libro Manufacturing Consent scripsit media Americana plebis consensionem per exemplar propagandae adferre. Chomsky anni 2010 Iudicii Summi Civitatum Foederatarum Citizens United consilium condemnavit, quo fines expeditionibus comitialibus facti abrogati sunt, quod "corporatam democratiae rapinam" appellavit.[conv. 19][64]

Bello Drogis Facto adversatur, dicens usum dictionis decipere, idque "bellum nonnullis drogis factum" (the war on certain drugs) advocat. Reformationi civilitatis drogarum favet, docendo et praeveniendo factae potius quam actionibus rei militaris vigilumve, ad drogarum usum minuendum.[65] In anni 1999 colloquio, Chomsky arguit, cum nihil usus talium rerum qualium tabaci curae sit rectioni, tum in usum cannabis, verbi gratia, impetum facit propter pauperum opprimendorum consecutiones.[66] Dixit enim:

Leges CFA domesticae metas, quas dicunt eis esse, non exsecutunt, legislatoresque bene hoc sciunt. Si non ad drogarum usum deminuendum, qualem ad rem spectant? Sane clarum est, actis et hodiernis et historicis, drogas criminalizari solere cum classibus periculosis dictis coniungantur, non nullarum drogarum criminalizationem technicam imperii socialis esse.[conv. 20][67]

Chomsky socialistos credit mores exemplum esse rationum e liberalismo classico et radicali humanismo ortarum contextui industriali extentarum. Societatem eminenter componi et in democratico communitatum locorumque laborandi imperio fundari. Rationes humanistas radicales Bertrandi Russell et Ioannis Dewey, qui multum eum adfecerint, "in Illuminatione classicoque liberalismo radicatas esse virtutemque rebus novis faventem retinere."[conv. 21][68]

Civitates Foederatas iam dixit ille "nationem orbis terrarum optimam" esse,[conv. 22][69] quod serius explanavit dicendo: "Stupidum est nationes aestimare neque unquam sic res ponam, sed non nulla Americae bona, praesertim ad libertatem loquendi pertinentia, quae saeculis contentionum publicarum, admiranda sunt."[conv. 23][70] Dixit etiam: "Modis multis, Civitates Foederatae liberrima est orbis terrarum natio. Non solum de coercitionis statalis? finibus loquor, licet hoc quoque verum sit, sed etiam de adfinitatibus domesticis. Civitates Foederatae propius a societate classibus carente, quod ad adfinitatibus interpersonalibus spectat, quam virtualiter ulla societas alia pervenit."[conv. 24][71]

Chomsky criticis adversatur, quae aiunt anarchismum a subsidio sociali abhorrere, nam:

Potes sane affirmare non nobis curae esse problemata, quibus homines hodie dolent, cum de rebus futuris velimus cogitare possibilibus. Sit ita, sed tunc noli simulare tibi curae esse homines eorumque fatum, ac in seminarii conclavi mane et in caupona cafearia intellectuali una cum aliis hominibus privilegiatis. Alioquin potes humanitate agere: laborare volo, hodie, ad meliorem crastini causa societatem instituendam — quod est classicus status anarchisticus […]. Hoc iustum est, et recte ad homines problematibus dolentes sustinendos adducit: salutis securitatisque moderationem, assecurationem valetudinariam nationalem, systemata auxilii eis, quibus eis opus est, et cetera. Hoc non satis est ad res futuras diversas melioresque componendas, sed necesse est. Quodlibet alii eorum contemptum accipiet benemeritum, qui tam luxuria non utuntur, quam ut circumstantias, in quibus vivunt, negligant dum superesse conantur.[conv. 25][72]

Sententiae Chomskii antibellicae esse summatim dici possint, sed non adstricte pacificae. Bello Vietnamiensi celse adversatus est et plerisque aliis bellis per vitam suam gestis. Resistentia fiscali et ambulacris pacis has sententias ostendit. Anno 1968, nomen suum voto "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" subnotavit, se pensionem tributorum abnuiturum esse iurans ut Bellum Vietnamiense increpet.[73] Commentationes de hoc bello conscripsit, inter quas The Responsibility of Intellectuals ("de Responsabilitate Intellectualium"). Implicationem Americanam in Bello Orbis Terrarum Secundo, ut Potestates Axis vincantur, tenet probabiliter fas fuisse, quamvis eventum belli consiliis prioribus desiti praeventive praeoptoverit. Missionem autem pyrobolorum atomicorum in Hirosimam et Negasacium "inter maxime inedicibilia historiae scelera" fuisse.[conv. 26][74]

Chomsky rectionem Israëlensem, nec non fautores eius et Civitatum Foederatarum amicitiam cum ea, propter populi Palaestinensis tractatum incusavit, quod "'Israëlis defensores' re vera degenerationem moralem eius et sine dubio deletionem eius ultimam defendunt" atque "manifestissima Israëlis electio expansionis pro securitate huic rei adducere possit."[conv. 27][75] Chomsky de Israële tamquam statu Iudaeo instituendo abnuit, quoniam "Non censeo statum Iudaeum sive Christianum sive Islamicum conceptum esse bonum. Civitates Foederatas statum Christianum esse recusaverim."[conv. 28][76] Chomsky haesit prius quam opera civilitatem Israëlensem incusantia provulgaverit dum parentes eius vivebant, nam "sciebam id eos vulnaraturum esse, praecipue propter amicos eorum, qui hysterice palam sententiis tamquam meis reagebant."[conv. 29][77] Die 16 Maii 2010, auctoritates? Chomsky detinuerunt denique ei in Cisiordaniam per Iordaniam inire non siverunt.[78] Primi Ministri Israëlensis interpres initus recusationem solum ob finis custodem, qui "auctoritatem suam praeteriit,"[conv. 30] evenisse declaravit, secundumque ineundi conatum credibiliter situm iri.[79] Chomsky dissensit, nam ministral, qui eum interrogaverit, ordines accepisset a superioribus: non nullas post interrogationis horas, initus ei reprobatus sit propter res, quas dicat, et nam universitatem Cisiordanianam visurus esset neque universitates ullas Israëlenses.[79]

Chomsky libertati loquendi valde favet, multumque de hac re et mediis publicis scripsit, et omni censurae adversatur. Ait: "Quod ad libertatem loquendi spectat, sunt duo status: vehementer eam defendis harum sententiarum causa, quas odisti, aut eam recusas formulasque Stalinistas/fascistas praeoptas."[conv. 31][80] De anni 2010 documentorum Americanorum divulgatione ab Wikileaks facta, Chomsky inquit, "momenti fortasse maximi … est illud acerbum democratiae odium, quod ostendunt et Rectio CFA — Hilaria Clinton, aliique — et legati."[conv. 32][81] Chomsky eos, qui eum diffamaverint, in ius non vocat, sed eis epistulis publicis in diariis provulgandis adversatur. Notum huius rationis exemplum responsum eius est commentationi ab Emma Brockes in The Guardian scriptae, secundum quam ille Lanienam Argentariae negavisset.[82][83][84] Epistula Chomskii effecit ut The Guardian correctionem divulgaret apologeticam, commentationemque a situ eius interretiali removeret.[85]

Chomsky saepe dixit nihil nexus inter opus linguisticum sententiasque civiles eius esse, et huic rationi, bonas de rebus civilibus collocutiones perita rerum academicarum scientia egere, adversari solet. In anni 1969 colloquio, de nexu inter civilitate et opus suum linguisticum dixit:

Adhuc ipse sentio quemlibet nexum tenuem esse. Eum dilatare non velim, sed mihi saltem aliquid significare puto. Cuiusdam rationibus civilibus rationibusve ad constitutionem socialem adtinentibus puto tandem in quolibet naturae humanae operumque humanorum concepto constandum esse.[conv. 33][86]

Non nulli censores Chomsky hypocrisis incusaverunt cum, quamvis imperialismum militarem Americanum et Europaeanum incuset, priscae investigationes linguisticae apud MIT factae multa ex parte Americanae rei militaris pecuniam acceperant.[87] Chomsky arguit, quo pecuniam a re militari CFA acceperit, eo responsabilitatem magnam ei esse factorum infas eius incusandorum et occurrendorum.

Poenae capitali adversatur et contra Stephani Woods supplicium extremum locutus est: "Poenam capitalem habeo scelus esse omnibus circumstantiis, et cummaxime in casu Stephani Woods. Vehementer supplicio extremo Stephani Woods diei 13 Septembris 2011 adversor."[conv. 34]

Noam Chomsky acroasin gregi Occupy Harvard ferens.

Cum series manifestationum, Occupy Wall Street nomine, Novi Eboraci die 17 Septembris 2011 coepta est, Chomsky approbavit (et enim Occupy Boston in via allocutus est),[88] scribens:

Quisquam, qui oculos habeat apertos, gangsterismum Wall Street — immo institutionum argentariarum generaliter — severas calamitates populo Civitatum Foederatarum (et orbis terrarum) scit effecisse. Et enim semper magis sic egisse plures quam triginta annos, cum potestas oeconomica sua radicitus auxerit, una cum potestate sua civile. Hoc circulum vitiosum coepit, quo divitia immanis, et cum ea potestas civilis, congregata est minimam in populi partem, fractionem unius centesimae, dum reliquum semper magis id fit, quod interdum "precariatum" appellatur — ei, qui superesse in existentia precaria conantur. Ea quoque mala omnino fere impunite agunt — non solum too big to fail (scilicet "maiores quam ut fallant"), sed etiam "too big to jail" ("maiores quam ut incarcerentur"). ¶ Audaces et honorabiles manifestationes, quae in Wall Street aguntur, ad hanc calamitatem animadversioni publicae ferendam iuvent, et ad conatus dedicatos adducant ut ea superetur et societas melioretur.[conv. 35][89][90][91]

Mense Martio 2012, Chomsky Jill Stein Praesidis Civitatum Foederatarum muneris causa approbavit.[92]

Chomsky atheus est.[93][94]

De mediis[recensere | fontem recensere]

Alius animi conspectus operis civilis Chomskii est analysis eius mediorum, praesertim Civitatrum Foederatarum, structurarum et coactuum eorum, et huius partis, quam Chomsky eis agi retur, magnarum negotationum commodorumque statalium? fulciendorum. Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, anni 1988 liber a Chomskio et Eduardo S. Herman conscriptus, hanc rem penitus tractat, exemplar propagandae illud rerum nuntiarum ostendendo, una cum multis et prolixis causae studiis (case study), quae id testificentur. Hoc propagandae exemplar profert tales societates democraticiores quales CFA persubtilibus et placidis (non-violent) imperii modis uti, dissimilibus his, quibus systemata totalitariana utantur, qui viribus physicis prompte utantur ad populum cogendum. Ut inquit Chomsky, "Propaganda democratiae est id, quod fustis statui totalitariano."[conv. 36]

Exemplar sibi vult explanare quandam animi intentionem systematicam mediorum communicationis socialis, non propter hominum conspirationem, sed potius propter causas oeconomicas et structurales. Intentionem animi arguit a quinque "filtris" defluere, quae nuntiis omnibus "permeanda" sint,[conv. 37] quibusque coniectis nuntia systematice detorqueantur.

Filtra diversas res notant. Primum filtrum, quod est mediorum proprietas, pleraque nuntiorum emissaria magnis corporationibus possideri. Filtrum secundum, q.e. argentarius commeatus, emissaria maximam pecuniae partem ex praeconio neque lectoribus obtinere, quam ob rem nuntia, quae provulgent, desideria moresque negotationum resonent. Filtrum tertium, nuntiorum media institutionibus statalibus? et negotationibus magnis, quippe quibus intentiones animi sint maximae, delitoribus uti. Quartum autem filtrum, q.e. critica, varios greges media propter inclinationem animi — inclinationem contrariam ei, quam Chomsky reatur esse — aggredi. Quintum filtrum tandem, q.e. normae, rationes communes esse inter relatores. (Hoc filtrum in textu originali, i.e. anni 1988, ad anticommunismum spectabat. Unione Sovietica tamen casa, dilatum est.) Exemplar igitur modum ostendat, quo media systema nec centralizatum nec conspiratioriale sed nihilo minus fortissimum forment, quo consensus delectorum creetur et disputationes publicae intra delectorum perspectivam conpingantur, simul atque adspectus democratiae teneatur.

Exemplis duplicibus Chomsky Hermanque exemplar suum demonstrant, id est paribus exemplorum rerum persimilium. Exempli gratia, secundum eos, si "hostis publicus" aliquid faciat, sicut ministralem religiosum necare, prelum tam callide inquirat tantaque de hac re provulget, quam ut victimae "hostis publici" "dignae" habeantur; quodsi amicus eandem peioremve rem faciat, prelum efficiat ut fabulam minus malam, quam est, videatur, ita ut victimae Civitatum Americanarum aut cuiusdam status clientis eius "indignae" habeantur.[conv. 38]

Inter studia causarum invenitur id, quod demonstrari solet, ut liberrimi preli exemplum optimum, quod est modus, quo media Belli Vietnamiensis Tet Offensive tractaverunt. Hac quidem in re, prelum arguunt ad delectorum causam ferendam egisse.

Scientia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Chomsky scientiam habet explicationis inquisitionem esse, et sententiam, eam catalogum rerum explanationumve mechanicarum esse, recusat. Quocirca maxima pars contributorum eius scientiae factorum hypotheses fuerunt, potius quam "inventa."[95] Ergo logicae critica poststructuralia aut postmoderna nugas esse retur:

Multum vitae meae habui quaestiones harum similes disserans, et modis solis, quos cognovi, utens; hos hic condemnatos ut "scientia," "rationalitas," "logica," et sic porro. Symbolas igitur lego, eas sperans me adiuvaturas, ut hos fines "superem," aut fortasse cursum omnino diversum admoneant. Falsus autem sum. Fortasse solum propter fines meos sic evenit. Saepius, "oculi mei vitreantur" cum rhetoricam polysyllabam lego de poststructuralismo et postmodernismo; id, quod intellego, plerumque truismus errorve est, haec autem res solum fractio est omnium verborum. Verum est multa alia esse, quae non intellego: commentationes de rebus nuper factis in mathematica et physica, exempli gratia. Adest autem discrimen. Hac in re, scio, quo modo ea intellegem, idque feci, cum mea interesset; et scio quoque earum disciplinarum homines mihi ea explanare posse, ita ut (partialem) scientiam, cui studeam, accipere possim. Contra, nemo mihi explanare posse videtur, quid posthoc postqueillud sit, nisi truismus aut error aut nugae, ita ut quo modo progrediar, nesciam.[conv. 39][96]

Quamquam Chomsky scientiam credit magni momenti esse, ut ratio bona doceatur, scientiam non sat esse habet ut res multiplices velut res humanae intellegantur:

Scientia de rebus persimplicibus agit, difficilesque quaestiones de eis poscit. Cum primum res multipliciores fiant, scientia ea tractare nequit. … Sed haec est valde intricata res: Scientia ei, quod in margine intellectus est, studet, et id, quod in margine est intellectus, simplicius esse solet. Et rare res humanas adtingit. Res humanae valde multipliciores sunt.[conv. 40][97]

Psychologia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Opus Chomskii linguisticum graviter psychologiam movit hodiernam.[7] Linguistica Chomskio ramus psychologiae cognitivae est; ad verum linguisticae conspectum formandum, intellectu naturae humanae et rerum mentalium opus est. Theoria eius grammaticae universalis a multis visa est ut illius temporis behaviorismo provocatio, et consequentias graves illi scientiae tulit, cum investigaverit, quo modo liberi linguam discant, quidque sit potestas lingua utendi.

Anno 1959, Chomsky critica divulgavit libri B. F. Skinner Verbal Behavior, quo Skinner res theoricas linguae, quae ad behaviorismum pertinebant, obtulerat. Is "verbal behavior" (sc. mores verbales) habebat esse mores discitos, quibus sunt consequentiae per aliorum mores discitos delatae. Quam ob rem conspectus morum ad communicationem adtinentium, quem liber tractabat, valde maior erat eo, quem linguistae adire solent. Skinneri disciplina circumstantias, in quibus lingua usurpatur, intuebatur; verbi gratia, discrimen functionale est inter aquam petendam et aliquid aquam dicendum et aliquem, qui aquam petat, respondendum. Ea responsorum genera functionaliter diversa, quae explicationibus diversis egebant, cum et traditionalibus linguae rationibus et psycholinguistica Chomskii disciplina dissentiebant. Chomsky explicationem functionalem ad quaestiones de actu communicativo coactam gravia credebat neglegare.[98] Quaestionibus operam dedit de operatione progressioneque innatarum structurarum ad syntaxin pertinentium, quae possint verba et phrases adparare, cohaerescere, aptare, componere in loquellam, quae intellegatur.

Chomsky in critica sua affirmavit applicationem scientificam behavioralium doctrinarum, quae de investigationibus in animalibus factis deducuntur, severe delinquere, et superficialem esse morum verbalium humanorum explanationem, quia theoria, quae sese in condicionibus externalibus adstringat, ei, "quod compertum" sit,[conv. 41] non satis grammaticam generativam interpretetur. Chomsky exempli causa liberorum citam linguae adquisitionem usurpavit, et facultatem suam, quae cito crescat, phrasium grammaticalium creandarum, et linguae universaliter creativum usum a locutoribus nativis ostensum. Quas ob res Chomsky habet Skinneri sententiam exemplificavisse theoriae testimonio factae limitationes. Dotationem geneticam prius esse proponendam, quam mores verbales humani, tamquam usus linguistici et evolutionis linguisticae creativae partes, intellegi possint. Sententia quidem, secundum qualem partes linguae genimen sint facultatis innatae et universalis, Skinneri behaviorismo radicali adversatur.

Chomskii anni 1959 scriptum critica a multis concepit, quibus interfuit illa Canici MacCorquodale anno 1970 vulgata, nomine On Chomsky's Review of Skinner's Verbal Behavior[99] (scilicet "De Chomskii Iudicio Verbalium Morum Skinneri"). Canici MacCorquodale argumentum gravi modo a Nathan Stemmer expassum est in anni 1990 symbola, Skinner's Verbal Behavior, Chomsky's review, and mentalism[100] (sc. "De Skinneri Moribus Verbalibus, criticis Chomskii, mentalismoque"). Haec et similia critica non nulla disputaverunt, quae extra psychologiam behavioralem non dici solent, tamquam Chomsky parum behavioralismum, dissimilitudinemve inter behavioralismum Skinnerianum varietatesque eius alias, intellegere, ideoque in multis graviter erravisse. Critici critica Chomskiana ceterum censent fefellisse in eo, quod demonstrandum, demonstrando, et in opere Skinneri aliorumque detorquerendo, rebus extra contextum citandis.[101] Chomsky critica sua dicit ad modum directa esse, quo Skinneri psychologiae behavioralis typus "in Quineano empirismo philosophiaeque naturalizatione" usurpatus esset.[conv. 42][102]

Postulatum est, critica Chomskii methodologiae et assumptionum Skinneri "rebus novis cognitivis" ("cognitive revolution") viam delapidavisse, quae est conversio in rebus psychologicis Americanis inter annos 1950 et 1970 facta, ut potius cognitivae essent quam behaviorales. In Cartesian Linguistics anni 1966 opere suo (sc. "Linguistica Cartesiana"), et enim in operibus consequentibus, Chomsky explanationem linguisticarum hominis facultatum ostendit, quae exemplar facta est, quod et hodie non nullis psychologicis rebus scrutandis adhibetur. Multae rationes hodiernae ad modum, quo mens munere suo fungatur, pertinentes, ex scriptis Chomskii nobis venerunt.

Hae rationes sunt tres.

  • Mentem "cognitivam" esse, mentem id est re vera status mentales, sententias, dubia, et sic porro, continere.
  • Plerasque ex gravibus linguae et mentis virtutibus innatas esse. Adquisitionem linguae et progressionem exire pronitate innata, quae rerum externarum experientia incipiatur. Nexus inter innatam humanam linguae abilitatem et hereditatem causa fuit eminens in Chomskii et Ioannis Piaget disputatione, apud Regalem Montem anno 1975 habitam.[103] Quamquam nexus inter compositionem geneticam hominis et linguae abilitatem illo tempore et postea conlatus est, longe adhuc ab geneticis linguae humanae fundamentis intellengendis absumus. Opus de exemplare stabilitationis selectivae synapsium deductum ab Ioanne Petro Changeux, Philippe Courrège, Antonioque Danchin factum,[104] et recentius theoria et experientia ab Iacobo Mehler et Stanislas Dehaene confirmatum, praesertim quod ad cognitionem numericam (numerical cognition) adtinet, "nativismo" Chomskiano adiuvat. De genere legum, quae nexus neuronales componerent ad linguam admittendam, nihil ostendit. Psychologi consequentes "nativistam" thesin illam ultra linguam tetenderunt.
  • "Modularitatis" conceptum, cognitivam ad mentis architecturam spectans. Mentem diversorum et inter se agentium et specialium (specialised) subsystematum esse. Quod acriter de ratione, qua ulla res in mente sita processibus cognitivis adtingi possit, discrepat.

Disputationes[recensere | fontem recensere]

Chomsky apud Forum Sociale Mundi (Portu Alacro in urbe) anno 2003 sermocinatur.

Chomsky suas sententias de philosophia, linguistica, civilitate disputare solet.[1] Id fecit cum Ioanne Piaget,[105] Michaele Foucault,[106] Gulielmo F. Buckley, Jr.,[107] Christophoro Hitchens,[108][109][110][111][112][113] Georgio Lakoff,[114] Richardo Perle,[115] Hilario Putnam,[116] Willard Quine,[117] Alanoque Dershowitz,[118] inter alia. Modo loquendi suo propter taeditudinem incusato, inquit Chomky, "locutor taediosus sum hocque mihi placet … non credo multos personae, quidcumque sit illa, allici … controversiis student, et controversiis student nam sunt magni momenti."[conv. 43][119] "Eloquentia superficiali, motu animi et sic porro circumagi nolumus."[conv. 44][120]

Auctoritas[recensere | fontem recensere]

Exemplaria Chomskiana fundamenti theoretici causa in multis disciplinis adhibentur. Hierarchia Chomskiana doceri simplicibus in informaticae cursibus solet, cum generum variorum linguarum formalium offerat conspectum. Haec hierarchia in rebus mathematicis quoque conferri potest[121] studiaque inter mathematicos citavit, praesertim combinatores. Argumenta psychologiae evolutionaris non nulla ab exquaesitionis proventibus suae oriuntur.[122]

Nicolaus K. Jerne, anni 1984 Praemii Nobeliani physiologiae et medicinae laureatus, exemplare generativo Chomskii usus est ut systema immunitatis humanum explicaret coaequando "grammaticae generativae constituta … una cum proprietatibus compositionis proteinorum variis."[conv. 45] Titulus Nicolai Jerne acroasis Nobelianae Holmiae datae erat "De Grammatica Generativa Systematis Immunitatis."[conv. 46]

Nim Chimpsky, pan studii causa de animalium adeptione linguistica apud Universitatem Columbianam habitum, e Chomskio appellatus est (pan Anglice dicitur chimp) cum Chomsky adeptionem linguisticam haberet facultatem solummodo humanam esse.

Donaldus Knuth, informaticae peritus, inquit, "Me fateor mecum apportavisse Noam Chomskii librum Syntactic Structures in lunam mellis meam anno 1961. … Ecce res mirabilis: doctrina linguarum mathematica, in qua programmatoris intuitu uti potuerim!"[conv. 47][123]

Academica facta, praemia, honores[recensere | fontem recensere]

Anno 1969 ineunte, Acroases Ioannis Lockii apud Universitatem Oxoniensem egit; mense Ianuario 1970, Acroasin Memorialem Bertrandi Russell apud Universitas Cantabrigiensem; anno 1972, Acroasin Memorialem Nehru Dellii Novi; anno 1977, Acroasin Huizinga Lugduni Batavorum; anno 1988 Acroases Massey apud Universitatem Torontonensem, "Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies" nomine; anno 1997, Acroasin Memorialem Davie de Libertate Philosophandi Civitate Capitis;[124] inter multa alia.[125]

Chomsky multos gradus honoris causa ab universitatibus totum per orbem terrarum accepit, inter quas:

Socius est Academiae Americanae Artium et Scientiarum, Academiae Nationalis Civitatum Foederatarum Scientiarum, Societatis Philosophicae Americanae, Academiae Serbianae Scientiarum et Artium in Facultate Scientiarum Socialium,[129] necnon aliarum societatum in Civitatibus Foederatis forasque fundatarum. Societatis Psychologicae Americanae Praemium Contributi Scientifici Excellentis[conv. 48] accepit, Praemium Kyoti in Scientiis Fundamentalibus, Insigne Helmholtz,[conv. 49] Praemium Dorotheae Eldridge Pacificatoris,[conv. 50] anni 1999 Insigne Beniamini Franklinii in Scientiis Informaticis Cognitivisque,[conv. 51] inter alia.[130] Bis (annibus 1987 et 1989) Orwell Award accepit, Concilio Nationali Doctorum Linguae Anglicae datum, propter "contributa excellentia honestati et claritati sermonis publici facta."[conv. 52][131]

Anno 2005, Chomsky honorarium accepit consortium[conv. 53] Societatis Litterariae et Historicae;[132] anno 2007, Universitatis Upsaliensis (Sueciae) Gradum Honorarium Doctoris in commemoratione Caroli Linnaei;[conv. 54][133] mense Februario 2008, Insigne Praesidentis Societatis Litterariae et Disputationum[conv. 55] a National University of Ireland, Galway.[134] Ex anno 2009 honorarius socius est societatis IAPTI.[135]

Anno 2010, Chomsky Praemium Erici Fromm Stutgardiae in Germania accepit.[136] Mense Aprili eiusdem anni, Chomsky tertius scholasticus factus est, qui Universitatis of Wisconsin–Madison A.E. Havens Center's Award for Lifetime Contribution to Critical Scholarship admiserit.[137]

Numerus Erdős eius est quattuor.[138]

Suffragium in The 2005 Global Intellectuals Poll, periodico Britannico Prospect facto, habuit Chomsky principem intellectualem publicum esse. De hac re inquit ille: "Suffragiis non do multam operam."[conv. 56][139] In indice "Heroes nostrae aetatis"[conv. 57] anni 2006 periodico New Statesman facto, qui quoque suffragio compositus est, Chomsky septimum locum habuit.[140]

Viggo Mortensen histrio Americanus, una cum Buckethead citharista avant-garde, album anno 2006 divulgatum, Pandemoniumfromamerica appellatum, Chomskio consecraverunt.[141]

Die 22 Ianuarii 2010 spectaculum honorarium Chomskio datum est in Auditorio Kresge apud MIT.[142][143] Spectaculum, cui adfuerunt Chomsky et sui, musica ab Eduardo Manukyan confecta usum est et orationibus a Chomskii collegis factis, inter quos David Pesetsky ex MIT et Gennaro Chierchia, capite facultatis linguisticae in Universitate Harvardiana.

Mense Iunio 2011, Chomsky Sydney Peace Prize accepit propter eius "indeficientem virtutem, criticam potestatis analysin, humanorum promotionem iurum."[conv. 58][144]

Anno 2011, in periodici IEEE Intelligent Systems AI's Hall of Fame positus est propter "contributa ponderosa agro intellegentiae artificialis et systematum intellegentium facta."[conv. 59][145][146]

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Crystal 128 up.png Commentatio principalis: Bibliographia Noam Chomsky


Opera scientifica potiora
  • 1957 : Syntactic Structures. Hagae Comitum: Mouton
  • 1959 : "Verbal behavior by B. F. Skinner": recensio in Language vol. 35 pp. 26–58
  • 1965 : Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cantabrigiae Massachusettensium: MIT Press
  • 1966 : Cartesian Linguistics: A Chapter in the History of Rationalist Thought
  • 1968 : Language and Mind. Novi Eboraci: Harcourt Brace & World
  • 1968 (cum Morris Halle) : The Sound Pattern of English. Novi Eboraci: Harper & Row
  • 1981 : Lectures on Government and Binding
  • 1986 : Knowledge of Language. Its Nature, Origin and Use
  • 1993 : Language and Thought
  • 1995 : The Minimalist Program
Opera politica potiora
  • 1967 : "The Responsibility of Intellectuals" in New York Review of Books vol. 8 no. 3 (23 Feb. 1967)
  • 1969 : American Power and the New Mandarins. Historical and Political Essays. Novi Eboraci: Pantheon
  • 1971 : Problems of Knowledge and Freedom. The Russell Lectures. Novi Eboraci: Pantheon
  • 1973 divulgandum, ab editore retractum : Counter-Revolutionary Violence: Bloodbaths in Fact & Propaganda
  • 1979 (cum Edward S. Herman) : The Political Economics of Human Rights. 2 voll. Bostoniae: South End Press
  • 1983 : The Fateful Triangle. The United States, Israel and the Palestinians
  • 1987 : On power and ideology: the Managua lectures. Bostoniae: South End Press (Paginae selectae apud Google Books)
  • 1988 : Language and Politics. Monte Regio: Black Rose
  • 1988 (cum Edward S. Herman) : Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. Novi Eboraci: Pantheon
  • 1989 : Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies. Bostoniae: South End Press
  • 1992 : Deterring Democracy. Novi Eboraci: Hill and Wang
  • 1996 : Powers and Prospects: Reflections on Human Nature and the Social Order. Bostoniae: South End Press Textus interretialis
  • 2000 : Rogue States: The Rule of Force in World Affairs. Bostoniae: South End Press
  • 2001 : 9-11. Novi Eboraci: Seven Stories Press
  • 2003 : Hegemony or Survival. Novi Eboraci: Metropolitan Books
  • 2006 : Failed States. The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy. Novi Eboraci: Metropolitan Books
  • 2008 (editore Anthony Arnove) : The Essential Chomsky. Novi Eboraci: Vintage
De vita et opere

Cinematographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Zoltán Gendler Szabó, "Noam Chomsky," in Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers, 1860–1960, ed. Ernest Lepore (2004). "Chomsky's intellectual life had been divided between his work in linguistics and his political activism, philosophy coming as a distant third. Nonetheless, his influence among analytic philosophers has been enormous because of three factors. First, Chomsky contributed substantially to a major methodological shift in the human sciences, turning away from the prevailing empiricism of the middle of the twentieth century: behaviorism in psychology, structuralism in linguistics and positivism in philosophy. Second, his groundbreaking books on syntax (Chomsky (1957, 1965)) laid a conceptual foundation for a new, cognitivist approach to linguistics and provided philosophers with a new framework for thinking about human language and the mind. And finally, he has persistently defended his views against all takers, engaging in important debates with many of the major figures in analytic philosophy."
  2. "MIT Department of Linguistics: People: Faculty: Noam Chomsky". Web.mit.edu 
  3. Clark, Neil (14 Iulii 2003). "Great thinkers of our time – Noam Chomsky". New Statesman 
  4. Fox, Margalit (5 Decembris 1998). "A Changed Noam Chomsky Simplifies". New York Times 
  5. Thomas Tymoczko, Jim Henle, James M. Henle, Sweet Reason: A Field Guide to Modern Logic (Birkhäuser, 2000), p. 101.
  6. Michael Sipser (1997). Introduction to the Theory of Computation. PWS Publishing. ISBN 0-534-94728-X 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "The Cognitive Science Millennium Project". Cogsci.umn.edu 
  8. Matt Dellinger, "Sounds and Sites: Noam Chomsky", The New Yorker, Link, 31 Martii 2003, accessum 26 Ianuarii 2009.
  9. "The Accidental Bestseller, Publishers Weekly, 5 Maii 2003, accessum 5 Martii 2011. "Chomsky's controversial political works … became mainstream bestsellers."
  10. Arnove, Anthony (March 1997). "In Perspective: Noam Chomsky". International Socialism 
  11. "Noam Chomsky". Web.archive.org. 2010-05-28 
  12. "Chomsky is Citation Champ". MIT News Office. 1992-04-15 
  13. Hughes, Samuel (July/August 2001). "Speech!". The Pennsylvania Gazette 
  14. Robinson, Paul (25 Februarii 1979). "The Chomsky Problem". The New York Times 
  15. "Books". chomsky.info 
  16. "The Life and Times of Noam Chomsky, Noam Chomsky interviewed by Amy Goodman". www.chomsky.info 
  17. 17.0 17.1 "Conversation with Noam Chomsky, p. 1 of 5". Globetrotter.berkeley.edu 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Choamsky, Noam. Conversations with History, U. C. Berkeley, Martii 2002. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ghoXQxdk6s
  19. "The Chomsky Tapes: Conversations with Michael Albert". Z magazine. November 2001 .
  20. Kreisler (2002), "Chapter 1: Background" 
  21. Barsky, Robert Franklin (1997). Noam Chomsky: a life of dissent. ECW Press. pp. 47. ISBN 978-1-55022-281-4 
  22. Marquard, Bryan (2008-12-20). "Carol Chomsky; at 78; Harvard language professor was wife of MIT linguist". Boston Globe 
  23. "Noam Chomsky interviewed by Shira Hadad". Chomsky.info .
  24. "Eight Question on Kibbutzim: Answers from Noam Chomsky Questions from Nikos Raptis". Zmag.org. 1999-08-24 .
  25. "Kibbutzim as a Climate for Learning". Csudh.edu .
  26. Chomsky, Noam (1967-02-23). "The Responsibility of Intellectuals". The New York Review of Books 8 (3) 
  27. Flint, Anthony (1995-11-19). "Divided Legacy". The Boston Globe 
  28. Barsky (1997), "Chapter 4"  Barsky quotes an excerpt of Edward Herman examining why "one of America's most well-known intellectuals and dissidents would be thus ignored and even ostracized by the mainstream press". For example, "Chomsky has never had an Op Ed column in the Washington Post, and his lone opinion piece in the New York Times was not an original contribution but rather excerpts from testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee".
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 Stroumboulopoulos, George (2006-03-13). "Noam Chomsky on The Hour". CBC 
  30. Noam Chomsky. "The 'Chomskyan Era' (Excerpted from The Architecture of Language)". Chomsky.info 
  31. Elman, J., Bates, E., Johnson, M., Karmiloff-Smith, A., Parisi, D., & Plunkett, K. (1996). Rethinking innateness: A connectionist perspective on development. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books 
  32. Tomasello, M (2003). Constructing a Language: A Usage-Based Theory of Language Acquisition. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01764-1 
  33. Chomsky, Noam (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-53007-4 
  34. Huang, Cheng-Teh James (1982). Logical relations in Chinese and the theory of grammar. MIT PhD dissertation  Available online [1].
  35. Matthews, G.H. (1965). Hidatsa Syntax. Mouton 
  36. Platero, Paul Randolph (1978). Missing noun phrases in Navajo. MIT PhD dissertation  Available online [2].
  37. Schütze, Carson T. (1993). Towards a Minimalist Account of Quirky Case and Licensing in Icelandic. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 19  Available online [3]
  38. Bhatt, Rajesh (1997). Matching Effects and the Syntax-Morphology Interface: Evidence from Hindi Correlatives. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 31  Available online [4].
  39. Evans, N., & Levinson, S. C. (2009). The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32(5), 429-492 
  40. Everett, D. (2008). Don't sleep, there are snakes: Life and language in the Amazonian jungle. Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-375-42502-0 
  41. Van Valin, R. (2000). Linguistic diversity and theoretical assumptions. Chicago Linguistic Society Parasession Papers, 35, 373-391 
  42. Mühlhäusler, Peter (1996). Linguistic Ecology: Language Change and Linguistic Imperialism in the Pacific Region. London: Routledge. pp. 330–1 
  43. Martin, Davis. Computability, complexity, and languages: Fundamentals of theoretical computer science. Boston: Academic, Harcourt, Brace, 1994: 327. Print.
  44. "Computer Programming and Formal Systems", Eds. P. Braffort and D. Hirschberg, pp. 124–135
  45. "Finite Semigroups and Recognizable Languages: An Introduction", by Jean-Eric Pin, Bull Research and Development, 2002
  46. Chomsky (1996), pp. 71.
  47. Chomsky, Noam, "Notes on Anarchism" [5] … "Libertarian socialism is properly to be regarded as the inheritor of the liberal ideals of the Enlightenment."
  48. Shane, Scott (2 October 2010). "Bin Laden Resurfaces in Recordings" 
  49. Thomson, Desson (21 December 2003). "Morris, McNamara: Bound by 'The Fog'" 
  50. Folkenflik, David (27 February 2008). "William F. Buckley, Conservative Bulwark, Dies". NPR 
  51. Gollust, David (5 January 2011). "US Sticking With Choice for Envoy Despite Venezuelan Rejection" 
  52. Chomsky wrote the preface to an edition of Rudolf Rocker's book Anarcho-Syndicalism: Theory and Practice. In it Chomsky wrote: "I felt at once, and still feel, that Rocker was pointing the way to a much better world, one that is within our grasp, one that may well be the only alternative to the 'universal catastrophe' towards which 'we are driving on under full sail'…" Book Citation: Rudolph Rocker. Anarcho-Syndicalism: Theory and Practice. AK Press. p. ii. 2004.
  53. 'Industrial Workers of the World - IWW Biography Nexus die 2012-2-11 confirmatus
  54. International Organization for a Participatory Society - Interim Committee Retrieved 2012-3-31
  55. ZNet - Consider IOPS Retrieved 2012-4-3
  56. "''Anarchism 101 with Noam Chomsky''". Youtube.com. 2007-10-10 
  57. "Conversation with Noam Chomsky, p. 2 of 5". Globetrotter.berkeley.edu 
  58. An Evening With Noam Chomsky
  59. "Simple Truths, Hard Problems: Some thoughts on terror, justice, and self-defence*" (PDF) 
  60. Noam Chomsky. "International Terrorism: Image and Reality". Chomsky.info 
  61. Chomsky, Noam (1987). On power and ideology: the Managua lectures. South End Press. pp. 51. ISBN 978-0-89608-289-2 
  62. "Noam Chomsky: My Reaction to Osama bin Laden’s Death". Guernicamag.com 
  63. Chomsky, Noam; Otero, Carlos Peregrín (2003). Chomsky on democracy & education. Psychology Press. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-0-415-92632-4 
  64. Noam Chomsky. "The Corporate Takeover of U.S. Democracy". Chomsky.info 
  65. Chomsky, Noam (1993). "What Uncle Sam Really Wants". ZMag 
  66. Noam Chomsky et al. (1999). Noam Chomsky on DrugsFormula:Dead link (TV). ROX 
  67. Chomsky, Noam (2002-02-08). "DRCNet Interview: Noam Chomsky". DRCNet 
  68. Chomsky (1996), p. 77.
  69. "Interview with Noam Chomsky, Bill Bennett", die 30 Maii 2002 American Morning with Paula Zahn CNN
  70. Adams, Tim (2003-10-30). "Noam Chomsky: Thorn in America's Side". London: The Observer 
  71. Chomsky, Noam. 2003. Chomsky on Democracy & Education. Routledge. p. 399
  72. 'Answers by Noam Chomsky' to questions about anarchismFormula:Dead link
  73. “Writers and Editors War Tax Protest” January 30, 1968 New York Post
  74. "An Exchange on "The Responsibility of Intellectuals", Noam Chomsky debates with Fryar Calhoun, E. B. Murray, and Arthur Dorfman". Chomsky.info. 1967-04-20 
  75. "On the Future of Israel and Palestine". Chomsky.info. 2008-06-06 
  76. Solomon, Deborah (November 2, 2003). "Questions for Noam Chomsky: The Professorial Provocateur". The New York Times Magazine. The New York Times 
  77. Jones, Mother (1988-10). Mother Jones Magazine. Mother Jones. pp. 30 
  78. "Israel bars Noam Chomsky from West Bank". The Gazette. Agence France-Presse. Canwest Publishing Inc. May 16, 2010 Formula:Dead link
  79. 79.0 79.1 "Israel Roiled After Chomsky Barred From West Bank". The New York Times. May 17, 2010 
  80. Chomsky, Noam; Pateman, Barry (2005). Chomsky on Anarchism. AK Press. pp. 167. ISBN 978-1-904859-20-8 
  81. "WikiLeaks Cables Reveal "Profound Hatred for Democracy on the Part of Our Political Leadership"". Noam Chomsky website 
  82. Brockes, Emma (2005-10-31). "The Greatest Intellectual?, by Emma Brockes". Chomsky.info 
  83. Noam Chomsky (2005-11-13). "Open Letter to The Guardian (ZNet)". Chomsky.info 
  84. Noam Chomsky (1980-09-10). "Free speech in a Democracy, (Daily Camera)". Chomsky.info 
  85. "Corrections and clarifications". The Guardian. 2005-11-17 
  86. New Left Review, 57, Sept. – Oct. 1969, p. 21
  87. Ghoshroy, S. (2008). Chomsky Discusses Economy, Military Hegemony. The Tech, 128, 51  Available online [6].
  88. dwgthed (23 Octobris 2011). "Noam Chomsky at Occupy Boston: Video 1 of 3". Youtube.com 
  89. McVeigh, Karen (26 Septembris 2011). "Occupy Wall Street activists name officer over pepper spray incident" 
  90. "Noam Chomsky Announces Solidarity With #occupywallstreet". occupywallst.org. 26 Septembris 2011 
  91. Grant, Drew (30 Septembris 2011). "Celebrity Support for ‘Occupy Wall Street’" 
  92. "Chomsky endorses Stein in 2012". Jill Stein for President 
  93. The Reality Club: BEYOND BELIEF
  94. Show 219: Noam Chomsky – “Chomsky on Humanism” | Equal Time For Freethought | Tune in, Pay it Forward, and Question Everything!
  95. Chomsky, Noam (2009). "Mysteries of Nature: How Deeply Hidden?". Journal of Philosophy 106 (4): 167–200 
  96. Chomsky, Noam; Otero, Carlos Peregrín (2003). Chomsky on democracy & education. RoutledgeFalmer. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-415-92632-4 
  97. "Science in the Dock, Discussion with Noam Chomsky, Lawrence Krauss & Sean M. Carroll". Chomsky.info. 2006-03-01 
  98. Chomsky—Language and Mind, 1968.
  99. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, volumen 13, pp. 83–99.
  100. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, volumen 54, pp. 307–319.
  101. Journal citation PMC2774611 - An Underdiscussed Aspect of Chomsky (1959)
  102. Barsky (1997), "Chapter 3" 
  103. Language and Learning: The Debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky (Harvard University Press, 1980).
  104. Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Courrége, Philippe; Danchin, Antoine (October 1973). "A Theory of the Epigenesis of Neuronal Networks by Selective Stabilization of Synapses". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) 70 (10): 2974–8 
  105. Massimo Piatelli-Palmarini, ed., Language and Learning: The Debate Between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky (Routledge, 1975).
  106. "''The Chomsky–Foucault Debate: On Human Nature''". Chomsky.info .
  107. William F. Buckley vs. Noam Chomsky, YouTube.
  108. Noam Chomsky "A Quick Reaction", Counterpunch September 12, 2001.
  109. Christopher Hitchens, "Against Rationalization: Minority Report", The Nation, 24 Septembris 2001.
  110. Christopher Hitchens, "Of Sin, the Left & Islamic Fascism", The Nation, 2001.
  111. Noam Chomsky, "Reply to Hitchens", The Nation, 2001.
  112. Christopher Hitchens, "A Rejoinder to Noam Chomsky", The Nation, 2001.
  113. Noam Chomsky, "Reply to Hitchens' 'Rejoinder'", The Nation, 2001.
  114. "The New York Review of Books, "Chomsky Replies", 1973 20;12". Nybooks.com .
  115. Chomsky vs. Perle, YouTube.
  116. Hilary Putnam, "Externalism: Its Motivation and Its Critics", Harvard University, 2007.
  117. K. U. Leuven, "An Epistemological Reading of the Debate between Quine and Chomsky", October 2003.
  118. "Noam Chomsky v. Alan Dershowitz: A Debate on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict", Democracy Now!, 23 Decembris 2005.
  119. "Chomsky Rebel". Dvdverdict.com. 2005-05-16 .
  120. Noam Chomsky, "False, False, False, and False: Noam Chomsky interviewed by Ray Suarez", 20 Ianuarii 1999 Chomsky.info.
  121. Sakharov, Alex (12 Maii 2003). "Grammar". MathWorld .
  122. "Lecture 6: Evolutionary Psychology, Problem Solving, and 'Machiavellian' Intelligence". School of Psychology. Massey University. 1996 .
  123. Knuth, Donald (2003), Selected Papers on Computer Languages, CSLI Lecture Notes, Stanford, California: Center for the Study of Language and Information 
  124. "Van Zyl Slabbert to present TB Davie Memorial Lecture". Uct.ac.za. 13 Octobris 2003 .
  125. The Current Crisis in the Middle East: About the Lecture. MIT World.
  126. "CU Regents". Cu.edu 
  127. "Welcome to Peking University". English.pku.edu.cn. 2010-08-13 
  128. "Noam Chomsky Lectured in Beijing". Chinatoday.com.cn. 2010-12-12 
  129. Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts - Department of Social Sciences members Accessum 11 Februarii 2012.
  130. "Noam Chomsky, MIT Linguistics Program". Chomsky.info. 1928-12-07 
  131. "Past Recipients of the NCTE Orwell Award" (PDF) 
  132. "Interviews Polathicks/Society » Interview: Noam Chomsky Speaks Out On Education and Power". Soundtracksforthem. 20 Septembria 2005 .
  133. "Uppsala University’s Honorary Doctorates in Commemoration of Linnaeus". Uppsala University. 2007-02-13 
  134. http://www.literaryanddebating.com/press/80-archbishop-desmond-tutu-to-speak-to-litndeb; excerpt:the Literary and Debating Society’s President’s Medal, the society’s achievement award, [has] been won in the past by the likes of Noam Chomsky, Senator Mike Gravel, Congressman Bruce Morrison, journalist Fintan O’Toole and, playwright, Tom Murphy.
  135. "Noam Chomsky, honorary member of IAPTI". Aipti.org 
  136. "The 2010 Erich Fromm Prize to Noam Chomsky". International Erich Fromm Society. 2010-01-16 .
  137. "Author, activist Noam Chomsky to receive award". News.wisc.edu. 2010-03-29 .
  138. "Some Famous People with Finite Erdös Numbers". The Erdös Number Project. Oakland University .
  139. "Chomsky named top intellectual: British poll". Breitbart.com. 2005-10-18 
  140. Cowley, Jason (2006-05-22). "Heroes of Our Time". New Statesman 
  141. "Viggo Mortensen's Spoken Word & Music CDs". Viggo Fan Base 
  142. "Noam Chomsky Honorary Concert". Edwardmanukyan.com 
  143. Weininger, David (2010-01-21). "Chomsky Tribute". Boston Globe 
  144. "Controversy dogs Chomsky as he accepts Sydney Peace Prize". Smh.com.au. 2011-06-02 .
  145. doi:10.1109.2FMIS.2011.64
    This citation will be automatically completed in the next few minutes. You can jump the queue or expand by hand
  146. "IEEE Computer Society Magazine Honors Artificial Intelligence Leaders". Augusti 24, 2011 (2011-08-24)  Press release source: PRWeb (Vocus).

Citationes Latine conversae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. "ordinary New York English"
  2. "intellectual center—professors of this and that arguing all night."
  3. "Jewish ghetto"
  4. "immersed in Hebrew culture and literature"
  5. "cultural ghetto than a physical one"
  6. "beer parties"
  7. "We were the only Jewish family around. I grew up with a visceral fear of Catholics. They're the people who beat you up on your way to school. So I knew when they came out of that building down the street, which was the Jesuit school, they were raving anti-Semites. So childhood memories took a long time to overcome."
  8. "No I loved it"; "couldn't stand the ideological atmosphere"; "fervent nationalism"
  9. "lessons that we have learned from the history of the kibbutz"
  10. "In some respects, the kibbutzim came closer to the anarchist ideal than any other attempt that lasted for more than a very brief moment before destruction, or that was on anything like a similar scale. In these respects, I think they were extremely attractive and successful; apart from personal accident, I probably would have lived there myself – for how long, it's hard to guess."
  11. "utterances"
  12. "language acquisition device"
  13. "personal visions are fairly traditional anarchist ones, with origins in the Enlightenment and classical liberalism"
  14. "carry us a long way towards unifying the many initiatives here and around the world and molding them into a powerful and effective force"
  15. "official definitions in the US Code and Army Manuals in the early 1980s"
  16. "talk about North American imperialism and Russian imperialism in the same breath"
  17. "One of the truths about the world is that there are two superpowers, one a huge power which happens to have its boot on your neck; another, a smaller power which happens to have its boot on other people's necks. I think that anyone in the Third World would be making a grave error if they succumbed to illusions about these matters."
  18. "We might ask ourselves how we would be reacting if Iraqi commandos landed at George W. Bush's compound, assassinated him, and dumped his body in the Atlantic. Uncontroversially, his crimes vastly exceed bin Laden’s, and he is not a 'suspect' but uncontroversially the 'decider' who gave the orders to commit the 'supreme international crime differing only from other war crimes in that it contains within itself the accumulated evil of the whole' (quoting the Nuremberg Tribunal) for which Nazi criminals were hanged: the hundreds of thousands of deaths, millions of refugees, destruction of much of the country, [and] the bitter sectarian conflict that has now spread to the rest of the region."
  19. "corporate takeover of democracy"
  20. "U.S. domestic drug policy does not carry out its stated goals, and policymakers are well aware of that. If it isn't about reducing substance abuse, what is it about? It is reasonably clear, both from current actions and the historical record, that substances tend to be criminalized when they are associated with the so-called dangerous classes, that the criminalization of certain substances is a technique of social control."
  21. "rooted in the Enlightenment and classical liberalism, and retain their revolutionary character"
  22. "greatest country in the world"
  23. "Evaluating countries is senseless and I would never put things in those terms, but that some of America's advances, particularly in the area of free speech, that have been achieved by centuries of popular struggle, are to be admired."
  24. "In many respects, the United States is the freest country in the world. I don't just mean in terms of limits on state coercion, though that's true too, but also in terms of individual relations. The United States comes closer to classlessness in terms of interpersonal relations than virtually any society."
  25. One can, of course, take the position that we don't care about the problems people face today, and want to think about a possible tomorrow. OK, but then don't pretend to have any interest in human beings and their fate, and stay in the seminar room and intellectual coffee house with other privileged people. Or one can take a much more humane position: I want to work, today, to build a better society for tomorrow – the classical anarchist position, quite different from the slogans in the question. That's exactly right, and it leads directly to support for the people facing problems today: for enforcement of health and safety regulation, provision of national health insurance, support systems for people who need them, etc. That is not a sufficient condition for organizing for a different and better future, but it is a necessary condition. Anything else will receive the well-merited contempt of people who do not have the luxury to disregard the circumstances in which they live, and try to survive.
  26. "among the most unspeakable crimes in history"
  27. "'supporters of Israel' are in reality supporters of its moral degeneration and probable ultimate destruction"; "Israel's very clear choice of expansion over security may well lead to that consequence"
  28. "I don't think a Jewish or Christian or Islamic state is a proper concept. I would object to the United States as a Christian state."
  29. "I knew it would hurt them, mostly because of their friends, who reacted hysterically to views like those expressed in my work."
  30. "overstepped his authority"
  31. "with regard to freedom of speech there are basically two positions: you defend it vigorously for views you hate, or you reject it and prefer Stalinist/fascist standards"
  32. "perhaps the most dramatic revelation … is the bitter hatred of democracy that is revealed both by the U.S. Government — Hillary Clinton, others — and also by the diplomatic service"
  33. "I still feel myself that there is a kind of tenuous connection. I would not want to overstate it but I think it means something to me at least. I think that anyone's political ideas or their ideas of social organization must be rooted ultimately in some concept of human nature and human needs."
  34. "I think the death penalty is a crime no matter what the circumstances, and it is particularly awful in the Steven Woods case. I strongly oppose the execution of Steven Woods on September 13, 2011."
  35. "Anyone with eyes open knows that the gangsterism of Wall Street -- financial institutions generally -- has caused severe damage to the people of the United States (and the world). And should also know that it has been doing so increasingly for over 30 years, as their power in the economy has radically increased, and with it their political power. That has set in motion a vicious cycle that has concentrated immense wealth, and with it political power, in a tiny sector of the population, a fraction of 1%, while the rest increasingly become what is sometimes called "a precariat" -- seeking to survive in a precarious existence. They also carry out these ugly activities with almost complete impunity -- not only too big to fail, but also "too big to jail." ¶ The courageous and honorable protests underway in Wall Street should serve to bring this calamity to public attention, and to lead to dedicated efforts to overcome it and set the society on a more healthy course."
  36. "propaganda is to a democracy what the bludgeon is to a totalitarian state."
  37. "filters"; "pass through"
  38. "public enemy"; "worthy and unworthy victims"
  39. I have spent a lot of my life working on questions such as these, using the only methods I know of; those condemned here as "science", "rationality," "logic," and so on. I therefore read the papers with some hope that they would help me "transcend" these limitations, or perhaps suggest an entirely different course. I'm afraid I was disappointed. Admittedly, that may be my own limitation. Quite regularly, "my eyes glaze over" when I read polysyllabic discourse on the themes of poststructuralism and postmodernism; what I understand is largely truism or error, but that is only a fraction of the total word count. True, there are lots of other things I don't understand: the articles in the current issues of math and physics journals, for example. But there is a difference. In the latter case, I know how to get to understand them, and have done so, in cases of particular interest to me; and I also know that people in these fields can explain the contents to me at my level, so that I can gain what (partial) understanding I may want. In contrast, no one seems to be able to explain to me why the latest post-this-and-that is (for the most part) other than truism, error, or gibberish, and I do not know how to proceed.
  40. Science talks about very simple things, and asks hard questions about them. As soon as things become too complex, science can’t deal with them… But it’s a complicated matter: Science studies what’s at the edge of understanding, and what’s at the edge of understanding is usually fairly simple. And it rarely reaches human affairs. Human affairs are way too complicated.
  41. "what is learned"
  42. "was being used in Quinean empiricism and naturalization of philosophy"
  43. "I'm a boring speaker and I like it that way. … I doubt that people are attracted to whatever the persona is. … People are interested in the issues, and they're interested in the issues because they are important."
  44. "We don't want to be swayed by superficial eloquence, by emotion and so on."
  45. "components of a generative grammar … with various features of protein structures"
  46. "The Generative Grammar of the Immune System"
  47. "I must admit to taking a copy of Noam Chomsky's Syntactic Structures along with me on my honeymoon in 1961. … Here was a marvelous thing: a mathematical theory of language in which I could use a computer programmer's intuition!"
  48. "Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award."
  49. "Helmholtz Medal."
  50. "Dorothy Eldridge Peacemaker Award."
  51. "Benjamin Franklin Medal in Computer and Cognitive Science."
  52. "The National Council of Teachers of English"; "Distinguished Contributions to Honesty and Clarity in Public Language"
  53. "honorary fellowship"
  54. "Honorary Doctor's degree in commemoration of Carolus Linnaeus."
  55. "President's Medal"; "Literary and Debating Society."
  56. "I don't pay a lot of attention to polls."
  57. "Heroes or our time"
  58. "unfailing courage, critical analysis of power and promotion of human rights"
  59. "significant contributions to the field of AI and intelligent systems"

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Noam Chomsky spectant.
Colloquia et acroases

Mille Paginae.png