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Maximus Stirner, philosophus egoisticus, qui protoexsistentialista appellabatur cum ratiocinator anarchismi individualistici magni momenti esset. Adumbratio Friderici Engels.
Beniaminus Tucker, anarchista individualisticus Americanus, qui oeconomicam exprimebat, quam vicissim socialismum anarchisticum appellabat,[1] cum in mutualistica Petri Iosephi Proudhon et Iosiae Warren oeconomica staret.
Aemilius Armand, anarchista Francicus auctoritate gravis.

Individualismus est status moralis, philosophia politica, ideologia, vel conspectus socialis quae morale hominum singularium pretium exprimit.[2][3] Individualistae suis propositis et desideriis exercendis favent, et ergo libertatem et fiduciam in se magni aestimant,[4] suadentes studia individui studiia civitatis vel gregis socialis maioris momenti habere,[4] cum illa effectui externo in unius studia a societate vel institutionibus sicut respublica ipsa impositam adversantur.[4] Individualismus totalitarianismo vel collectivismo saepe opponitur.[5]

Individualismus individuum exprimit,[2] et ergo "in propositione individuum humanum maximi momenti in luctatione liberationis esse" incipit.[6][7] Liberalismus, existentialismus, et anarchismus sunt exempla motuum qui hominem singulum habent pro praecipua explicationis re.[7] Individualismus ergo implicat "ius humanum libertatis et effectus sui."[8][9]

Vocabulum individualismus adhibetur pro appellatione quae significat "Qualitatem individui exstantis; individualitatem,"[4] ad possessam "individui proprietatum; proprium" pertinens.[4] Individualismus ergo cum artificiosis et bohemianis studiis et vitae propositis consociatur ubi individuum se creare et novas res experiri solet, contra traditionem vel sententias et mores populo gratos,[4][10] et similiter in philosophicis humanistarum argumentis et ethica.[11][12]

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Tucker ait: "the fact that one class of men are dependent for their living upon the sale of their labour, while another class of men are relieved of the necessity of labour by being legally privileged to sell something that is not labour. . . . And to such a state of things I am as much opposed as any one. But the minute you remove privilege. . . every man will be a labourer exchanging with fellow-labourers . . . What Anarchistic-Socialism aims to abolish is usury . . . it wants to deprive capital of its reward" (1972:404).
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Individualism" on Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  3. Wood 1972:6.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 "individualism" on The Free Dictionary
  5. Hayek 1994:17, 37–48.
  6. Anglice: "with the fundamental premise that the human individual is of primary importance in the struggle for liberation."
  7. 7.0 7.1 Brown 1993.
  8. Anglice: "the right of the individual to freedom and self-realization."
  9. Wood 1972:6-7.
  10. Bohemianism: the underworld of Art by George S. Snyderman and William Josephs
  11. "The leading intellectual trait of the era was the recovery, to a certain degree, of the secular and humane philosophy of Greece and Rome. Another humanist trend which cannot be ignored was the rebirth of individualism, which, developed by Greece and Rome to a remarkable degree, had been suppressed by the rise of a caste system in the later Roman Empire, by the Church and by feudalism in the Middle Ages." "The history guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History."
  12. "Anthropocentricity and individualism. . . . Humanism and Italian art were similar in giving paramount attention to human experience, both in its everyday immediacy and in its positive or negative extremes. . . . The human-centredness of Renaissance art, moreover, was not just a generalized endorsement of earthly experience. Like the humanists, Italian artists stressed the autonomy and dignity of the individual.""Humanism," Encyclopædia Britannica.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Albrecht, James M. 2012. Reconstructing Individualism : A Pragmatic Tradition from Emerson to Ellison. Fordham University Press.
  • Barzilai, Gad. 2003. Communities and Law. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0472113151.
  • Brown, L. Susan. 1993. The Politics of Individualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism, and Anarchism. Black Rose Books.
  • Churchyard, Charles. 2009. American Individualism and Emerson, Its Champion. In National Lies: The Truth About American Values. Cantabrigiae Massachusettae: Axroide Publishing. ISBN 9780981571645. ISBN 0981571646.
  • Dewey, John. 1930. Individualism Old and New.
  • Dumont, Louis. 1986. Essays on Individualism: Modern Ideology in Anthropological Perspective. Sicagi: University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226169588.
  • Emerson, Ralph Waldo. 1847. Self-Reliance. Londinii: J. M. Dent & Sons.
  • Fruehwald, Edwin. 2010. A Biological Basis of Rights. Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal 195:19.
  • Gagnier, Regenia. 2010. Individualism, Decadence and Globalization: On the Relationship of Part to Whole, 1859–1920. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Hayek, F. A. 1994. The Road to Serfdom. Sicagi: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226320618.
  • Lukes, Steven. 1973. Individualism. Novi Eboraci: Harper & Row. ISBN 0631147500.
  • Renaut, Alain. 1999. The Era of the Individual. Princetoniae: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691029385.
  • Shanahan, Daniel. 1991. Toward a Genealogy of Individualism. Amherst Massachusettae: University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0870238116.
  • Tucker, Benjamin Ricketson. 1972. Instead of a Book by a man too busy to write one; a fragmentary exposition of philosophical anarchism, culled from the writings of Benj. R. Tucker. Ed. 2a. Novi Eboraci: Gordon Press. ISBN 0879680369.
  • Watt, Ian. 1996. Myths of Modern Individualism. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521480116.
  • Wood, Ellen Meiksins. 1972. Mind and Politics: An Approach to the Meaning of Liberal and Socialist Individualism. University of California Press. ISBN 0520020294.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]