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Latinitas inspicienda

Bellum Indosinense II

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Bellum Indosinense II
UH-1D helicopterum a Maj. Bruce P. Crandall conductum  per missionem quaerendi et destruendi ascendit.
UH-1D helicopterum a Maj. Bruce P. Crandall conductum per missionem quaerendi et destruendi ascendit.
Dies 1 Novembris 195530 Aprilis 1975
Locus Vietnamia Meridiana, Vietnamia Septentrionalis, Cambodia, Laotia
Exitus Victoria Vietnamiae Septentrionalis et Viet Cong
Mutationes
territorii
Unificatio Vietnamiarum Septentrionalis et Meridianae in Socialisticam Vietnamiae Rem Publicam.
Vires
~1 830 000 (1968)

Vietnamia Meridiana: 850 000
Civitates Foederatae: 536 100
Vires Militares Mundi Liberi: 65 000[1]
Res Publica Coreae: 50 000[2]
Australia: 7672
Thailandia, Philippinae: 10 450
Nova Zelandia: 552

~461 000

Vietnamia Septentrionalis: 287 465 (Jan 1968)[3]
PRC: 170 000 (1969)
Unio Sovietica: 3000
DPR Corea: 300–600 Summa mortuorum: 315 384 – 412 000
Summa vulneratorum: ~1 490 000+

Casus

Civiles Vietnamienses mortui: ~200 000–2 000 000[4]
Civiles Cambodienses mortui: 200 000–300 000*[5][6][7]
Civiles Laotiani mortui: ~20 000–200 000*
Summa civilium mortuorum: ~420 000–2 500 000
Summa mortuorum: ~1 912 846–3 992 846

* indicat approximationes

Bellum Vietnamiense, etiam Bellum Indosinense II et Certamen Vietnamiense appellatum, et nunc in ipsa regione pertinente Bellum Americanum et Bella contra Americanos ad conservandam civitatem,[8] fuit certamen militare aevi Belli Frigidi quod in Paeninsula Indosinensi, praecipue Vietnamia, Laotia, et Cambodia, a 1 Novembris 1955 ad casum Saigoniae (hodie Hochiminhopolis) die 30 Aprilis 1975 pugnatum est. Hoc certamen Bellum Indosinense I secutum est, pugnatum inter Vietnamiam Septentrionalem, a suis sociis communisticis, et gubernationem Vietnamiae Meridianae, a Civitatibus Foederatis et aliis civitatibus anticommunisticis sustentam.[9] Viet Cong, organizatio Frons Liberationis Reipublicae quoque appellata, frons communis Vietnamiensis Meridiana leviter armata et a communistis coacta, bellum plerumque irregulare contra vires anticommunisticas in regione gessit. Praeterea, Exercitus Populorum Vietnamiensis bellum plerumque translaticium ausus est, aliquando cum multis copiis proelia iusta committens. Vires Civitatum Foederatarum et Vietnamiae Meridianae dominationi aeriae et obruentibus armis igniferis ad administrandas effectiones quaerendi et destruendi confisae sunt, inter quas vires terrestriales, bombardamenta, et ictus ex aëre.

Gubernatio Civitatum Foederatarum, pro parte latioris artis inclusionis, Vietnamiam Meridianam adiuvabat, ne communistae victoriam reportarent; gubernatio autem Vietnamiae Septentrionalis et Viet Cong certamen habebantur bellum colonicum, primum contra Franciam gestum, a Civitatibus Foederatis sustentum, et deinde contra Vietnamiam Meridianam, quam civitatem pupalem exsistimabant.[10] Suasores militares Americani in civitatem quae tum erat Indosina Francica anno 1950 advenerunt. Implicatio Civitatum Foederatarum decennio 197 ineunte crescebat, numeris copiarum anno 1961 triplicatis, atque iterum triplicatis anno 1962.[11] Americanae unitates bellandi anno 1965 committi coeperunt. Rationes fines inter civitates transgressae sunt, Laotia et Cambodia magnopere bombardatis. Implicatio Americana apicem anno 1968, tempore Concursus Tet, attigit. Quo facto, terrestres Civitatum Foederatarum copiae secundum consilia Vietnamizatio appellata gradatim revocabantur, sed contra Conventa Pacificatoria Lutetiae, ab omnibus partibus Ianuario 1973 consignata, certamen persistebat.

Finivit militaris Civitatum Foederatarum implicatio die 15 Augusti 1973 propter Emendationem Case–Church, partem rogationis a Congressu Civitatum Foederatarum sanctam.[12] Comprehensio Saigoniae ab Exercitu Populi Vietnamiensi Aprile 1975 finem belli significavit, atque insequente anno Vietnamia Septentrionalis et Meridiana in unam dicionem rite redactae sunt. Bellum permultas effecit neces humanas (vide Casus Belli Vietnamiensis). Iudicia numerorum militum Vietnamiensium et civilianorum? interfectorum inter minus quam una milliona[13] et plus quam tres millionae variantur.[14] Fere 200 000–300 000 Cambodiani,[5][6][7] 20 000–200 000 Laotiani,[15][16][17][18][19][20] et 58 220 bellatores Civitatum Foederatarum in certamine mortui sunt.

Nomina belli[recensere | fontem recensere]

Varia nomina ad certamen adhibita sunt. Bellum Vietnamiense (Anglice Vietnam War) est usitata notio in Civitatibus Foederatis; certamen etiam Bellum Indosinense Alterum, Certamen Vietnamiense, et Certamen in Vietnamia appellatur.

Quia sunt multa certamina militaria in regione Indosinensi, hoc certamen saepe ex nomine principalis adversarii appellatur ut ab aliis distinguatur.[21] Ergo, bellum Vietnamice Chiến tranh Việt Nam (Bellum Vietnamiense) atque Kháng chiến chống Mỹ (Bellum Americae Resistendae, sensu lato Bellum Americanum) appellatur.[22]

Principales organizationes militares quae bellum gerebant in alio latere Exercitus Respublicae Vietnamiae et militares Civitatum Foederatarum vires, et in alio latere Exercitus Populorum Vietnamiae (etiam Exercitus Vietnamiensis Septentrionalis appellatus), et Viet Cong, rite Frons Nationalis pro Vietnamia Meridiana Liberata, communisticae Vietnamiae Meridianae vires tumultuariae erant.

Scaena usque ad 1949[recensere | fontem recensere]

Francia Indosinam decennio 186 exeunte vincere coepit, et pacificationem ante 1893 confecit.[23][24][25] Pactio Huế, anno 1884 facta, decennia septem fuit fundamenta dominationis Francicae. Contra homines qui resistebant, notissime Can Vuong ex Phan Dinh Phung, regio hodiernarum civitatum Cambodiae et Vietnamiae ante 1888 facta est colonia Indosina Francica (Laotia deinde addita).[26] Varii motus Vietnamienses qui dominatui Francico repugnabant illo tempore exsistebant, sicut Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang, qui seditionem Yen Bai conatum improsperum anno 1930 concitaverunt, sed nulli fuerunt tam felices quam frons communis Viet Minh appellatus, anno 1941 conditus, a Factione Communista Indosinensi temperatus, atque a Civitatibus Foederatis et Factione Nationalista Sinensi subsidiis pecuniae fultus in contentionibus cum imperio Iaponiensi.[27]

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Annotationes[recensere | fontem recensere]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. "Facts about the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Collection". nps.gov  De primis copiis terrestribus pugnantibus Americanis in Vietnamiam Septentrionalem per Martium 1965 expositis, diserte Regimento Tertio Classiariorum CFA, Divisionis Tertiae Classiariorum, ad Vietnamiam ab Okinawa ad defendendum aeroportum apud Da Nang Vietnamiae missis.
  2. Vietnam Marines 1965–73. Books.google.co.uk. 1965-03-08 
  3. Vietnam War After Action Reports, BACM Research, 2009, p. 430.
  4. Shenon, Philip (23 Aprilis 1995). "20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate" 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Patrick Heuveline (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality in Cambodia," in Forced Migration and Mortality, ed. Holly E. Reed et Charles B. Keely (Vasingtoniae: National Academy Press, 2001).
  6. 6.0 6.1 Marek Sliwinski, Le Génocide Khmer Rouge: Une Analyse Démographique (Lutetiae: L’Harmattan, 1995).
  7. 7.0 7.1 Judith Banister et Paige Johnson (1993). "After the Nightmare: The Population of Cambodia," in Genocide and Democracy in Cambodia: The Khmer Rouge, the United Nations and the International Community, ed. Ben Kiernan (Portu Novo: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies, 1993).
  8. "Official news source use of the name," apud situm vietnamnews.vnagency.com.cn (29 Octobris 2009).
  9. "Vietnam War". Encyclopædia Britannica 
  10. Digital History, Steven Mintz. "The Vietnam War". Digitalhistory.uh.edu 
  11. Vietnam War Statistics and Facts, 1, apud situm 25th Aviation Batallion.
  12. Gabriel Kolko, Anatomy of War, pp. 457, 461 ff.; ISBN 1-898876-67-3.
  13. Charles Hirschman et al., "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate," Population and Development Review, Decembre 1995.
  14. Associated Press, 3 Aprilis 1995, "Vietnam Says 1.1 Million Died Fighting For North."
  15. Roger Warner, Shooting at the Moon (1996), p. 366, 30,000 Hmong aestimat.
  16. Obermeyer, "Fifty years of violent war deaths from Vietnam to Bosnia", British Medical Journal (2008), 60 000 in summa aestimat.
  17. T. Lomperis, From People's War to People's Rule, (1996), 35 000 in summa aestimat.
  18. Melvin Small et Joel David Singer, Resort to Arms: International and Civil Wars 1816-1980 (1982), 20 000 in summa aestimant.
  19. Charles Lewis Taylor, The World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators, 20 000 in summa aestimat.
  20. Martin Stuart-Fox, A History of Laos, 200 000 ante 1973 aestimat.
  21. Harold G. Moore et Joseph L. Galloway, We Are Soldiers Still: A Journey Back to the Battlefields of Vietnam (p. 57).
  22. "Asian-Nation: Asian American History, Demographics, & Issues:: The American / Viet Nam War" .
  23. Keat Gin Ooi, Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO; 2004. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2, p. 520.
  24. Lajpat Rai, Social Science. FK Publications; ISBN 978-81-89611-12-5, p. 22.
  25. Arthur J. Dommen, The Indochinese experience of the French and the Americans: nationalism and communism in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001), ISBN 978-0-253-33854-9, p. 4–19.
  26. Jonathan Neale, The American War, p. 3, ISBN 1-898876-67-3.
  27. Jonathan Neale, The American War, p. 17, ISBN 1-898876-67-3.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Tabula Vietnamiae Meridianae

Fontes secundarii[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Anderson, David L. 2004. Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War.
  • Baker, Kevin. 2006. "Stabbed in the Back! The past and future of a right-wing myth", Harper's Magazine (Iunio) "Stabbed in the back! The past and future of a right-wing myth (Harper's Magazine)" 
  • Angio, Joe. 2007. Nixon a Presidency Revealed. The History Channel television documentary.
  • Berman, Larry. 1991. Lyndon Johnson's War: The Road to Stalemate.
  • Blaufarb, Douglas. 1977. The Counterinsurgency Era.
  • Brigham, Robert K. Battlefield Vietnam: A Brief History. Situs interretialis PBS.
  • Brocheux, Pierre. 2007. Ho Chi Minh: A Biography. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-85062-9.Google.
  • Buckley, Kevin. 1972 "Pacification’s Deadly Price", Newsweek, 19 Iuni.
  • Buzzanco, Bob. 2000. "25 Years After End of Vietnam War: Myths Keep Us From Coming To Terms With Vietnam." The Baltimore Sun (17 Aprilis) "25 Years After End Of Vietnam War Myths Keep Us From Coming To Terms With Vietnam" 
  • Church, Peter, ed. 2006. A Short History of South-East Asia.
  • Cooper, Chester L. 1970. The Lost Crusade: America in Vietnam.
  • Courtwright, David T. 2005. Sky as Frontier: Adventure, Aviation, and Empire. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 1-58544-419-7.
  • Demma, Vincent H. 1989. "The U.S. Army in Vietnam." American Military History.
  • Dennis, Peter, et al. 2008. The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History. Ed. 2a. Melbourni: Oxford University Press Australia & New Zealand. ISBN 978-0-19-551784-2.
  • DoD (6 November 1998). "Name of Technical Sergeant Richard B. Fitzgibbon to be added to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial". Department of Defense (DoD) 
  • Duiker, William J. 1996. The Communist Road to Power in Vietnam.
  • Duncanson, Dennis J. 1968. Government and Revolution in Vietnam.
  • Fincher, Ernest Barksdale. 1980. The Vietnam War.
  • Ford, Harold P. 1998. CIA and the Vietnam Policymakers: Three Episodes, 1962–1968.
  • Gerdes, Louise I. ed. 2005. Examining Issues Through Political Cartoons: The Vietnam War.
  • Gettleman, Marvin E., Jane Franklin, Marilyn Young. 1995. Vietnam and America: A Documented History.
  • Hammond, William. 1987. Public Affairs: The Military and the Media, 1962–1968. + 1995. Public Affairs: The Military and the Media, 1068–1973.
  • Herring, George C. 2001. America's Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950–1975. Ed. 4a.
  • Hitchens, Christopher. The Vietnam Syndrome.
  • Karnow, Stanley. 1991. Vietnam: A History. Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-84218-4.
  • Kutler, Stanley ed. 1996. Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War.
  • Lawrence, A. T. 2009. Crucible Vietnam: Memoir of an Infantry Lieutenant. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-4517-3.
  • Leepson, Marc ed. 1999. Dictionary of the Vietnam War. Novi Eboraci:: Webster's New World.
  • Lewy, Guenter. 1978. America in Vietnam.
  • Logevall, Fredrik. 2001. The Origins of the Vietnam War. Seminar Studies in History. Longman.
  • McMahon, Robert J. 1995. Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War: Documents and Essays.
  • McNamara, Robert, James Blight, Robert Brigham, Thomas Biersteker, Herbert Schandler. 1999. Argument Without End: In Search of Answers to the Vietnam Tragedy. Public Affairs.
  • McGibbon, Ian. 2000. The Oxford Companion to New Zealand Military History. Aucopolis: Oxford University Press ISBN 01955837600
  • McNeill, Ian. 1993. To Long Tan: The Australian Army and the Vietnam War 1950–1966. St Leonards: Allen & Unwin ISBN 1-86373-282-9.
  • Milne, David. 2008. America's Rasputin: Walt Rostow and the Vietnam War. Hill & Wang.
  • Moise, Edwin E. 2002. Historical Dictionary of the Vietnam War.
  • Moïse,Edwin E. 1996. Tonkin Gulf and the escalation of the Vietnam War. UNC Press. ISBN 0-8078-2300-7.
  • Moss, George D. 2002. Vietnam. Ed. 4a.
  • Moyar, Mark. 2006. Triumph Forsaken: The Vietnam War, 1954–1965. Cambridge University Press
  • Major General Spurgeon Neel. 1991. Medical Support of the U.S. Army in Vietnam 1965–1970. Department of the Army.
  • Nulty, Bernard. 1998. The Vietnam War. Novi Eboraci: Barnes and Noble.
  • Osborn, Terry A. 2002. The Future of Foreign Language Education in the United States. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-89789-719-8.
  • Palmer, Bruce, Jr. 1984. The Twenty-Five Year War.
  • Schell, Jonathan. 1976. The Time of Illusion.
  • Schulzinger, Robert D. 1997. A Time for War: The United States and Vietnam, 1941–1975.
  • Sorley, Lewis. 1999. A Better War: The Unexamined Victories and Final Tragedy of America's Last Years in Vietnam. ISBN 0-15-601309-6.
  • Spector, Ronald. 1992. After Tet: The Bloodiest Year in Vietnam.
  • Stanton, Shelby L. 2003. Vietnam Order of Battle. Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-0071-2.
  • Summers, Harry G. 1982. On Strategy: A Critical Analysis of the Vietnam War. Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-563-7.
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. 1998. Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War. 3 vol.
  • Wells, Tom. 1994. The War Within: America's battle over Vietnam. Berkeleiae: University of California Press. ISBN 0 520 08367 9 (Paginae selectae apud Google Books)
  • Willbanks, James H. 2009. Vietnam War Almanac. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8160-7102-9
  • Witz, James J. 1991. The Tet Offensive: Intelligence Failure in War.
  • Young, Marilyn, B. 1991. The Vietnam Wars: 1945–1990.
  • Xiaoming, Zhang. 2005. "China's 1979 War With Vietnam: A Reassessment." China Quarterly 184(Decembris).

Fontes primarii[recensere | fontem recensere]

Historiographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Hall, Simon. 2009. "Scholarly Battles over the Vietnam War." Historical Journal 52 (Sept.): 813–829.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Bellum Indosinense II 1955-1975

Expeditiones et proelia singula Belli Indosinensis II

Albert Sarraut
Bellum Indosinense Francicum 1946-1954 • Bellum Indosinense II 1955-1975
Miles Sinicus mortuus
Bellum Coreanum 1950-1953 • Bellum Indosinense II 1955-1975