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Israël

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מדינת ישראל (Medinat Yisraël)
دولة اسرائيل (Dawlat Isra’īl)
Vexillum Insigne
Vexillum Insigne
Hymnus nationalis : Hatikvah (Spes)
Situs Israëlis
Lingua Sollemnis Hebraica et Arabica
Caput Hierosolyma
Praeses Reuven Rivlin
Primus Minister Beniamin Netanyahu
Gubernatio Respublica parlamentaria
Area  – In toto: 20 770 km²
   omnium 149us
 – aqua: 2%
Numerus incolarum – 8 020 200 (2012)
   omnium 99us
Spissitudo incolarum – 324/km²
Libertas a Britanniarum Regnis data

14 Maii 1948

Moneta Siclus Novus
Zona temporalis UTC +2/+3
adiectivum Israëlita
Dominium interretiale .il
Praefixum telephonicum +972
Membrum: ONU
Stella David, signum Iudaismi post Medium Aevum.
Theodorus Herzl, Sionismi fautor maximus (anno 1901).
Divisio Palaestinae a CN 1947 proposita

Civitas Israël[1] (Hebraice מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל Medīnat Yisrā'el ; Arabice دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل Dawlat Isrāʼīl), breviter Israël,[2] est respublica parlamentaria in Medio Oriente sub Maris Mediterranei litore sita. A septentrionibus Libano et Syria attingitur, ab oriente Iordania et ripa occidentali, a meridie Aegypto et Sectore Gazensi. Diversarum intra parvam suam aream proprietatum geographicarum est.[3][4] Suis legibus definitus ut "Civitas Iudaica et Democratica", Israël est sola in orbe terrarum civitas ubi Iudaei aliis gentibus praevalent.[5]

Linguae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Incolae et Hebraica et Arabica ut linguis publicis utuntur. Praeterea non pauci inter sese Russice, nonnulli etiam
lingua Iudaeogermanica loquuntur.

Religiones[recensere | fontem recensere]

Mythus[recensere | fontem recensere]

Iudaei eam terram, quam nunc Israel appellant, sibi ab eorum deo datam esse (Liber Iosue 1, 1-5) arbitrantur. Est enim in bibliis:

Et factum est, ut post mortem Moysi servi Domini loqueretur Dominus ad Iosue filium Nun ministrum Moysi et diceret ei:

"Moyses servus meus mortuus est; nunc igitur surge et transi Iordanem istum, tu et omnis populus iste, in terram, quam ego dabo filiis Israël. Omnem locum, quem calcaverit vestigium pedis vestri, vobis tradidi, sicut locutus sum Moysi.

A deserto et Libano isto usque ad fluvium magnum Euphraten, omnis terra Hetthaeorum usque ad mare Magnum contra solis occasum erit terminus vester."

Historia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Antiquitas[recensere | fontem recensere]

Anno 586 a.C.n., Nabuchodonosor II, rex Babylonis, terram Iudaeam expugnavit et Templum Salomonicum evertit. Babylonii septuaginta annos in terra regnaverunt, sed anno 533 a.C.n., Cyrus II cum exercitu terram superavit. Ab anno 533 a.C.n. ad 332 a.C.n., imperium Persarum in terra regnavit. Anno 332 Alexander Magnus terram superavit.

Duobus bellis cum Romanis (anno 70 et 135) gestis et praecipue templo Hierosolymorum ab imperatore Tito (anno 70) diruto, magna pars Iudaeorum ex Israël fugit. Anno 135, post secundum excidium, Romani Hierosolyma restituerunt novoque nomine appellaverunt Aeliam Capitolinam.

Tempora recentiora[recensere | fontem recensere]

Iam anno 1917, Arthurus Balfour Scoticus suasit, ut Iudaei in Palaestinam redirent, quamprimum priori bello mundano finem impositum esset et Imperium Ottomanicum, quod antea Palaestinam tenuerat, ruisset.

Post secundum bellum mundanum et Iudaeorum in Europa persecutionem anno 1947, die 29 Novembris, Consociatio Nationum Palaestinam proposuerunt inter Iudaeos et Arabes distribuendam.

Die 14 Maii 1948, civitas Israël condita est. Iuxta resolutionem, qua creata est, urbs Hierosolyma nec Iudeis nec Arabis, sed Britanniarum Regno regenda esset. Nihilominus anno 1950, Israël Hierosolyma caput suum declaravit. Principio civitati superficies 14 000 km² erat. Annis vero 1948 et 1967, ager 8000 km² ulterius expugnatus est et usquedum retinetur. Quam enim terram colonis adductis Israël sibi vindicare molitur.

Anno 1967 Israël bello sex dierum ripam occidentalem Iordanis occupavit et intra Palaestinorum fines colonias condidit. Quo ex bello contentio Arabo-Israëlitica, scilicet dissensio inter Israël, Palaestinenses, Arabes, orta est.

Anno 1973, die expiationis, quae Iudaeis sanctissima est, et Aegyptus et Syria Israëlem oppugnaverunt, sed a terra propulsati sunt. Qua victoria Aegyptus coacta est, ut Israëlem civitatem iure agnoscerent.

Urbes principales[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. "De Colonis Hebraeis e Gaza Expulsis", Ephemeris (Fasc. 61) (Ephemeris), 2005 .
  2. "Israël -is, m.": Carolus Egger, Diurnarius Latinus. Epitome actorum diurnorum in lingua Latina. (1980. ISBN 88-209-4366-2) p. 35 .
  3. "Israël", CIA Factbook (CIA) ..
  4. Skolnik 2007, pp. 132–232.
  5. "Israël", Country Report (Freedom House), 2007 .
  6. Iud. 1.17.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Abadi, Jacob (2004), Israël's Quest for Recognition and Acceptance in Asia: Garrison State Diplomacy, Routledge, ISBN 0-7146-5576-7 
  • Ausubel, Natan (1964), The Book of Jewish Knowledge, Novi Eboraci: Crown Publishers, ISBN 0-517-09746-X 
  • Barton, John; Bowden, Julie (2004), The Original Story: God, Israël and the World, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, ISBN 0-8028-2900-7 
  • Barzilai, Gad (1996), Wars, Internal Conflicts, and Political Order: A Jewish Democracy in the Middle East, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-2943-1 
  • Barzilai, Gad (2010), The Attorney General and the State Prosecutor-Is Institutional Separation Warrented?, The Israël Democracy Institute 
  • Ben-Sasson, Hayim (1985), A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-39731-6 
  • Best, Anthony (2003), International History of the Twentieth Century, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-20739-8 
  • Bregman, Ahron (2002), A History of Israël, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-67631-9 
  • Broughton, Simon; Ellingham, Mark; Trillo, Richard (1999), World Music: The Rough Guide, Rough Guides, ISBN 1-85828-635-2 
  • Cole, Tim (2003), Holocaust City: The Making of a Jewish Ghetto, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-92968-7 
  • Crowdy, Terry (2006), The Enemy Within: A History of Espionage, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-933-9 
  • Dekmejian, R. Hrair (1975), Patterns of Political Leadership: Egypt, Israël, Lebanon, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-87395-291-X 
  • Friedland, Roger; Hecht, Richard (2000), To Rule Jerusalem, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-22092-7 
  • Gelvin, James L. (2005), The Israël-Palestine Conflict: One Hundred Years of War, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-85289-7 
  • Gilbert, Martin (2005), The Routledge Atlas Of The Arab–Israël conflict (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 0-415-35900-7 
  • Goldreich, Yair (2003), The Climate of Israël: Observation, Research and Application, Springer, ISBN 0-306-47445-X 
  • Hamilton, Victor P. (1995), The Book of Genesis (2a retractata ed.), Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, ISBN 0-8028-2309-2 
  • Harkavy, Robert E.; Neuman, Stephanie G. (2001), Warfare and the Third World, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0-312-24012-0 
  • Henderson, Robert D'A. (2003), Brassey's International Intelligence Yearbook (2003 ed.), Brassey's Inc., ISBN 1-57488-550-2 
  • Herzl, Theodor (1946), The Jewish State, American Zionist Emergency Council, ISBN 0-486-25849-1 
  • Howe, Kathleen Stewart (1997), Revealing the Holy Land: the photographic exploration of Palestine, University of California Press, p. 144, ISBN 978-0-89951-095-8 
  • Jacobs, Daniel (1988), Israël and the Palestinian Territories: The Rough Guide (2a retractata ed.), Rough Guides, ISBN 1-85828-248-9 
  • Kellerman, Aharon (1993), Society and Settlement: Jewish Land of Israël in the Twentieth Century, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-1295-4 
  • Kornberg, Jacques (1993), Theodor Herzl: From Assimilation to Zionism, Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-33203-6 
  • Liebreich, Fritz (2005), Britain's Naval and Political Reaction to the Illegal Immigration of Jews to Palestine, 1945–1948, Routledge, ISBN 0-7146-5637-2 
  • Lustick, Ian (1988), For the Land and the Lord: Jewish Fundamentalism in Israël, Council on Foreign Relations Press, ISBN 0-87609-036-6 
  • Mazie, Steven (2006), Israel's Higher Law: Religion and Liberal Democracy in the Jewish State, Lexington Books, ISBN 0-7391-1485-9 
  • Morçöl, Göktuğ (2006), Handbook of Decision Making, CRC Press, ISBN 1-57444-548-0 
  • Mowlana, Hamid; Gerbner, George; Schiller, Herbert I. (1992), Triumph of the File: The Media's War in the Persian Gulf — A Global Perspective, Westview Press, ISBN 0-8133-1610-3 
  • Roberts, Adam (1990), "Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israëli-Occupied Territories Since 1967", The American Journal of International Law (American Society of International Law) 84 (1): 44–103 
  • Romano, Amy (2003), A Historical Atlas of Israel, The Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 0-8239-3978-2 
  • Reveron, Derek S.; Murer, Jeffrey Stevenson (2006), Flashpoints in the War on Terrorism, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-95490-8 
  • Rosenzweig, Rafael (1997), The Economic Consequences of Zionism, T Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 90-04-09147-5 
  • Rummel, Rudolph J. (1997), Power Kills: Democracy As a Method of Nonviolence, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 0-7658-0523-5 
  • Sampter, Jessie (2007) [1933], "Jewish Colonization Before 1917", in Sampter, Jessie, Modern Palestine – A Symposium, READ BOOKS, p. 444, ISBN 978-1-4067-3834-6 
  • Scharfstein, Sol (1996), Understanding Jewish History, KTAV Publishing House, ISBN 0-88125-545-9 
  • Shindler, Colin (2002), The Land Beyond Promise: Israël, Likud and the Zionist Dream, I.B.Tauris Publishers, ISBN 1-86064-774-X 
  • Skolnik, Fred (2007), Encyclopedia Judaica, 9 (2a ed.), Macmillian, ISBN 0-02-865928-7 
  • Smith, Derek (2006), Deterring America: Rogue States and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-86465-8 
  • Stein, Leslie (2003), The Hope Fulfilled: The Rise of Modern Israël, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-275-97141-4 
  • Stendel, Ori (1997), The Arabs in Israel, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 1-898723-23-0 
  • Stone, Russell A.; Zenner, Walter P. (1994), Critical Essays on Israëli Social Issues and Scholarship, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-7914-1959-2 
  • Torstrick, Rebecca L. (2004), Culture and Customs of Israël, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-32091-8 
  • Wenham, Gordon J. (1994), Word Biblical Commentary, 2, (Genesis 16–50), Dallasiae Texiae: Word Books, ISBN 0-8499-0201-0 

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]


Provinciae Israëlis