Res Haymarket

E Vicipaedia
Salire ad: navigationem, quaerere
Imago rei latissime edita. Scalptura 1886 prolata.

Res Haymarket,[1] etiam trucidatio Haymarket et tumultus Haymarket appellatum, fuit consecutio bombae displosae per protestationem popularem pro iure laborandi in Quadrato Haymarket Sicagi Illinoesiae die Martis 4 Maii 1886 habitam.[2] Tranquilla coepit contio, operarios qui pro die horarum octo opus intermittebant adiuvans, nonnullisque operariis a vigilibus pridie necatis respondens. Quidem ignotus bombam dynamitae in vigiles iecit cum coetum publicum dispergere conarentur. Diruptio et sclopetatio sequens septem vigiles et saltem quattuor privatos interfecerunt; nonnulla viginti aliorum vulnerati sunt.

Mathias J. Degan, per diruptionem bombae necatus. Scalptura circa 1886.
Infamis libellus ultionem petens.
Tabula diruptionis in Chicago Tribune die 5 Maii 1886 edita.
Septem anarchistae ad supplicium damnati ob caedem Degananam. Reus octavus, Oscar Neebe (hic non monstratus), ad quindecim annos in carcere mandatus est. Scalptura aequaeva.
Illinois vs. August Spies et al. Adumbratio artificis, 1886.
Monumentum Altgeldianum, a Gutzon Borglum factum et a Legislatura Illinoesiae in Hortis Lincolnianis Sicagi erectum (1915).
Anarchistae Sicagi. Scalptura a Gualterio Crane, illustratore Anglico Motus Arts and Crafts. Late in anarchistas, socialistas, et sodales syndicatuum sparsa est.
Nomen Rudolphi Schnaubelt, hic ostentum, delatus est, sed Schnaubelt ex Civitatibus Foederatis ante iudicium confugerat.
Monumentum Martyrum Haymarket in Coemeterio Forest Home in oppido Forest Park Illinoesiae (2009).
Operarii statuam vigilis ab Ioanne Gelert factam in Quadrato Haymarket instruunt, 1889. Statua nunc ad praesidium vigilium Sicaginiensium stat.
Duo agitatores ad basem monumenti vigilis stant, nunc sine statua, centesimo festo die anniversario rei Haymarket, Maio 1986; basis ad ultimum remota est.

In actionibus sequentibus, late inter civitates orbis terrarum patefactis, octo anarchistae coniurationis convicti sunt. Indicia autem probaverunt solum unum ex reis bombam construere potuisse, sed nemo iudicium subiens eam iecisse.[3][4][5][6] Septem ad supplicium capitis damnati sunt, et unus ad spatium quindecim annorum in carcere. Ricardus J. Oglesby, gubernator civitatis, damnationes duorum reorum pro spatiis vitae in carcere ad ultimum commutavit, et alius manus sibi intulit potius suspendium obire. Reliqui die 11 Novembris 1887 rite suspensi sunt. Anno autem 1893, Ioannes Petrus Altgeld, novus Illinoesiae gubernator, reos reliquos absolvit, iudicium vehementer reprehendens.

Res Haymarket insigniter habetur origo rituum Diei Laboris pro operariis.[7][8] Situs rei lapis terminalis Sicaginiensis anno 1992 designatus est,[9] et sculptura publica ibi anno 2004 dicata est. Praeterea, Monumentum Martyrum Haymarket ad situm reorum sepulcrorum in Hortis Silvestre in tabulas ut Lapis Terminalis Historicus Nationalis anno 1997 relatum est.[10] Secundum William J. Adelman, professorem studiorum laboris: "Laboris adfecit historiam in Illinoesia, in Civitatibus Foederatis, et adeo in orbe terrarum nulla res plus quam Res Haymarket Sicaginiense. Quae in contione coepit die 4 Maii 1886, sed consequentiae iam sentiuntur. Quamquam mentio contionis in enchiridiis historiae Americanae fit, paucissimi casum exacte praebent, vel eius momentum indicant."[11][12]

Absolutio et descriptio historica[recensere | fontem recensere]

Adiutores motus laboris in Civitatibus Foederatis et aliis civitatibus iudicium late credebant iniquum fuisse, et adeo malum iustitiae successum. Homines prominentes, inter quos Gulielmus Dean Howells scriptor mythistoriarum, Clarence Darrow iurisconsultus,[13] Anscharius Wilde poeta et scriptor scaenicu, et Georgius Bernardus Shavius scriptor scaenicus ferociter vituperaverunt. Die 26 Iunii 1893, Ioannes Petrus Altgeld, progressivus Illinoesiae gubernator, ipse advena ex Germania, venias subscripsit pro Fielden, Neebe, et Schwab, quos appellavit victimas "hysteriae, iudicum inclinatorum, et iudicis inclinati,"[14] et vehementius dixit civitatem "hominem numquam invenisse qui bombam quae vigilem necavit coniecit, atque indicia ullam coniunctionem quamcumque non monstrant reorum et hominis qui eam coniecit."[15][16]

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Haymarket, vocabulum Anglicum, 'forum faeni' ad verbum significat.
  2. "Originally at the corner of Des Plaines and Randolph," www.cityofchicago.org.
  3. Timothy Messer-Kruse, The Haymarket Conspiracy: Transatlantic Anarchist Networks (2012).
  4. Carl Smith, "Act III: Toils of the Law," in The Dramas of Haymarket (Sicagi: Chicago Historical Society et Northwestern University).
  5. Vide passim: Gilmer, Harry L. (28 Iulii 1886). "Testimony of Harry L. Gilmer, Illinois vs. August Spies et al.". Haymarket Affair Digital Collection. Chicago Historical Society .
  6. Vide passim: Thompson, Malvern M. (27 Iulii 1886). "Testimony of Malvern M. Thompson, Illinois vs. August Spies et al.". Haymarket Affair Digital Collection. Chicago Historical Society .
  7. Alexander Trachtenberg, The History of May Day (1932); commentarius in interrete positus a Marxists Internet Archive (2002).
  8. Foner, "The First May Day and the Haymarket Affair", May Day, pp. 27–39.
  9. "Site of the Haymarket Tragedy". City of Chicago Department of Planning and Development, Landmarks Division. 2003 .
  10. "Lists of National Historic Landmarks". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Martii 2004 .
  11. Anglice: "No single event has influenced the history of labor in Illinois, the United States, and even the world, more than the Chicago Haymarket Affair. It began with a rally on May 4, 1886, but the consequences are still being felt today. Although the rally is included in American history textbooks, very few present the event accurately or point out its significance."
  12. The Haymarket Affair, www.illinoislaborhistory.org.
  13. John A. Farrell, Clarence Darrow: Attorney for the Damned (New York: Doubleday, 2011), p. 5 and passim.
  14. Anglice: "hysteria, packed juries, and a biased judge."
  15. Anglice: "has never discovered who it was that threw the bomb which killed the policeman, and the evidence does not show any connection whatsoever between the defendants and the man who threw it."
  16. Quoted in Stanley Turkel, Heroes of the American Reconstruction: Profiles of Sixteen Educators (McFarland, 2009) p. 121.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Adelman, William J. 1986. Haymarket Revisited. Ed. 2a. Sicagi: Illinois Labor History Society. ISBN 0916884031
  • Avrich, Paul . 1984. The Haymarket Tragedy. Princetoniae: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691006008
  • David, Henry. 1936, 1963. The History of the Haymarket Affair: A Study of the American Social-Revolutionary and Labor Movements. Ed. 3a. Novi Eboraci: Collier Books. OCLC 6216264.
  • Foner, Philip S., ed. 1969. The Autobiographies of the Haymarket Martyrs. Novi Eboraci: Pathfinder Press. ISBN 0873488792.
  • Foner, Philip S. 1986. May Day: A Short History of the International Workers' Holiday, 1886–1986. Novi Eboraci: International Publishers. ISBN 0717806243.
  • Green, James R. 2006. Death in the Haymarket: A Story of Chicago, the First Labor Movement and the Bombing that Divided Gilded Age America. Novi Eboraci: Pantheon Books. ISBN 0375422374.
  • Messer-Kruse, Timothy. 2011. The Trial of the Haymarket Anarchists: Terrorism and Justice in the Gilded Age. Novi Eboraci: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780230120778.
  • Messer-Kruse, Timothy. 2012. The Haymarket Conspiracy: Transatlantic Anarchist Networks. Urbanae Illinoesiae: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252078608
  • Nelson, Bruce C. 1988. Beyond the Martyrs: A Social History of Chicago's Anarchists, 1870–1900. Novi Brunsvici Novae Caesareae: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0813513456.
  • Roediger, Dave, et Franklin Rosemont, eds. 1986. Haymarket Scrapbook. Sicagi: Charles H. Kerr Publishing. ISBN 0882861220.
  • Schaack, Michael J. 1889. Anarchy and Anarchists: A History of the Red Terror and the Social Revolution in America and Europe: Communism, Socialism, and Nihilism in Doctrine and in Deed: The Chicago Haymarket Conspiracy, and the Detection and Trial of the Conspirators. Sicagi: F. J. Schulte & Co. OCLC 185637808
  • Smith, Carl. 2000. The Dramas of Haymarket. Chicago Historical Society and Northwestern University.

Bibliographia addita[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Bach, Ira J., et Mary Lackritz Gray. 1983. A Guide to Chicago's Public Sculpture. Sicagi: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226033996.
  • Fireside, Bryna J. 2002. The Haymarket Square Riot Trial: A Headline Court Case. Berkeley Heights Novae Caesareae: Enslow Publishers. ISBN 0766017613.
  • Harris, Frank. 1908. The Bomb. Londinii: John Long.
  • Hucke, Matt, et Ursula Bielski. 1999. Graveyards of Chicago: The People, History, Art, and Lore of Cook County Cemeteries. Sicagi: Lake Claremont Press. ISBN 0964242648.
  • Lieberwitz, Risa. 1992. The Use of Criminal Conspiracy Prosecutions to Restrict Freedom of Speech: The Haymarket Trial. In In the Shadow of the Statue of Liberty: Immigrants, Workers, and Citizens in the American Republic, 1880-1920, ed. Marianne Debouzy, 275–291. Urbanae Illinoesiae: University of Illinois Press.
  • Lum, Dyer. 1887, 2005. A Concise History of the Great Trial of the Chicago Anarchists in 1886. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 9781402162879.
  • McLean, George N. 1890. The Rise and Fall of Anarchy in America. Sicagi: R. G. Badoux & Co.
  • Parsons, Lucy. 1889. Life of Albert R. Parsons: With Brief History of the Labor Movement in America. Sicagi: L. E. Parsons.
  • Riedy, James L. 1979. Chicago Sculpture: Text and Photographs. Urbanae Illinoesiae: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252012550.
  • Smith, Carl. 1995. Urban Disorder and the Shape of Belief: The Great Chicago Fire, the Haymarket Bomb, and the Model Town of Pullman. Sicagi: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226764168.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Wikisource-logo.svg Vide Res Haymarket apud Vicifontem.
Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Rem Haymarket spectant.

Encyclopedia Sicagi[recensere | fontem recensere]

41°53′5.64″N 87°38′38.76″W / 41.8849°N 87.6441°W / 41.8849; -87.6441