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Latinitas nondum censa

Pakistania

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Wikidata-logo.svg Pakistania
Res apud Vicidata repertae:
Pakistania: insigne
Pakistania: vexillum
Continens: Asia
Territoria finitima: Afgania, India, Res publica popularis Sinarum, Irania
Caput: Islamabada

Gubernium

Res publica foederalis
Princeps: Mamnoon Hussain
Praefectus: Shahid Khaqan Abbasi
Consilium: Parliament of Pakistan
Situs interretialis

Populus

Numerus: 182 142 594±0
Sermo publicus: Lingua Anglica, Lingua Urdu, Punjabi
Zona horaria: UTC+05:00
Moneta: Pakistani rupee

Commemoratio

Hymnus nationalis: Qaumi Taranah

Sigla

ISO PK, PAK, 586; IOC PAK
Dominium interretiale: .pk
Praefixum telephonicum: +92
Siglum autoraedarum: PK

Pakistania[1][2] est res publica in Asia, prope terram antiquam cui nomen Latine 'Sindus' et Graece Sindhos fuit.


Verba quae insequuntur vicificanda sunt ut rationibus qualitatis et Latinitatis propositis obtemperent. Quaesumus emenda.
National symbols of Pākistan
Father of the Nation Muhammad Ali Jinnah Jinnah1945.jpg
Mother of the Nation Fatima Jinnah
National poet Sir. Allama Muhammad Iqbal Iqbal.jpg
National hero Muhammad bin Qasim MUHAMMAD BIN QASIM.jpg
National animal Alpine Markhor Markhor Schraubenziege Capra falconeri Zoo Augsburg-02.jpg
National bird Chukar pheasant Keklik.jpg
National predatory heritage State animal Snow leopard Schneeleopard Koeln.jpg
National predatory heritage State bird Shaheen falcon Shaheen Falcon.jpg
National aquatic marine mammal Indus dolphin Platanista gangetica.jpg
National reptile Indus crocodile Mugger crocodile (Gando) in Chabahar, Iran- by Hadi Karimi.jpg
National amphibian Indus Valley toad Bufo stomaticus04.jpg
National fish Golden Mahaseer Tor Putitora.jpeg
National tree Himalayan Deodar Cedar Cedrus deodara India20.jpg
National flower Common Poet’s Jasmine Jasminum officinale.JPG
National fruit Mango Mango Maya.jpg
National vegetable Okra Bucket of raw okra pods.jpg
National crop Sugarcane Caña de azúcar .jpg
National dish Pākistani Beef Biryani Hyderabadi Chicken Biryani.jpg
National beverage Sugarcane Juice Sugarcanejuice.jpg
National dress Shalwar Qameez Pakistani dress.JPG
National dance Kathak folk traditional dance Arushi Nishank 2011.jpg
National Instrument Daf/Dafli People of Alk village (2).jpg
National sport Field Hockey (PHF) HOCKEY ARGENTINA PAKISTAN.jpg
National mosque Shah Faisal Masjid Faisal historic mosque.jpg
National memorial tower Minar-e-Lahore Minnar-e-Pakistan.jpg
National mausoleum Mazar-e-Quaid Mazar Quaid-e-Azam.jpg
National monument Islamabad Monument Pakistan Monument Panorama1.jpg
National mountain K2 Picture of K2.jpg
National river Indus River Indus river from karakouram highway.jpg

Historia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Searchtool.svg Si plus cognoscere vis, vide Mohenjo-daro

Millennio tertio a.C.n. floruit civilizatio Vallis Indi ubi Pakistania nunc stat. Usque ad saeculum vigesimum, nulla distinctio inter Pakistaniam, Indiam, aliasque civitates Asiae Australis obtinebat.

Pakistania est creata ex parte Indiae post 'pugnam pacalem' (ut dicitur) Mohandai Gandhi contra Britannos qui tunc Indiam regebant. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, dux Musulmanorum Indianorum (amicusque Mohandai Gandhi), aliique Musulmani putabant Musulmanos Indianos non satis securos futuros esse, ergo res publica propria, Pakistania, creata est quando Britanni regere cesserunt anno 1947. Jinnah ipsi, quia certamen civitatis pro libertate duxerat, agnomina 'Quaid-e-Azam' ('dux magnus') et 'Baba-e-Qaum' ('pater patriae') data sunt, et suus dies natalis, 25 Decembris, Pakistania colebatur.

Pakistania Indiaque quater inter se pugnaverunt: ter (annis 1947, 1965, 1999) quia ambae res publicae regionem Casmeriae regere volunt, et semel (anno 1971) quando Pakistania Orientalis (nunc Bangladesha) libera esse volebat. Et Pakistania et India arma atomica habent.

Geographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Alexandri Magni post occupationem, Sindus de Indiam separatum erat et in culturam Hellenicam classicam inclusum. Deinde geographia et toponymia classica Graeco-Latina plerumque cognitae sunt.

Finitimi Pakistaniae sunt Irania, in parte inter australem et occidentem; Afghania, in parte australe et in parte septentrionale; Res Publica Popularis Sinarum, in parte inter occidentem et septentrionalem; et India, in parte orientale. Pars australis Pakistaniae ad Oceanum Indicum spectat.

In parte septentrionale sunt montes alti; unus, K2 nomine, est cacumen altissimum terrae praeter Montem Everestem. Montes per partem occidentalem patent. Prope australem et orientalem partem est regio deserta Cholistan; planities in parte australe et occidentale quoque paene deserta est. Reliqua pars superficiei terram aptam ad agriculturam continet.

Clima maioris partis Pakistaniae est tropicale, cum pluviis monsoon dictis aestate usque ad mensem Septembrem. Plures species animalium et plantarum Pakistaniam habitant.

Montes maiores[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • M. Emaus (hodie Karakoram, 8611 m)
  • M. Emodus (hodie Himalayas, Indice antiquo Himavat)
  • M. Paropanisus (hodie Hindukush, 7890 m)
  • M. Parustus (hodie Sulayman, 4761 m)
  • M. Sindhus (hodie Kirthar, 3451 m)

Cacumina altissima[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nanga Parbat
  • K2
  • Nanga Parbat

Flumina maiora[recensere | fontem recensere]

Flumen Indus prope urbem Hyderabad
  • Acesines (hodie: Tsehinab)
  • Achesmius (hodie: Chenab)
  • Hydraspes (hodie: Djelum)
  • Hyphasis (hodie: Rawi)
  • Indus
  • Zadartes (hodie: Sutley)

Urbes antiquae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Imago saltatricis, e Mohenjo-daro (Civilizatio Vallis Indi)
  • Mallorum urbs (hodie: Multan)
  • Mansera (hodie: Shahbazar)
  • Masana (hodie: Gwadar)
  • Morostobia (hodie: Karachi)
  • Opiana (hodie: Alipur)
  • Pactala (hodie: Hyderabad)
  • Peuklotis (hodie: Peshawar)
  • Pura (hodie: Bangur)
  • Rhambakia (hodie: Shahbilwal)
  • Taxila (hodie: Sirkap)

Homines[recensere | fontem recensere]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Carolus Egger, Diurnarius Latinus. Epitome actorum diurnorum in lingua Latina. (1980. ISBN 88-209-4366-2) p. 7
  2. Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis, Latinitas (1953), p.258

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Ahmed, Mukhtar. 2014. Ancient Pakistan: an Archaeological History. Amazon. (Paginae selectae apud Google Books)
  • Azam, Ikram. 2004. Pakistan and the Future. Islamabad: Pakistan Futuristics Foundation and Institute.
  • Beaugé, Florence. 2007. Pakistan. Comprendre, exporter, vivre. Lutetiae: Mission économique d'Islamabad, Ed. Ubifrance. ISBN 978-2-279-41660-7.
  • Blood, Peter R., ed. 1995 Pakistan: A Country Study. Vasingtoniae: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. ISBN 0-8444-0834-4.
  • Boivin, Michel. 1996. Le Pakistan. Lutetiae: Presses universitaires de France. ISBN 2-13-047562-0.
  • Burkart, Jürgen. 2010. Pakistan – Ein Bildband. Rostock: Baltic Sea Press. ISBN 978-3-942129-41-1.
  • Chaudry, Aminullah 2011. Political Administrators: The Story of the Civil Service of Pakistan. Oxonii: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-906171-6.
  • Chiari, Bernhard, et Conrad Schetter, edd. 2010. Wegweiser zur Geschichte. Pakistan. Paderborn: Verlag Ferdinand Schoeningh. ISBN 978-3-506-76908-4.
  • Cohen, Stephen P. 2004. The Idea of Pakistan. Vasingtoniae: Brookings Institute Press. ISBN 0-8157-1502-1.
  • Garaude, Pauline. 2008. Faut-il avoir peur du Pakistan? Lutetiae: Larousse. ISBN 978-2-03-584312-8.
  • Hippler, Jochen. 2007 Das gefährlichste Land der Welt? Pakistan zwischen Militärherrschaft, Extremismus und Demokratie. Coloniae: Kiepenheuer & Witsch. ISBN 3-462-04011-1.
  • Jaffrelot, Christophe, ed. 2002. Le Pakistan: carrefour de tensions régionales. Bruxelles: Ed. Complexe, Bruxelles.ISBN 2-87027-921-3.
  • Jettmar, Karl. 2002. Beyond the Gorges of the Indus: Archaeology before Excavation. Karachi et Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-577979-7.
  • Kāẓmī, Muḥammad Raz̤ā. 2012. A Concise History of Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
  • Ladurner, Ulrich. 2001 Islamabadblues. Briefe aus Pakistan. Hamburgi: Zeitverlag Gerd Bucerius. ISBN 3-9808211-0-2.
  • Lieven, Anatol. 2011. Pakistan: A Hard Country. Novi Eboraci: Public Affairs. ISBN 978-1-61039-021-7.
  • Malik, Iftikhar Haider. 2008. The History of Pakistan. Westport: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-34137-3.
  • Mumtaz, Khawar, et Yameema Mitha. 2003. Pakistan: Tradition and Change. Oxonii: Oxfam. ISBN 0-85598-496-1.
  • Nadiem, Ihsan H. 2002. Built Heritage of Pakistan: a compendium of architectural legacy, important archaeological sites, historic monuments. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications. ISBN 978-969-35-1329-5
  • Nordio, Mario. 2006. Sguardo a Oriente: Asia Centrale, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turchia. Venetiae: Marsillo. ISBN 978-88-317-9092-5.
  • Rosiny, Tonny. 1990 Pakistan. Drei Hochkulturen am Indus: Harappa – Gandhara – Die Moguln. (DuMont Kunst-Reiseführer). Ostfildern: DuMont Reiseverlag. ISBN 3-7701-1304-7.
  • Samad, Rafi U. 2002. The Greeks in Pakistan. Karachi: Indus Publications. ISBN 978-969-529-001-9.
  • Schoettli, Urs. 1991. Fünfmal Pakistan. Monaci: R. Piper. ISBN 3-492-15139-6.
  • Scholz, Jorge 2008. Der Pakistan-Komplex. Ein Land zwischen Niedergang und Nuklearwaffen. Monaci: Pendo Verlag. ISBN 978-3-86612-176-8.
  • Thränert, Oliver, et Christian Wagner 2009. Atommacht Pakistan. Nukleare Risiken, regionale Konflikte und die dominante Rolle des Militärs. Berolini: SWP-Studie 3/2009. ISSN 1611-6372.
  • Voykowitsch, Brigitte. 2003 Allah, Ram und Kricket. Indisch-Pakistanische Konfrontationen. Vindobonae: Picus Verlag. ISBN 3-85452-773-X.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Pakistaniam spectant.
Pakistania : politica
Ministri rerum externarum Pakistanenses