Israël

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מדינת ישראל (Medinat Yisrael) دولة اسرائيل (Dawlat Isra’īl)
Vexillum Insigne
Vexillum Insigne
carmen nationale : Hatikva (Spes)
Situs Israelis
Lingua Sollemnis Hebraica et Arabica
Caput Hierosolyma
Praeses Simon Peres (a die 24 Iulii 2014 Reuven Rivlin)
Princeps Gubernationis Beniamin Netanyahu
Superficies

 - In toto  - % aqua

omnium 149us
20 770 km²
2%
Numerus incolarum

 - Omnis (2012)  - Spissitudo incolarum

Omnium 99us
8 020 200
324/km²
Libertas a Regno Iuncto Magnae Britanniae et Hiberniae Boreae

14 Maii 1948

Moneta Siclus Novus
Zona horaria UTC +2/+3
Gentilicum Israelita
Suffixum interretiale .IL
Praefixum telephonicum 972
Membrum: ONU
Stella David, signum Iudaismi post Medium Aevum.
Theodorus Herzl, excogitationi Civitatis Iudaicae deditus, anno 1901.
Divisio Palaestina a CN proposita

Civitas Israël[1] (Hebraice מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל Medīnat Yisrā'el ; Arabice دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل Dawlat Isrāʼīl), breviter Israël, est respublica parlamentaria in Medio Oriente secundum oriens Maris Mediterranei litus sita. Finitur ad septentriones a Libano, ad boreorientem a Syria, ad orientem a Iordania et ripa occidentali, et ad meridio-occidentem ab Aegypto et Sectore Gazensi, et intra parvam aream proprietates geographice diversas continet.[2][3] Respublica, in suis Principalibus Legibus ut "civitas Iudaica et democratica" definita, est sola orbis terrarum civitas maiorem numerum Iudaicum habens.[4] Ea terram quae apud Romanos erat pars Iudaeae tenet.

Linguae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Homines Hebraica Arabicaque linguis publicis utuntur. Non pauci etiam Russice inter sese, et nonnulli lingua Iudaeogermanica loquuntur.

Religiones[recensere | fontem recensere]

Historia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Iudaei terram quae nunc Israel appellatur sibi a Deo datam esse (Liber Iosue 1, 1-5) arbitrantur. Dicit enim scriptura:

Et factum est, ut post mortem Moysi servi Domini loqueretur Dominus ad Iosue filium Nun ministrum Moysi et diceret ei:
"Moyses servus meus mortuus est; nunc igitur surge et transi Iordanem istum, tu et omnis populus iste, in terram, quam ego dabo filiis Israel.
Omnem locum, quem calcaverit vestigium pedis vestri, vobis tradidi, sicut locutus sum Moysi.
A deserto et Libano isto usque ad fluvium magnum Euphraten, omnis terra Hetthaeorum usque ad mare Magnum contra solis occasum erit terminus vester."

Anno 586 a.C.n., Nabuchodonosor II, rex Babyli, terram Iudaeam superavit et Templum Salomonicum perdidit. Babyli septuaginta annos in terra regnaverunt, sed anno 533 a.C.n., Cyrus II cum exercitu terram superavit. Ab anno 533 a.e.d ad 332 a.e.d, imperium Persarum in terra regnavit. Anno 332 a.e.d Alexander Magnus terram superavit.

Post bellos contra Romanos (anno 70 et 135) et praecipue postquam anno 70, templum Hierosolymorum ab imperatore Tito dirutum est, pars magna Iudaeorum fugit ex Israel. Post secundum excidium anno 135, Romani Hierosolyma restituerunt novoque nomine appellaverunt Aeliam Capitolinam.

Iam anno 1917 Arthurus Balfour secretarius negotiorum exteriorum Britanniarum Regni probavit reditum Iudaeorum in Palaestinam post finem primi belli mundani et ruinam Imperii Ottomanici, quod antea Palaestinam tenebat.

Post secundum bellum mundanum et Iudaeorum a nazistis persecutionem Adolpho Hitler ductis anno 1947, die 29 Novembris Consociatio Nationum divisionem Palaestinae inter Iudaeos et Arabos proposuit.

Die 14 Maii 1948, civitas Israel condita est, sed secundum resolutionem, ipsam civitatem creantem, urbs Hierosolyma nec ab Iudeis nec ab Arabis, sed a Britanniarum Regno regenda est. Ipsa resolutione contentiose obtrita Israel Hierosolyma caput suum ab anno 1950 nominat. Superficies civitatis etiam 14 000 km² esse oportet secundum chartam sinistram, sed nunc ipsa civitas 8000 km² annis 1948 et 1967 expugnavit et adhuc retinet, incolisque allatis terram illam nancisi molitur.

Anno 1967 in bello sex dierum occupavit Israel ripam Occidentalem Iordani et in finibus Palaestinorum colonias condidit. Hoc bellum erat magna pars contentionis inter Israel, populum Palaestinae, et alias nationes Arabas.

Anno 1973, die sanctissima Iudaeorum, Dies Paenitentiae, duas communiones Arabicas, Aegyptus et Syria, Israelem oppugnaverunt. Milita Israelis invasionem ab Israeli pugnavit. Id erat victoria Israelis et Aegyptum agnoscere Israelem et facere pactum cum Israeli perpulit.

Urbes principales[recensere | fontem recensere]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. -is, m.. Carolus Egger, Diurnarius Latinus. Epitome actorum diurnorum in lingua Latina. (1980. ISBN 88-209-4366-2) p. 35 .
  2. "Israel", CIA Factbook (CIA) ..
  3. Skolnik 2007, pp. 132–232.
  4. "Israel", Country Report (Freedom House), 2007 .
  5. Iud. 1.17.

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

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  • Barzilai, Gad (2010), The Attorney General and the State Prosecutor-Is Institutional Separation Warrented?, The Israel Democracy Institute 
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  • Henderson, Robert D'A. (2003), Brassey's International Intelligence Yearbook (2003 ed.), Brassey's Inc., ISBN 1-57488-550-2
       
       
       
  • Jacobs, Daniel (1988), Israel and the Palestinian Territories: The Rough Guide (2nd revised ed.), Rough Guides, ISBN 1-85828-248-9
       
  • Kellerman, Aharon (1993), Society and Settlement: Jewish Land of Israel in the Twentieth Century, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-1295-4
       
  • Kornberg, Jacques (1993), Theodor Herzl: From Assimilation to Zionism, Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-33203-6
       
  • Liebreich, Fritz (2005), Britain's Naval and Political Reaction to the Illegal Immigration of Jews to Palestine, 1945–1948, Routledge, ISBN 0-7146-5637-2
       
  • Lustick, Ian (1988), For the Land and the Lord: Jewish Fundamentalism in Israel, Council on Foreign Relations Press, ISBN 0-87609-036-6
       
  • Mazie, Steven (2006), Israel's Higher Law: Religion and Liberal Democracy in the Jewish State, Lexington Books, ISBN 0-7391-1485-9
       
  • Morçöl, Göktuğ (2006), Handbook of Decision Making, CRC Press, ISBN 1-57444-548-0
       
  • Mowlana, Hamid; Gerbner, George; Schiller, Herbert I. (1992), Triumph of the File: The Media's War in the Persian Gulf — A Global Perspective, Westview Press, ISBN 0-8133-1610-3
       
  • Roberts, Adam (1990), "Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israeli-Occupied Territories Since 1967", The American Journal of International Law (American Society of International Law) 84 (1): 44–103 
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  • Reveron, Derek S.; Murer, Jeffrey Stevenson (2006), Flashpoints in the War on Terrorism, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-95490-8
       
  • Rosenzweig, Rafael (1997), The Economic Consequences of Zionism, T Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 90-04-09147-5
       
       
       
  • Scharfstein, Sol (1996), Understanding Jewish History, KTAV Publishing House, ISBN 0-88125-545-9
       
  • Shindler, Colin (2002), The Land Beyond Promise: Israel, Likud and the Zionist Dream, I.B.Tauris Publishers, ISBN 1-86064-774-X
       
  • Skolnik, Fred (2007), Encyclopedia Judaica, 9 (2nd ed.), Macmillian, ISBN 0-02-865928-7
       
  • Smith, Derek (2006), Deterring America: Rogue States and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-86465-8
       
  • Stein, Leslie (2003), The Hope Fulfilled: The Rise of Modern Israel, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-275-97141-4
       
  • Stendel, Ori (1997), The Arabs in Israel, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 1-898723-23-0
       
  • Stone, Russell A.; Zenner, Walter P. (1994), Critical Essays on Israeli Social Issues and Scholarship, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-7914-1959-2
       
  • Torstrick, Rebecca L. (2004), Culture and Customs of Israel, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-32091-8
       
  • Wenham, Gordon J. (1994), Word Biblical Commentary, 2, (Genesis 16–50), Dallas, Texas: Word Books, ISBN 0-8499-0201-0
       

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Coordinata: 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35

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