Imperium Ottomanicum

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Imperium Ottomanicum anno 1914, cum terris nominalibus et clientibus.

Imperium Ottomanicum (Ottomanice: دولتِ عَليه عُثمانيه, Devlet-i Aliye-i Osmaniye) erat una ex civitatibus maximis potentissimisque maris Mediterranei. Anno 1299 fundatum et anno 1923 dissolutum, tempore maximae potestatis in finibus suis terras Asiam Minorem, Illyriam, Arabiam, et Africam Septentrionalem tenebat.

Imperium a gente Turcicorum Oguzorum in Anatolia occidentali conditum est, et a progenie eorundem Turcorum regnatum. Imperator primus erat Ottomanus I, conditor imperii de cuius nomine (Arabice عُثمَان Uthmān) appellatio Ottomanorum venit. Constantinopolis, anno 1453 capta, deinde caput novum imperii fuit. Saeculo quinto decimo, Suleimanus Magnificus, unus e ducibus maximis Ottomanicis, Bagdatum partemque magnam Hungariae cepit, et Vindobonam obsedit, sed prae hieme urbem capere non potuit.

Ottomani anno 1453 Constantinopolim caput Imperii Romani Orientalis ceperunt, et interdum in Europam Mediam progressi sunt, bis Vindobonam obsidentes, anno 1529 et anno 1683, accurate a die 17 Iulii usque ad diem 12 Septembris, cum Ioannes Sobieski Turcos vicit.

Et in Asia et in Europa situm (exempli gratia Graecia, Albania, Bulgaria, Serbia et Hungariae magna pars ad id pertinebant), imperium per totam suam historiam necessitudines et cum Orienti et cum Occidenti habebat. A saeculo sexto decimo Imperium Ottomanicum etiam Principatum Moldaviae, Principatum Valachiae et Transilvaniam in sua potestate habebat, quamquam haec civitates de iure liberae manebant.

Postea, sultani fines extendere non potuerunt, et imperium bella cum Persia, Regno Poloniae et Lithuaniae, Ruthenia, Imperio Austro-Hungarico gerens hebescebat.

Ssaeculo vicensimo ineunte, imperium primo bello mundano a copiis foederatis, quibuscum et Arabi pugnabant, victum erat. Bellum composito, gubernatio collapsa est et victores terras imperii inter se diviserunt. Multae partes imperii secederunt; una ex quibus erat pars media Imperii Ottomanici nomine res publica Turciae. Familia sultanorum e finibus Anatoliae exterminata est et imperio maximo potentissimoque terminato Kemal Ataturk hodiernam civitatem condidit.

Fundamentum[recensere | fontem recensere]

Ante Imperium Ottomanicum vixit, Anatolia multos principes turcos habet et reliquum Byzantiis. (exempli gratia: Karamanicos, Ramazanicos Trebizonque)

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Preme picturam ut videas auctum et lapsum Imperii Ottomanici.
Meschita Selimiye fuit magnum opus Mimar Sinan, principalis Sultanorum Selimi I, Suleimani I, Selimi II, et Muradi III architecti.
Safranbolu Situs Hereditatis Mundi UNESCO ob architecturam domiciliariam Ottomannicam bene conservatuam anno 1994 inscriptum est.

Expositiones generales[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Barkey, Karen. 2008. Empire of Difference: The Ottomans in Comparative Perspective. Amazon.com.
  • Creasy, Edward Shepherd. 1877. History of the Ottoman Turks: From the beginning of their empire to the present time. R. Bentley and Son.
  • Finkel, Caroline. 2005. Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1923. John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-5513-2. Amazon.com, excerpt and text search
  • Goodwin, Jason. 2003. Lords of the Horizons: A History of the Ottoman Empire. Amazon.com.
  • Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300–1650: The Structure of Power. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-61386-4.
  • Inalcik, Halil, et Donald Quataert, eds. 1995. An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1914.
  • Kitsikis, Dimitri. 1994.L'Empire ottoman. Ed. 3a. Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 2-13-043459-2.
  • McCarthy, Justin. 1997. The Ottoman Turks: An Introductory History to 1923. Editio interretialis, apud www.questia.com.
  • Pamuk, Sevket. 1999. A Monetary History of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Quataert, Donald. 2005. The Ottoman Empire, 1700–1922. Amazon.com. ISBN 0-521-54782-2.
  • Shaw, Stanford J., et Ezel Kural Shaw. 1977. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Vol. 1.
  • Somel, Selcuk Aksin. 2003. Historical Dictionary of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Stone, Norman. 2004. "Turkey in the Russian Mirror." In Russia: War, Peace and Diplomacy, ed. Mark Erickson et Ljubica Erickson, 86–100. Londinii: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-84913-1.
  • Uyar, Mesut; Erickson, Edward (2009). A Military History of the Ottomans: From Osman to Atatürk. ISBN 978-0275988760 

Historia usque ad 1830[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Braude, Benjamin, et Bernard Lewis, eds. 1982. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: The Functioning of a Plural Society. Questia.com.
  • Clot, André. 1993. Suleiman the Magnificent.
  • Goffman, Daniel. 2002. The Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe. Questia.com.
  • Guilmartin, John F., Jr. 1988. Ideology and Conflict: The Wars of the Ottoman Empire, 1453–1606. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18(4):721–747.
  • Koller, Markus. 2012. Ottoman History of South-East Europe, European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History.
  • Kunt, Metin, et Christine Woodhead, eds. 1995. Süleyman the Magnificent and His Age: The Ottoman Empire in the Early Modern World.
  • Lybyer, Albert Howe. 1978. The Government of the Ottoman Empire in the Time of Suleiman the Magnificent. AMS Press/ ISBN 0-404-14681-3.
  • Murphy, Rhoads. 1999. Ottoman Warfare 1500–1700.
  • Parry, V. J. 1976. A History of the Ottoman Empire to 1730.
  • Pierce, Leslie P. 1993. The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire.
  • Shaw, Stanford J. 1976. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Vol I; Empire of Gazis: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1290–1808. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-21280-9.
  • Turnbull, Stephen. 2003. The Ottoman Empire 1326–1699. Questia.com.

Historia post 1830[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Ahmad, Feroz. 1969. The Young Turks: The Committee of Union and Progress in Turkish Politics, 1908–1914.
  • Bein, Amit. 2011. Ottoman Ulema, Turkish Republic: Agents of Change and Guardians of Tradition. Amazon.com.
  • Black, Cyril E., et L. Carl Brown. 1992. Modernization in the Middle East: The Ottoman Empire and Its Afro-Asian Successors.
  • Erickson, Edward J. 2000. Ordered to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War. Amazon.com.
  • Gürkan, Emrah Safa. 2011. Christian Allies of the Ottoman Empire, European History Online. Mainz: Institute of European History.
  • Faroqhi, Suraiya. 2000. Subjects of the Sultan: Culture and Daily Life in the Ottoman Empire.
  • Findley, Carter. 1980. Bureaucratic Reform in the Ottoman Empire.
  • Fortna, Benjamin C. 2002. Imperial Classroom: Islam, the State, and Education in the Late Ottoman Empire.
  • Fromkin, David. 2001. A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East. www.amazon.com.
  • Göçek, Fatma Müge. 1996. Rise of the Bourgeoisie, Demise of Empire: Ottoman Westernization and Social Change.
  • Hanioglu, M. Sukru. 2008. A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire. www.amazon.com.
  • Lybyer, Albert Howe. 1913. The Government of the Ottoman Empire in the Time of Suleiman the Magnificent. Cantabrigiae Massachusettae: Harvard University Press. Anno 1978 ab AMS Press reimpressum: ISBN 0-404-14681-3.
  • Karpat, Kemal H. 2001. The Politicization of Islam: Reconstructing Identity, State, Faith, and Community in the Late Ottoman State.
  • Kayali, Hasan. 1997. Arabs and Young Turks: Ottomanism, Arabism, and Islamism in the Ottoman Empire, 1908–1918. Commentarius totus, apud content.cdlib.org.
  • Kushner, David. 1977. The Rise of Turkish Nationalism, 1876–1908.
  • McCarthy, Justin. 2001. The Ottoman Peoples and the End of Empire. Hodder Arnold. ISBN 0-340-70657-0.
  • Miller, William. 1913. The Ottoman Empire, 1801–1913. Commentarius totus, apud books.google.com.]
  • Overy, Richard. 2010. The Times Complete History of the World. HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 9780007315697.
  • Quataert, Donald. 1983. Social Disintegration and Popular Resistance in the Ottoman Empire, 1881–1908.
  • Rodogno, Davide. 2011. Against Massacre: Humanitarian Interventions in the Ottoman Empire, 1815-1914.
  • Shaw, Stanford J., et Ezel Kural Shaw. 1977. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Vol. 2, Reform, Revolution, and Republic: The Rise of Modern Turkey, 1808–1975. www.amazon.com.
  • Toledano, Ehud R. 1982.The Ottoman Slave Trade and Its Suppression, 1840–1890.
  • Hussain, Ishtiaq. 2011. "The Tanzimat: Secular Reforms in the Ottoman Empire", Faith Matters.


David's face Haec stipula ad historiam spectat. Amplifica, si potes!

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