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Cyrus II (rex Persarum)

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Formula:Infobox monarch

Custos quattuor alis praeditus, qui Cyrum Magnum repraesentat, caelamen Pasargadis inventum, in summa parte sententia "Sum Cyrus rex, Achaemenianus," in tribus linguis inscripta.[1]

Cyrus II (Graece Κῦρος < Persice کوروش بزرگ ,‎ lingua Persica antiqua KUURUUSHA[2] Kuruš; c. 600 a.C.n. aut 576 a.C.n.530 a.C.n.[3]), generaliter Cyrus Magnus,[4] etiam Cyrus Maior appellatus, fuit conditor Imperii Achaemenidarum.[5] Sub eius dominatione, imperium omnes civilizatas Orientis Propinqui antiqui civitates comprehendit,[5] magnopere expandit, et ad extremum plurimum Asiae Meridio-Occidentalis et multum Asiae Mediae et Caucasi vicit. A Mari Mediterraneo et Dardanellis in occidente ad Indum in oriente, Cyrus maximum orbis terrarum imperium usque id tempus creavit.[6] Sui tituli regales pleni fuerunt Magnus Rex, Rex Persis, Rex Anshan, Rex Mediae, Rex Babylonis, Rex Sumer et Akkad, Rex Quattuor Angulorum Mundi. Enuntiavit praeterea in Cylindro, inter 539 et 530 a.C.n. iusso, rem quam nonnulli habent unam ex primis in historia gravibus iurum humanorum declarationibus, sed haec interpretatio ab aliis in controversiam vocatum est.

Vexillum Cyri Magni.

Regnum Cyri inter 29 et 31 annos duravit. Ille imperium confecit primum per Imperium Mediae, tum Imperium Lydium, et deinde Imperium Neo-Babylonianum devictum. Aut paulo ante aut paulo post Babylon superatum, expeditionem in Asiam Mediam duxit, quae maiora efficit proelia quae, ut apud Herodotum historicum Graecum legimus, "in servitudinem quamque civitatem, omnes ad unum," redegerunt.[7] Cyrus se in Aegyptum numquam contulit, quia in proelio cecidit, Massagetas secundum Syr Darya Decembre 530 a.C.n. pugnans.[8] Ei successit Cambyses II filius, qui imperium per regnum breve amplificavit, Aegyptum, Nubiam, Cyrenaicam vicissim devicens.

Cyrus religiones aliosque mores populorum qui vicerat magni aestimavit.[9]

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Croesus in rogo. Attica figurarum rubrarum amphora, 500490 a.C.n., Museum Lupariense (G 197).
Imperia Media, Lydia, et Neo-Babylon ante victorias Cyri Magni.
Regina Tomrys caput Cyri accipit. Tabula a Mathaeo Preti, 16701672 oleo picta.
Cyrus II et Iudaei. Imago a Ioanne Fouquet, 14701475 oleo picta.
Signum Cyri Magni in Horto Olympico Sydneii Australiae situm.

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Max Mallowan pp. 392 et 417.
  2. Unicode: Formula:Script. Source: a column in Pasargadae.
  3. (Dandamaev 1989, p. 71)
  4. Xenophon, Anabasis I. IX; vide etiam M. A. Dandamaev "Cyrus II," in Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Schmitt Achaemenid dynasty (i. The clan and dynasty).
  6. Kuhrt, Amélie (1995). "13". The Ancient Near East: C. 3000-330 BC. Routledge. p. 647. ISBN 0-415-16762-0  .
  7. "Into subjection every nation without exception," Cambridge Ancient History IV, capitulo 3c, p. 170.
  8. Christopher Beckwith, Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present (Princetoniae et Oxoniae: Princeton University Press, 2009, ISBN 978-0-691-13589-2), 63.
  9. Dandamayev Cyrus (iii. Cyrus the Great) Cyrus’s religious policies.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Fontes antiqui[recensere | fontem recensere]

Fontes Babylonii
Fontes Graeci
Fontes Hebraei
Misc.

Fontes recentiores[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Ball, Charles James (1899). Light from the East: Or the witness of the monuments. Londinii: Eyre and Spottiswoode 
  • Boardman, John, ed. (1994). The Cambridge Ancient History IV: Persia, Greece, and the Western Mediterranean, C. 525-479 B.C. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22804-2
       
  • Cannadine, David; Price, Simon (1987). Rituals of royalty : power and ceremonial in traditional societies (1. publ. ed.). Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-33513-2
       
       
  • Chavalas, Mark W., ed. (2007). The ancient Near East : historical sources in translation. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-23580-9
       
       
  • Freeman, Charles (1999). The Greek Achievement: The Foundation of the Western World. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-7139-9224-7
       
  • Fried, Lisbeth S. (2002). "Cyrus the Messiah? The Historical Background to Isaiah 45:1". Harvard Theological Review 95 (4) 
  • Frye, Richard N. 1962. The Heritage of Persia. Londinii: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 1-56859-008-3.
  • Gershevitch, Ilya (1985). The Cambridge History of Iran: Vol. 2 ; The Median and Achaemenian periods. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20091-1
       
  • Moorey, P. R. S. 1991. The Biblical Lands, 6. Novi Eboraci: Peter Bedrick Books. ISBN 0-87226-247-2.
  • Olmstead, A. T. 1948. History of the Persian Empire [Achaemenid Period]. Sicagi: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-62777-2.
  • Palou, Christine, et Jean Palou. 1962. La Perse Antique. Lutetiae: Presses Universitaires de France.
  • Schmitt, Rüdiger (1983). Achaemenid dynasty. vol. 3. Londinii: Routledge 
  • Schmitt, Rüdiger; Shahbazi, A. Shapur; Dandamayev, Muhammad A.; Zournatzi, Antigoni (1993). Cyrus. Vol. 6. Londinii: Routledge. ISBN 0-939214-78-4
       

Fontes additi[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Bickermann, Elias J. (September 1946). "The Edict of Cyrus in Ezra 1". JournaI of Biblical Literature 65 (3): 249–275 
  • Dougherty, Raymond Philip (1929). Nabonidus and Belshazzar: A Study of the Closing Events of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Portu Novo: Yale University Press 
  • Drews, Robert (October 1974). "Sargon, Cyrus, and Mesopotamian Folk History". Journal of Near Eastern Studies 33 (4): 387–393 
  • Harmatta, J. (1971). "The Rise of the Old Persian Empire: Cyrus the Grea". Acta Antiquo 19: 3–15 
  • Kuhrt, Amelie. 2007. Ancient Near Eastern History: The Case of Cyrus the Great of Persia. In Understanding the History of Ancient Israel, ed. Hugh Godfrey Maturin Williamson. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press, 107–128. ISBN 978-0-19-726401-0.
  • Lawrence, John M. (1985). "Cyrus: Messiah, Politician, and General". Near East Archaeological Society Bulletin. n.s. 25: 5–28 
  • Lawrence, John M. (1982). "Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Attitudes Towards Foreigners and Their Religion". Near East Archaeological Society Bulletin. n.s. 19: 27–40 
  • Mallowan, Max (1972). "Cyrus the Great (558-529 BC)". Iran 10: 1–17 
  • Wiesehöfer, Josef (1996). Ancient Persia : from 550 BC to 650 AD. Azizeh Azodi, conv.. Londinii: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-999-0
       
  • Jovy, Alexander (2012). I am Cyrus: The story of the real Prince of Persia. Reading: Garnet Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85964-281-8
       

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Cyrum spectant.
Wikiquote-logo.svg Vicicitatio habet citationes quae ad Cyrus II (rex Persarum) spectant.
Wiktionary-ico-de.png Vide Cyrus in Victionario.


Antecessor:
Astyages
Rex Persarum
550-529
Successor:
Cambyses II