Nationalismus

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Libertas Populum Ducit, ab Eugenio Delacroix anno 1830 picta, est insigne artis nationalisticae exemplum.

Nationalismus est ideologia, sensus, forma culturae, vel motus socialis qui nationem[1] vel gentem vehementius dicit. Duae sunt primae rationes nationalismi origines explanantes, quae sunt doctrina primordialistica quae nationalismum ex evolutionaria hominum inclinatione ad se in expressos greges ortu genereque statutos componendos oriri describit, et doctrina modernistica quae nationalismum solummodo hodiernum esse ait, cui societate hodierna ad existendum opus sit.[2] Quid sit tamen natio, ambigitur, ita ut diversa nationalismi genera iam inducta sint. Potest fieri ut quodam iudicio sint qui municipatum modo uni gregi ethnico, culturali, religioso finire velint, aut ut multinationalitas in civitate singula ius gentium minorum (minority) agnoscitatem nationalem proloquendi exercendique prohibeat.[3]

Novae identitatis nationalis adsumptio, quod ad progressionem historicam spectat, plerumque efficitur quando grex respondet, cum identitate traditionali, propter conflictionem inter ordinem socialiem quem sentiendum credunt et ordinem quem sentiunt, insatiatus sit, quo anomia fit, quam nationalistae exsolvere velint.[4] Haec anomia efficit ut societas (aut societates) identitatem suam reficiat, rebus quae gratae habentur retentis et rebus ingratis deletis, eo consilio ut communitas integretur.[4] Haec propter difficilia quoque structuralia et interna effici possunt, aut propter iram cuiusdam gregis ad communitates alias versus, praesertim ad potestates externas quae eos comprimere videntur.[4]

Nationalia vexilla et hymni et alia identitatis nationalis symbola saepe magni momenti in communitate nationali creanda esse ducuntur.[5][6][7][8]

Historia[recensere | fontem recensere]

In Europa, prius quam nationalismus confirmatus est, homines urbi suae aut duci cuidam fideles erant potius quam nationi eorum. Encyclopaedia Britannica nationalismi inceptum Rebus Novis Americanis et Rebus Novis Francicis saeculo duodevicensimo exeunte effectis annectit; alii rerum gestarum scriptores specialiter factionem Franciae ultranationalisticam inter Res Novas Francicas actuosam demonstrant.[9][10][11]

Vocabulum quod est nationalismus ab Ioanne Gottfried Herder annis fere 1775/1780 fictum est.[12] Difficile est dictu, ubi quandoque nationalismus ortus sit. Progressio autem sua arte cum illa statūs hodierni connexa esse videtur necnon maiestati studii in saeculi 18 exeuntis Rebus Novis Francicis et Americanis orti, quodque rebus novis Europaeis, puta Bello Rerum Novarum Graeco, ethnicis nationalibusve summum locum adtigit.[9] Quo ex tempore, nationalismus una ex maximi momenti politicis socialibusque historiae viribus factus est, eminentissime fortasse in Bello Orbis Terrarum Primo et quod maius est Bello Orbis Terrarum Secundo. Fascismus nationalismi auctoritariani est forma, quae fidem oboedientiamque Statui integerrimam postulat, mandatum cuius commodis nationalibus servire est solum.[13][14][15][16]

De partibus linguae agendis in nationalismo formando, Benedictus Anderson arguit, "Lingua impressa, neque lingua quaedam per se, nationalismum fingit."[conv. 1][17]

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Smith 1993:72
  2. Motyl. Encyclopedia of Nationalism, Volume 1: Fundamental Themes. San Diego, California, CFA; Londinii, Anglica, RB (Academic Press, 2001), 251.
  3. Kymlicka, Will. (1995). Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-19-829091-8 .
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Motyl. Encyclopedia of Nationalism, Volume 1: Fundamental Themes. Didacopole, Californiae; Londinii (Academic Press, 2001), 262.
  5. Billig, Michael (1995). Banal Nationalism. Londinii: Sage. ISBN 0-8039-7525-2 .
  6. Gellner, Ernest (2005). Nations and Nationalism (Second ed.). Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-3442-9 .
  7. Canovan, Margaret (1996). Nationhood and Political Theory. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. ISBN 1-84064-011-1 .
  8. Miller, David (1995). On Nationality. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-829356-9 .
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Nationalism". Encyclopædia Britannica .
  10. Smith, Anthony D. (1998). Nationalism and Modernism: A Critical Survey of Recent Theories of Nations and Nationalism. Londinii: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-06341-8 .
  11. Iain McLean et Alistair McMillan, Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics, "French Revolution . . . It produced the modern doctrine of nationalism, and spread it directly throughout Western Europe" (Oxoniae: 2009), ISBN 978-0-19-920516-5.
  12. T. C. W. Blanning (2003). The Culture of Power and the Power of Culture: Old Regime Europe 1660-1789. Oxford University Press. pp. 259, 260. ISBN 978-0-19-926561-9 .
  13. Laqueuer, Walter." Comparative Study of Fascism" by Juan J. Linz. Fascism, A Reader's Guide: Analyses, interpretations, Bibliography. Berkeley et Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1976. Pp. 15: "Fascism is above all a nationalist movement and therefore wherever the nation and the state are strongly identified."
  14. Laqueur, Walter. Fascism: Past, Present, Future. Oxford University Press, 1997. Pp. 90. "the common belief in nationalism, hierarchical structures, and the leader principle."
  15. "Goebbels on National-Socialism, Bolshevism and Democracy, Documents on International Affairs, vol. II, 1938, pp. 17-19. Accessed from the Jewish Virtual Library on February 5, 2009. [1] Joseph Goebells Nazistas dicit socios fuisse civitatum quibus ideologia "nationalistica auctoritarianaque" (Anglice: authoritarian nationalist) necnon similes de status partibus rationes esset. "It enables us to see at once why democracy and Bolshevism, which in the eyes of the world are irrevocably opposed to one another, meet again and again on common ground in their joint hatred of and attacks on authoritarian nationalist concepts of State and State systems. For the authoritarian nationalist conception of the State represents something essentially new. In it the French Revolution is superseded.".
  16. Koln, Hans; Calhoun, Craig. The Idea of Nationalism: A Study in its Origins and Background. Transaction Publishers. Pp 20.
    University of California. 1942. Journal of Central European Affairs. Volume 2.
  17. Anderson, Benedict (1983). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-86091-546-1 

Citationes Latine conversae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. "Print language is what invents nationalism, not a particular language per se"

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Opera generalia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Opera referendi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]


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