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Anarchismus[1] (ex Graeco ἀν 'sine' + ἄρχειν 'regnare' + ισμός [ex stemmate -ιζειν] 'sine archontibus', 'sine rectoribus')[2] est philosophia civilis de theoriis animisque quae civitatem sui iuris considerat inutilem, supervacuam, noxiamque, omnem involuntariam vel stabilem auctoritatem repudians,[3] et anarchiam (societatem sine gubernatione) promovet.[4][5][6][7] Hi fontes anarchismum appellant philosophiam rerum politicarum (Johnston 2000, Mclaughlin 2007, Slevin 2003). Anarchistae coactam civitatem[8] reiciunt, et igitur auctoritatem in quotidiana hominum vita deminuere vel etiam abolere conantur et gubernationis exstinctionem petunt.[9] Sunt multa anarchismi genera et mores,[10] quorum non omnes inter se differunt,[11] et praeterea discrepat inter scriptores num additae normae in anarchismo postulandae sint.[12] Fautores anarchismi, "anarchistae" appellati, societates sine republica suadent secundum instituta quae societates voluntariae[13][14] et non hierarchicae sunt.[15][16]

Sunt multa anarchismi genera et memoriae, quarum non omnes inter se exclusivae.[17]

Gulielmus Godwin, unus ex hodierni anarchismi conditoribus. Oleum super velum; Iacobus Northcote pinxit, anno 1802. Londinii: Nationalis Effigium Pinacotheca.
Maximus Stirner, philosophus saeculi undevicensimi et insignis novus anarchista individualisticus. Fridericus Engels pinxit.
Petrus Kropotkin, anarcho-communista, credidit operae se ordinaturae esse ut res pro omnibus hominibus commune faciant.
Anarchistae Emma Goldman et Alexander Berkman Bolshevicam potestatis "consolidationem" post Res Novas Russicas anni 1917 oppugnaverunt.

Historia anarchismi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Searchtool.svg Si plus cognoscere vis, vide Historia anarchismi

Theoria et praxis anarchismi hodierni Aevo Illuminationis, ut videtur, inceptum habuerunt. Sunt autem qui constant omnes homines voluntatem libertatis habere, et multas societates priscas sine civitate nec auctoritate floruisse. Nihilominus, inter res novas Francicas theoria anarchismi primum enuntiata est. Antea verbum "confusio" vel "licentia effrenata" significabat.

Paulo postea Anna Hutchinsonia in Rhodensi Insula colonia Americana societatem anarchicam creavit, nunc oppidum Portum Ostium.

Gulielmus Godwin conditor philosophiae anarchismi dicitur. Liber eius anno 1793 scriptus, cuius titulus est Enquiry concerning Political Justice, and its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness ('Quaestio de iure politico quod virtutem et felicitatem impellat'), dicit omne regnum malum esse.

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Axters, S. (1937). Scholastiek lexicon Latijn-Nederlandsch. Antwerpen: Geloofsverdediging.
  2. Anarchy Merriam-Webster's Online dictionary.
  3. Michael Bakunin, God and the State, pars 2.; Benjamin Tucker, State Socialism and Anarchism; Petrus Kropotkin, Anarchism: Its Philosophy and Ideal; Errico Malatesta, Towards Anarchism; Murray Bookchin, Anarchism: Past and Present, pars 4; An Introduction to Anarchism a Liz A. Highleyman.
  4. Errico Malatesta, [http://www.marxists.org/archive/malatesta/1930s/xx/toanarchy.htm "Towards Anarchism," MAN! OCLC 3930443.
  5. "Working for The Man," The Globe and Mail,, 14 Maii 2007.
  6. "Anarchism," Encyclopædia Britannica (Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service, 2006.
  7. "Anarchism," The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2005), 14: "Anarchism is the view that a society without the state, or government, is both possible and desirable."
  8. Errico Malatesta, Towards Anarchism.
  9. Colin Ward, [http://www.panarchy.org/ward/organization.1966.html Anarchism as a Theory of Organization (1966).
  10. Kropotkin, Peter, Anarchism: A Collection of Revolutionary Writings (Courier Dover Publications, 2002), p. 5.
  11. Sylvan, Richard. "Anarchism". A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy, editors Goodwin, Robert E. and Pettit, Philip. Blackwell Publishing (1995), p. 231/
  12. Ait The Oxford Companion to Philosophy: "there is no single defining position that all anarchists hold, and those considered anarchists at best share a certain family resemblance." "Anarchism," The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, (Oxford University Press, 2007), 31.
  13. "ANARCHISM, a social philosophy that rejects authoritarian government and maintains that voluntary institutions are best suited to express man’s natural social tendencies." George Woodcock. "Anarchism" in The Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  14. "In a society developed on these lines, the voluntary associations which already now begin to cover all the fields of human activity would take a still greater extension so as to substitute themselves for the state in all its functions." Petrus Kropotkin, "Anarchism" in Encyclopaedia Britannica.
  15. Anglice: "That is why Anarchy, when it works to destroy authority in all its aspects, when it demands the abrogation of laws and the abolition of the mechanism that serves to impose them, when it refuses all hierarchical organization and preaches free agreement—at the same time strives to maintain and enlarge the precious kernel of social customs without which no human or animal society can exist." Petrus Kropotkin. Anarchism: Its Philosophy and Ideal.
  16. "Anarchists are opposed to irrational (e.g., illegitimate) authority, in other words, hierarchy—hierarchy being the institutionalisation of authority within a society." "B.1 Why are anarchists against authority and hierarchy?" in An Anarchist FAQ.
  17. Richard Sylvan, "Anarchism" in A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy, edd. Robert E. Goodwin, et Philip Pettit (Blackwell Publishing, 1995), p. 231.

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Graham, Robert, ed. Anarchism. A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas.
    • 2005. Volume One: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300CE to 1939). Montréal et Londinii: Black Rose Books. ISBN 1551642506.
    • Volume Two: The Anarchist Current (1939-2006) Montréal et Londinii: Black Rose Books. ISBN 9781551643113.
  • Harper, Clifford. 1987. Anarchy: A Graphic Guide. Camden Press.
  • Le Guin, Ursula K. 1974. The Dispossessed.
  • Johnston, R. 2000. The Dictionary of Human Geography.. Cantabrigiae: Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0631205616.
  • Mclaughlin, Paul. 2007. Anarchism and Authority. Aldershot: Ashgate. ISBN 0754661962.
  • Slevin, Carl. 2003. Anarchism. In The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics, ed. Iain McLean et Alistair McMillan. Oxford University Press.
  • Woodcock, George. 1962. Anarchism. Penguin Books.
  • Woodcock, George, ed. 1977. The Anarchist Reader. Fontana/Collins. (Anthologia commentariorum ab anarchistis et turbatoribus plebis, inter quos Proudhon, Kropotkin, Bakunin, Bookchin, et Goldman scriptorum.)

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Wiktionary-ico-de.png Vide Anarchismus in Victionario.
Wikiquote-logo.svg Vicicitatio habet citationes quae ad Anarchismum spectant.

De biographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nuntii[recensere | fontem recensere]