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Sionismus

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Theodorus Herzl fuit motus hodierni Sionismi conditor. In Der Judenstaat, cuius libello anno 1896 edito, futuram civitatem Iudaicum saeculo vicensimo condituram proposuit.

Sionismus (Hebraice צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut, ex Sione, nomine antiquo regionis Hierosolymae) est ideologia[1][2][3] et motus nationalisticus[4][5] inter Iudaeos in regionem Palestinam ad civitatem sui iuris creandam institutus. Causa Sionismi erat persecutio in diaspora, quae Iudaeis crebro ac variis in regionibus illata est.

Historia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Saeculo XIX variis consiliis civitatis Iuadicae in Palaestina vel alibi creandae ortis anno 1890 immigratio in Palaestinam circa Ioppam coepit, fundis Arabum legitime emptis. Arabes autem hanc intrusionem ab initio aegre ferebant, cum se multitudine colonorum temporibus futuris vexatum iri timerent. Tamen anno 1909 super arenas inter Ioppam et Yarqon exstruitur Telavivum, urbs quae numero habitantium mox Ioppam superabat. Nomen urbis a titulo libri a Theodoro Herzl scripto sumptum est.[6] Interea Britanniarum Regnum per Marcum Sykes et Francia per Franciscum Georges-Picot pactum secrectum fecerunt mundum Arabicum inter se partiendi. Declaratione Balfourensi, Iudaeis "domicilium nationale salvo iure habitantium" assignatum est. Arabes annis 1929 et 1936 violentia migrationem suspendi coegerunt, persecutio autem Iudaeorum a Nazistis facta immigrationem maxime acceleravit.

Anno 1948, partitio Palaestinae ab UNO decreta est. Violentia, quae sequitur, plurimi Arabum partim terrore fugati, partim a propriis ducibus spe oppugnationis ad fugam incitati patriam reliquerunt. Fere 800 000 in (Trans)-Iordania absorbebantur, alii in alias terras fugerunt.

Quia homines Arabici in Palaestina vel ex Palaestina oriundi se fundis iuribusque privari queruntur ac permulti bellis patria profugi facti sunt, Sionismus saepe rassismus esse putatur. In Conferentia mundi contra rassismum et Charta Africana de Iuribus Humanis Populisque[7] quasi apartheid damnatus est. Etiam Consilium securitatis resolutione 3379 decreta die 10 Novembris 1975 Sionismum rassismum esse iudicavit.

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Bernardus Lewis, Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice (Novi Eboraci: W. W. Norton & Company, 1999, ISBN 978-0-393-24556-1), 20.
  2. Ian S. Lustick, "Zionist Ideology and Its Discontents: A Research Note," Israel Studies Forum 19, no. 1 (autumnus 2003): 98-103: "Zionism was and is a serious ideology and deserves to be treated as such" (p. 98).
  3. Gadi Taub, "Zionism," in Gregory Claeys, Encyclopedia of Modern Political Thought (Sage CQ Press, 2013, ISBN 978-1-452-23415-1), 869-872: "Zionism is an ideology that seeks to apply the universal principle of self-determination to the Jewish people" (p. 869).
  4. Medding, P. Y. (1995). Studies in Contemporary Jewry: XI: Values, Interests, and Identity: Jews and Politics in a Changing World. Studies in Contemporary Jewry. OUP USA/Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-19-510331-1 
  5. Gans, Chaim (1 Iulii 2008) (Anglice). A Just Zionism: On the Morality of the Jewish State. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199867172 
  6. Nomen Theodiscum Altneuland poetice in Tel-Aviv versum est, quod nomen etiam in Ezechiel 3,15 apparet.
  7. Charta Africana de Iuribus Humanis Populisque, praefatio.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Fontes primarii[recensere | fontem recensere]

Fontes secundarii[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Armborst-Weihs, Kerstin: The Formation of the Jewish National Movement Through Transnational Exchange: Zionism in Europe up to the First World War. European History Online. Moguntiaci: Institute of European History, 2011.
  • Masilamani, A. B. 1984. "Zionism." Melu Kolupu. Navajeevana Publications, Vijayanagar Colony, Hyderabad, 121–126.
  • Beller, Steven. 2004. Herzl.
  • Brenner, Michael, et Shelley Frisch. 2003. Zionism: A Brief History. Editio ex parte interretialis.
  • Butler, Judith. 2013. Parting Ways: Jewishness and the Critique of Zionism. Novi Eboraci: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0231146111.
  • Cohen, Naomi. 2003. The Americanization of Zionism, 1897–1948.
  • Friedman, Isaiah. 2004. "Theodor Herzl: Political Activity and Achievements." Israel Studies 9 (3): 46–79. EBSCO.
  • Hacohen, Dvorah (1991), "BenGurion and the Second World War", in Jonathan Frankel, Studies in Contemporary Jewry : Volume VII: Jews and Messianism in the Modern Era: Metaphor and Meaning, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195361988 .
  • Hakohen, Devorah (2003), Immigrants in Turmoil: Mass Immigration to Israel and Its Repercussions in the 1950s and After, Syracuse University Press, ISBN 9780815629696 .
  • David Hazony, Yoram Hazony, and Michael B. Oren, eds., "New Essays on Zionism," Shalem Press, 2007.
  • Kloke, Martin. 2010. The Development of Zionism Until the Founding of the State of Israel. European History Online. Moguntiaci: Institute of European History.
  • Laqueur, Walter. 2003. A History of Zionism: From the French Revolution to the Establishment of the State of Israel. Editio ex parte interretialis.
  • Medoff, Rafael (1998). "Review Essay: Recent Trends in the Historiography of American Zionism". American Jewish History 86: 117–134 .
  • Motyl, Alexander J. (2001). Encyclopedia of Nationalism, Volume II. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-227230-1 .
  • Pawel, Ernst. 1992. The Labyrinth of Exile: A Life of Theodor Herzl. Editio ex parte interretialis.
  • Sachar, Howard M. 2007. A History of Israel: From the Rise of Zionism to Our Time. Editio ex parte interretialis.
  • Shimoni, Gideon. 1995. The Zionist Ideology.
  • Taub, Gadi. 2010. The Settlers and the Struggle over the Meaning of Zionism.
  • Taylor, A. R. 1971. "Vision and intent in Zionist Thought." In The transformation of Palestine, ed. I. Abu-Lughod. Evanstoniae Illinoesiae: Northwestern University Press. ISBN 0-8101-0345-1.
  • Urofsky, Melvin I. 1995. American Zionism from Herzl to the Holocaust.
  • Wigoder, Geoffrey, ed. 1994. New Encyclopedia of Zionism and Israel. 2 vol., ed. secunda.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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