Isaacus Newtonus

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Isaacus Newtonus
Isaac Newton
Isaacus Newtonus
Isaacus Newtonus
Natus 25 Decembris 1642
Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth
Obiit 20 Martii 1727
Kensington

Isaacus Newtonus[1] Eques (Anglice Isaac Newton anno 1642, die 25 Decembris secundum calendarium Iulianum4 Ianuarii 1643 secundum Gregorianum natus est, mortuus die 20 Martii 1727 secundum calendarium Iulianum31 Martii secundum Gregorianum)[2] fuit physicus, mathematicus, astronomus, philosophus naturalis, alchemista, et theologus Anglus, qui "a multis maximus scientista maximi momenti qui umquam vixit"[3] habetur. Suus libellus Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, anno 1687 editus, fundamenta plurimi mechanicae classicae exponit. Hoc in opere, ipse gravitationem universam et tres leges motus offert, quae scientificum universi corporei conspectum proxima tria saecula dominata est. Newtonus monstravit motum rerum in Tellure et corpora caelestia ab eadem copia legum naturalium gubernari. Praetera, opera sua Latine exaravit.

Vita[recensere | fontem recensere]

Newtonus, agricolae filius, ab anno 1661 studuit in Universitate Cantabrigiensi, ubi principia naturae luminis et gravitationis motuumque planetarum excogitavit. Praterea principia quaestionum mathematicarum evolvit, quae ad calculationem tangentis, superficiei et puncti gravitationis pertinent. Newtonus, successor sui professoris Isaaci Barrow, anno 1669 professor mathematicorum in Cantabrigia factus est; fuit praeses Regalis Societatis Londinii, in quam anno 1672 cooptatus erat, exinde ab anno 1703 usque ad annum 1727. Anno 1689 Universitas Cantabrigiensis eum in Parlamentum Anglicum emisit, ut universitatem repraesentaret. Anno 1705, sedem suam amisit.

Leges motus[recensere | fontem recensere]

Leges motus a Newtono propositae hodieque pro legum physicarum fundamentis habentur, dummodo de velocitatibus subluminalibus agatur. En leges motus Newtonianae, ex ipsis verbis tertiae Principiorum editionis descriptae:

  1. Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quescendi vel movendi uniformiter in derectum, nisi quatenus illud a viribus impressis cogitur statum suum mutare.
  2. Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressae, & fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur.
  3. Actioni contrarium semper & aequalem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse aequales & in partes contrarias dirigi.

Opera[recensere | fontem recensere]

Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica[recensere | fontem recensere]

Prima pagina libri Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica.

Opus principale Isaaci Newtoni est Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica (1687). In illum inscripsit fundamenta novae mathematico-mechanicae perceptionis mundi. Usque ad illa tempora magna pars physicae constituebatur hypothesibus speculativis et earum deductionibus logicis. Newtonus primus poscit, ut in processu recognoscentiae scientifico empirismus purus praecedat.

Causa gloriae Newtoni, auctor physicae classicae theoreticae et scientiarum naturalium exactarum, est praesertim opus suum principale Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica, in quo tria axiomata sua mechanicae (Axiomata Newtoniana) formulavit. Praeterea concepit aequationem motus, aequationem fundamentalem dynamicam, et cum ea motus corporum theoretice tractavit. Hic etiam legem gravitationis suam anno 1666 excogitavit, et monstrat aequatio motus suam in casu motionis planetae circum Solem Leges Keplerianas comportare. Applicatio mechanicae theoreticae Newtoni et attractionis massarum universalis ad motus astrorum fecit eum auctorem mechanicae caelestis. Newtonus primo valabilitatem legum naturalium terrestrium etiam pro astris demonstravit. Hoc est pro scientia naturali uniformi Novorum Temporum condicio fundamentalis, quae a physica Aristotelis maxime discrepat. In Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica praeterea aestus explicavit, fundamenta theoriae potentialis posuit, processus fluenti (Liquida Newtoniana), quaestiones vibrationis et quaestiones ex acustica etiam calculum infinitesimalem tractavit. Newtonus etiam ortum praecessionis et nutationis axis Terrae explicavit et massas Lunae ac planetarum calculavit.

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Isaacus Newtonus apud Christianum Hugenium, Cosmotheoros liber 2 Boulliau Biography - Sir David Brewster on Ismael Boulliau - Boulliau Homepage - Information, Resources, Links, Images, Original Research & Writing apud web.clas.ufl.edu.
  2. Js. Newton sub titulo Principiorum mathematicorum anni 1687: vide imaginem.
  3. "By many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived." Burt, Daniel S. (2001). The biography book: a reader's guide to nonfiction, fictional, and film biographies of more than 500 of the most fascinating individuals of all time. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 315. ISBN 1-573-56256-4 , Extract of page 315

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Ball, W.W. Rouse (1908). A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. Novi Eboraci: Dover. ISBN 0486206300 
  • Christianson, Gale (1984). In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. Novi Eboraci: Free Press. ISBN 0-02-905190-8 
  • Craig, John (1958). "Isaac Newton – Crime Investigator". Nature 182 (4629): 149–152 
  • Craig, John (1963). "Isaac Newton and the Counterfeiters". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 18 (2): 136–145 
  • Levenson, Thomas (2010). Newton and the Counterfeiter: The Unknown Detective Career of the World's Greatest Scientist. Mariner Books. ISBN 9780547336046 
  • Stewart, James (2009). Calculus: Concepts and Contexts. Cengage Learning. ISBN 9780495557425 
  • Westfall, Richard S. (1980, 1998). Never at Rest. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 
  • Westfall, Richard S. (2007). Isaac Newton. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780199213559 
  • Westfall, Richard S. (1994). The Life of Isaac Newton. Cantabrigiae University Press. ISBN 0521477379 
  • White, Michael (1997). Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. Fourth Estate Limited. ISBN 1-85702-416-8 

Bibliographia addita[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Andrade, E. N. De C. (1950). Isaac Newton. Novi Eboraci: Chanticleer Press. ISBN 0841430144 
  • Bardi, Jason Socrates. The Calculus Wars: Newton, Leibniz, and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time. 2006. excerpt and text search
  • Bechler, Zev (1991). Newton's Physics and the Conceptual Structure of the Scientific Revolution. Springer. ISBN 0792310543 .
  • Berlinski, David. 2000. Newton's Gift: How Sir Isaac Newton Unlocked the System of the World. Locus et investigatio textalis. ISBN 0-684-84392-7
  • Buchwald, Jed Z. and Cohen, I. Bernard, eds. Isaac Newton's Natural Philosophy. MIT Press, 2001. excerpt and text search
  • Casini, P. (1988). "Newton's Principia and the Philosophers of the Enlightenment". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 42 (1): 35–52 
  • Christianson, Gale E. (1996). Isaac Newton and the Scientific Revolution. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019530070X  Vide hoc situm pro locis et investigation textus.
  • Christianson, Gale (1984). In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. Novi Eboraci: Free Press. ISBN 0-02-905190-8 
  • Cohen, I. Bernard et George E. Smith, eds. 2002. The Cambridge Companion to Newton. excerpt and text search; Omnis editio interretialis.
  • Cohen, I. B. (1980). The Newtonian Revolution. Cantabrigiae Angliae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521229642 
  • Craig, John (1946). Newton at the Mint. Cantabrigiae Angliae: Cambridge University Press 
  • Dampier, William C.; Dampier, M. (1959). Readings in the Literature of Science. Novi Eboraci: Harper & Row. ISBN 0486428052 
  • de Villamil, Richard (1931). Newton, the Man. Londinii: G.D. Knox  – Praefatio Alberti Einstein. Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corporation, Novi Eboraci (1972).
  • Dobbs, B. J. T. (1975). The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy or "The Hunting of the Greene Lyon". Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press 
  • Gjertsen, Derek (1986). The Newton Handbook. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7102-0279-2 
  • Gleick, James (2003). Isaac Newton. Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0375422331 
  • Halley, E. (1687). "Review of Newton's Principia". Philosophical Transactions 186: 291–297 
  • Hawking, Stephen, ed. On the Shoulders of Giants. ISBN 0-7624-1348-4.
  • Herivel, J. W. (1965). The Background to Newton's Principia. A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–84. Oxford: Clarendon Press 
  • Keynes, John Maynard (1963). Essays in Biography. W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-00189-X 
  • Koyré, A. (1965). Newtonian Studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 
  • Newton, Isaac. 1958, 1978. Papers and Letters in Natural Philosophy, ed. I. Bernard Cohen. Cantabrigiae Massachusettae: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-46853-8.
  • Newton, Isaac (1642–1727). 1999. The Principia: a new Translation, Guide by I. Bernard Cohen ISBN 0-520-08817-4 University of California.
  • Pemberton, H. (1728). A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy. London: S. Palmer 
  • Shamos, Morris H. (1959). Great Experiments in Physics. Novi Eboraci: Henry Holt and Company, Inc.. ISBN 0486253465 
  • Shapley, Harlow, S. Rapport, et H. Wright. 1946. A Treasury of Science; "Newtonia" pp. 147–9; "Discoveries" pp. 150–4. Novi Eboraci: Harper & Bros.
  • Simmons, J. (1996). The Giant Book of Scientists  – The 100 Greatest Minds of all Time. Sydney: The Book Company 
  • Stukeley, W. (1936). Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life. London: Taylor and Francis 
  • Westfall, R. S. (1971). Force in Newton's Physics: The Science of Dynamics in the Seventeenth Century. Londinii: Macdonald. ISBN 0444196110 

De religione[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Dobbs, Betty Jo Tetter. 1991. The Janus Faces of Genius: The Role of Alchemy in Newton's Thought.
  • Force, James E., and Richard H. Popkin, eds. 1999. Newton and Religion: Context, Nature, and Influence.
  • Ramati, Ayval. "The Hidden Truth of Creation: Newton's Method of Fluxions" British Journal for the History of Science 34: 417–438. in JSTOR.
  • Snobelen, Stephen. 2001. "God of Gods, and Lord of Lords": The Theology of Isaac Newton's General Scholium to the Principia. Osiris, 2nd series, 16:169–208. in JSTOR.
  • Snobelen, Stephen D. (1999). "Isaac Newton, Heretic: The Strategies of a Nicodemite". British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419 
  • Pfizenmaier, Thomas C. (January 1997). "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80 
  • Wiles, Maurice. 1996. Archetypal Heresy: Arianism through the Centuries.' liber apud google.com.

Fontes primi[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Newton, Isaac. 1999. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. University of California Press.
    • Brackenridge, J. Bruce. 1996. The Key to Newton's Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia: Containing an English Translation of Sections 1, 2, and 3 of Book One from the First (1687) Edition of Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. University of California Press.
  • Newton, Isaac. The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton. Vol. 1: The Optical Lectures, 1670–1672. Cambridge U. Press, 1984. 627 pp.
    • Newton, Isaac. Opticks (ed. 4a, 1730) online edition
    • Newton, I. 1952. Opticks, or A Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections & Colours of Light. Novi Eboraci: Dover Publications.
  • Newton, I. Sir Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World, tr. A. Motte, rev. Florian Cajori. Berkeley: University of California Press. (1934).
  • Whiteside, D. T. (1967–82). The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521077400  – 8 volumes
  • Newton, Isaac. The correspondence of Isaac Newton, ed. H. W. Turnbull and others, 7 vols. (1959–77)
  • Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections from His Writings edited by H. S. Thayer, (1953), online edition
  • Isaac Newton, Sir; J Edleston; Roger Cotes, Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes, including letters of other eminent men, Londinii, John W. Parker, West Strand; Cambridge, John Deighton, 1850. – Google Books
  • Maclaurin, C. 1748. An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries, in Four Books. Londinii: A. Millar and J. Nourse.
  • Newton, I. 1958. Isaac Newton's Papers and Letters on Natural Philosophy and Related Documents, eds. I. B. Cohen et R. E. Schofield. Cantabrigiae Massachusettae: Harvard University Press.
  • Newton, I. 1962. The Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton: A Selection from the Portsmouth Collection in the University Library, Cambridge, ed. A. R. Hall et M. B. Hall. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press.
  • Newton, I. 1975. Isaac Newton's 'Theory of the Moon's Motion' (1702). Londinii: Dawson.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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