Scientia (ratio)

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Schola Atheniensis (partim) a Raphaele anno 1509 picta, Platonem (ad sinistram) et Aristotelem (ad dextram) monstrans.

Scientia, sive plenius scientia rationalis, est omnium rerum quas cognovimus summa quadam ratione et ''methodo scientifica'' adquisita, cuius corpus hodie in disciplinas distinctas dividitur, sicut philosophia, mathematica, physica, psychologia, historia, et cetera, quae infra numerabuntur. Qui scientiam rationalem navant scientifici appellantur.

Imago anni 1888 quae astronomum monstrat adspicientem per caeli firmamentum ad universum externum.

Philosophia compluresque scientiae diu seiungi non poterant. Saeculo XIX tanti viri tantas theorias dubiosas provulgabant ut lectoribus difficillimum fuerit veritates a falsitatibus cernere. Philosophi, exempli gratia, qui de physica et mathematica ignorabant, theorias physicas pessimas anfractuosasque divulgabant. Similiter, physici qui subtilitates philosophicas ignorabant dubiosas philosophias provulgabant. Eo tempore igitur disciplinae scientificae formaliter divisae sunt in scientias hodiernas, ubi physica a philosophia abiuncta est, et caetera.

Scientiae philosophi deinde etiam conantur melius definire quod est scientia et quod non. Ut melius theoriae rudes et theoriae validae distinguantur, consensus apud multos fuit definire scientias disciplinas et gnaritates quae modum illum scientificum sequuntur, ubi homines per logicam, observationes, et experimenta res—praesertim res naturales, sed etiam res humanas et divinas—scrutantur ad theorias validas creandas et leges universae discernendas.

Omnis scientia est cognitio certa et evidens.
Renatus Cartesius, Dissertatio de Methodo, Regulae II,1.

Sicut Renatus Cartesius nos docuit, scientiae essentia est logica et experientia coniuncta: hypotheses contra res experimentales verificandae sunt. Hoc sensu igitur omnes conclusiones scientificae ab omnibus ubique verificari possunt. Et, hoc sensu, scientia permaxime distincta est a religione, quod religio requirit nos conclusiones quae in experimentis non possumus confirmare comprobare.

Disciplinae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Pendulum cuius positio, velocitas, acceleratioque a mechanica Newtoniana descriptae sunt.

Scientiae empiricae rerum naturalium[recensere | fontem recensere]

Scientiae axiomaticae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Scientiae rerum humanarum[recensere | fontem recensere]

Scientiae arcanorum[recensere | fontem recensere]

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Crease, Robert P. (2009), The Great Equations, Novi Eboraci: W. W. Norton, p. 317, ISBN 978-0-393-06204-5 
  • Crease, Robert P. (2011). World in the Balance: the historic quest for an absolute system of measurement. Novi Eboraci: W. W. Norton. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-393-07298-3 
  • di Francia, Giuliano Toraldo (1976), The Investigation of the Physical World, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-29925-X  Originally published in Italian as L'Indagine del Mondo Fisico by Giulio Einaudi editore 1976; first published in English by Cambridge University Press 1981.
  • Fara, Patricia (2009). Science : a four thousand year history. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 408. ISBN 978-0-19-922689-4 
  • Feyerabend, Paul (1993). Against Method (3rd ed.). Londinii: Verso. ISBN 0-86091-646-4 
  • Feyerabend, Paul (2005). Science, history of the philosophy, as cited in Honderich, Ted (2005). The Oxford companion to philosophy. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199264791 
  • Godfrey-Smith, Peter (2003), Theory and Reality, Sicagi 60637: University of Chicago, p. 272, ISBN 0-226-30062-5 
  • Feynman, R.P. (1999). The Pleasure of Finding Things Out: The Best Short Works of Richard P. Feynman. Perseus Books Group. ISBN 0465023959 
  • Needham, Joseph (1954), Science and Civilisation in China: Introductory Orientations, 1, Cambridge University Press 
  • Nola, Robert; Irzik, Gürol (2005). Philosophy, science, education and culture. Science & technology education library. 28. Springer. ISBN 1402037694 
  • Papineau, David. (2005). Science, problems of the philosophy of., as cited in Honderich, Ted (2005). The Oxford companion to philosophy. Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199264791 
  • Parkin, D. (1991). Philip M. Peek. ed. African Divination Systems: Ways of Knowing. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press .
  • Polanyi, Michael (1958), Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-67288-3 
  • Popper, Karl Raimund (1996) [1984]. In search of a better world: lectures and essays from thirty years. Novi Eboraci: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-13548-6 
  • Popper, Karl R. (2002) [1959]. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Novi Eboraci: Routledge Classics. ISBN 0-415-27844-9 
  • Stanovich, Keith E. (2007). How to Think Straight About Psychology. Boston: Pearson Education. ISBN 9780205685905 
  • Ziman, John (1978), Reliable knowledge: An exploration of the grounds for belief in science, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 197, ISBN 0521220874 

Bibliographia addita[recensere | fontem recensere]

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