Azteci

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Pyramis prope Acatitlan Sanctae Caeciliae Civitatis Mexici.

Azteci,[1] Aztecae,[2] seu in sua lingua Mexicani[3] fuerunt certae medii Mexici nationes ethnicae, praecipue quae lingua Navatlaca uti soliti sunt, magnasque Mesoamericae partes a saeculo quarto decimo ad saeculum sextum decimum dominatae sunt. Aztec, [astekaʔ] enuntiatum, est verbum Navatlacum pro 'homines ex Aztlan',[4] loco mythologico culturae saeculi quarti decimi, et deinde ut nomen ad definiendum populum Mexicanum ascitum. Saepe nomen Aztecus solum attingit ad populum Mexicanum urbis Temistitlanae (nunc locus Mexicopolis), in insula in Lacus Texcoco situm, qui se Mexica Tenochca vel Colhua-Mexica appellaverunt.

Magna statua ceramica bellatoris aquilini Azteci.
Cosmogramma Aztecum in Codice Fejérváry-Mayer praehispanico; Xiuhtecuhtli, deus ignis, in media pictura stat.
Tabula Azteca compositionis anni.
Pyramides binae Teotihuacanae.
Legendum urbis Tenochtitlan conditae in signo heraldico Mexici vehementius pingitur.
Tlaloc. Charta in pagina 20R Codicis Rios picta.
Azteca pinnarum mitra, saepe diadema Mutezumae II appellata. Primus possessor ignotus est, sed pinnae ex silva pluviali procul a capite Azteco adferenda erant. Nationale Anthropologiae et Historiae Museum, Mexicopole.

Nomen aliquando incolas binarum principalium civitatum urbanarum consociatarum Temistlitanae comprehendit, Acolhuas Texcoci et Tepanecos Tlacopani, qui una cum Mexicis Triplex Aztecorum Foedus constituerunt, societatem politicam quae regionem saepe Imperium Aztecum appellatam temperavit. In aliis argumentis, nomen Aztecus ad omnes varias civitates urbanas et earum incolas spectare potest, qui cum Mexicis, Acolhuis, Tepanecisque magnas eorum historiae ethnicae proprietatesque culturae partes communicaverunt, et qui saepe lingua Navatlaca pro lingua franca usi sunt. Hoc sensu, nomen civilizationem describere potest cui erant permulta culturae exemplaria plurimis populis in Medio Mexico tempore postclassico exeunte habitantibus propria.

A saeculo tertio decimo, Valles Mexici fuit cor civilizationis Aztecae: hoc loco urbs Temistitlana, caput Triplicis Aztecorum Foederis, super parvas insulas in Lacu Texcoco elevatas aedificata est. Foedus Triplex imperium tributarium deinde instituit, suam dicionem publicam procul a Valle Mexici extendens, aliasque civitates urbanas per Mesoamericam vincens. Fastigium culturae Aztecae copiosos multiplicesque mores mythologicos et religiosos habuit, cum singularibus architecturae et artis perfectionibus. Anno 1521, Ferdinandus Cortesius, cum magno numero sociorum vernaculorum Navatlace utentibus, Temistitlanam devicit et Triplex Aztecorum Foedus superavit, Hueyi Tlatoani Mutezuma II duce. Postea, conquisitatores Mexicopolim deductionem novam in loco profligati capitis Azteci condiderunt, unde deductionem Mediae Americae gesserunt.

Notae sunt cultura et historia Aztecae ex indiciis archaeologicis in cavis sicut celebratissima Maioris Templi Mexicopolis cava inventis; item ex codicibus vernaculae chartae corticalis; item ex relationibus a spectatoribus inter conquisitatores Hispanicos sicut Ferdinandus Cortesius et Bernal Díaz del Castillo scriptis; item praecipue ex expositionibus culturae et historiae Aztecarum a litteratis clericis Hispanicis et Aztecis linguis Hispanica et Navatlaca saeculis sexto decimo et septimo decimo scriptis, sicut Codex Florentinus, manuscriptum inlustre a Bernardino de Sahagún monacho Ordinum Franciscanorum, compositum, auctoribus Aztecis vernaculis adiuvantibus.

Ascensus Aztecorum[recensere | fontem recensere]

Saeculo decimo, postquam dissolutio Maiarum cultus praestantissimi in paeninsula Iucatania et vastitas Americae Mediae civitatis Teotihuacan vacuum potestatis in duas Mexici regiones ingentes reliquerunt, gentes nomadum terrae cupidorum e desertis montium in pelvem Mexicanam migrabant et hanc antea a Teotihuacan rectam terram occupabant. Gentium reguli expeditiones cruentas gerebant, et subiectos hostes clientes vectigales faciebant.

Anno 950, interrumpentes hos Tolteci, celeriter reliqua cultus Teotihuacan susceperunt, invaserunt, invaluerunt. Eo exstructionis genus, artem figuli, fabulas, historias susceperunt adsciveruntque, ut cultus conmixtus exsteterat, qui usque ad expugnationem Europaeorum quingentis annis post exemplum omnium civitatum proximarum Mexicanarum erat. Re vera tempus Toltecorum a Mexicanis populis posterioribus aetas aurea habetur. Quidem Toltecorum caput Tula multo minus Teotihuacan erat; etenim, secundum orbem eorum Tolteci, ut prius, geometrice regionem pyramidum graduum et suggestorum aedificaverunt. Harum pyramidum sane neutra altior tredecim metris erat, tamen condiderunt. Tandem Azteci qui naturae constantes erant in Mictlan concessi sunt, sed inferi tractati fuerunt.

Decennis primis, Tulae Quetzalcoatl 'Plumatus Anguis' erat deus praestantissimus, qui e cultu Teotihuacano susceptus est. At illum anno 987 a translaticio deo gentis, nomine Tezcatlipoca 'Speculum Fumans', qui veneficorum militiumque deus erat, fugatum esse fabula narrat; Tezcatlipocam et fratres eius ab excidio mundi totius solum victimis sanguineis humanis illum enim prohibere non potuisse.

De religione Aztecorum[recensere | fontem recensere]

Religio Aztecorum in religionem Toltecorum consistebat. Erat ea polytheistica, at in praevilegio henotheismi prodibat. Huitzilopochtli, deus principalis, erat deus solis et belli. Alius in primis veneratus deus Quetzalcoatl, qui olim princeps Toltecorum erat, sed caudica e mundo vectus est. Quetzalcoatl deus venti, belli, caeli, terrae, et procreationis erat, separatim autem is ab omnibus populis regionis vicinae cunctae adorabatur. Praeter hunc nonnulli dei variis momentis erant, e.g. deus pluviae nomine Tlaloc. Simul singularitas est eis, ut ratio omnis a compluribus deis confecta est. Occisis militibus honor erat solem a caeli fastigio usque ad solis occasum cum Huitzilopochtli comitari. Feminae partu mortuae quoque, solem a caeli fastigio usque ad solis occasum comitari potuerant. Homines in aqua mersi vel fulmine ad mortem icti, atque etiam, in paradisum a Tlaloc recepti fuerant.

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Vide nomina biologica Psilocybe aztecorum, Otatea acuminata ssp. aztecorum, Nomada aztecorum, etc.
  2. Vide nomen biologicum Nothomicrodon aztecarum.
  3. Iohannes Iacobus Hofmannus, Lexicon universale (1698) textus, s.v. Mexicani.
  4. etymonline.com: Aztec.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

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  • Davies, Nigel. 1973. The Aztecs: A History. Londinii: Macmillan. ISBN 0333124049. OCLC 805418.
  • Díaz del Castillo, Bernal. 1632, 1963. Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España. Ed. 6, 1973. Penguin Classics. Harmondsworth Angliae: Penguin Books. ISBN 014-0441239. OCLC 162351797.
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  • Hassig, Ross. 1985. Trade, Tribute, and Transportation: The Sixteenth-Century Political Economy of the Valley of Mexico. Civilization of the American Indian, 171. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 080611911X. OCLC 11469622.
  • Hassig, Ross. 1988. Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control. Civilization of the American Indian, 188. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0806121211. OCLC 17106411.
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  • López Luján, Leonardo. 2005. The Offerings of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. Ed. retractata. Conv. a Bernard R. Ortiz de Montellano et Thelma Ortiz de Montellano. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0826329586.
  • Matos Moctezuma, Eduardo. 1988. The Great Temple of the Aztecs: Treasures of Tenochtitlan, conv. Doris Heyden. New Aspects of Antiquity. Novi Eboraci: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 050039024X. OCLC 17968786.
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  • Ortiz de Montellano, Bernard R. 1983. Counting Skulls: Comment on the Aztec Cannibalism Theory of Harner-Harris. ‘’American Anthropologist’’ 85(2):403–406. DOI 10.1525/aa.1983.85.2.02a00130. ISSN 0002-7294. OCLC 1479294.
  • Ortiz de Montellano, Bernard R. 1990. Aztec Medicine, Health, and Nutrition. Novi Brunsvici Novae Caesareae: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0813515629. OCLC 20798977.
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  • Sahagún, Bernardino de. 15581561, 1997. Primeros Memoriales, ed. Thelma D. Sullivan, cum H. B. Nicholson, Arthur J. O. Anderson, Charles E. Dibble, Eloise Quiñones Keber, et Wayne Ruwet. Civilization of the American Indians, 200, pars 2. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 9780806129099. OCLC 35848992.
  • Schroeder, Susan. 1991. Chimalpahin and the Kingdoms of Chalco. Tucsoniae: University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0816511829. OCLC 21976206.
  • Smith, Michael E. 1984. The Aztlan Migrations of Nahuatl Chronicles: Myth or History? Ethnohistory 31(3):153–186. DOI 10.2307/482619. ISSN 00141801. OCLC 145142543.
  • Smith, Michael E. 1997. The Aztecs. Malden Massachusettae: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0631230157. OCLC 48579073.
  • Smith, Michael E. 2001. The Archaeological Study of Empires and Imperialism in Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 20:245–284. DOI 10.1006/jaar.2000.0372.
  • Smith, Michael E. 2005. City Size in Late Post-Classic Mesoamerica. Journal of Urban History 31(4):403–434. ISSN 0096-1442. OCLC 1798556. DOI 10.1177/0096144204274396.
  • Soustelle, Jacques. 1961. Daily Life of the Aztecs: On the Eve of the Spanish Conquest, conv. Patrick O’Brian. Londinii: Phoenix Press. ISBN 1842125087. OCLC 50217224.
  • Taube, Karl A. 1993. Aztec and Maya Myths. Ed. 4a. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 029278130X. OCLC 29124568.
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Fontes primarii[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Berdan, Frances F., et Patricia Reiff Anawalt. 1997. The Essential Codex Mendoza. Berkeleiae: University of California Press. ISBN 0520204549.
  • Cortesius, Ferdinandus. 1987. Letters from Mexico. Ed. nova. Conv. ab Antonio Pagden. Portu Novo: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300037244.
  • Díaz del Castillo, Bernal. 1963. The Conquest of New Spain. Conv. a J. M. Cohen. Novi Eboraci: Penguin. ISBN 0140441239.
  • Díaz, Gisele, et Alan Rogers. 1993. The Codex Borgia: A Full-Color Restoration of the Ancient Mexican Manuscript. Novi Eboraci: Dover Publications. ISBN 0486275698.
  • Durán, Didacus. 1971, 1977. Book of the Gods and Rites and The Ancient Calendar. Conv. a Fernando Horcasitas et Doris Heyden. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ASIN B000M4OVSG. ISBN 0806112018.
  • Durán, Didacus. 1994. The History of the Indies of New Spain. Conv. a Doris Heyden. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0806126493.
  • Garganigo, et al. 2008. Huellas de las Literaturas Hispanoamerica. Ed. 3a. Nova Caesarea: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0131958461.
  • Zorita, Alonso de. 1963. Life and Labor in Ancient Mexico: The Brief and Summary Relation of the Lords of New Spain. Conv. a Benjamin Keen. Novi Brunsvici Novae Caesareae: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0806126795.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Aztecos spectant.

Mille Paginae.png