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Religio Islamica

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Caba Meccae Arabiae, hic nocte visum, est sedes religionis Islamicae, ubi Musulmani inter se ex omne orbe terrarum ad orandum congrediuntur.
Civitates, quarum Islamica incolarum pars 5 centesimas transcendit. Viride: Sunnitae, rubrum: Siitae, caeruleum: Ibaditae (Omania).
Stella et cornua lunae (Hilal) – unum signum Islamicum.

Islam (Arabice الإسلام ʾislām, IPA praecipue [ʔɪsˈlæːm] et [ʔiˈslaːm][1]), vel Religio Islamica, est religio monotheistica, abs Alcorano libro sacro articulata et a fidelibus verbum Dei (Arabice الله, Allāh[2]) ad verbum habita, secundum doctrinas ordinariumque exemplum (Sunnah appellatum, ex hadit compositum) Mahometi, ultimi prophetae Dei. Adsectator religionis Islamicae appellatur Musulmanus.

Religio Islamica saeculo septimo ineunte in Arabia a Mahometo propheta condita est. Cum fere 1.6 milliardis fidelium[3] post Christianam (cum fere 2.2 milliardis)[4] hodie in orbe terrarum numero fidelium secunda est religio. Decem civitates, quibus est maxima omnium Musulmanorum pars, sunt Indonesia (12.9%), Pakistania (11.1%), India (10.3%), Bangladesha (9.3%), Aegyptus et Nigeria (utraque 5%), Irania et Turcia (utraque 4.7%), Algeria (2.2%) et Marocum (fere 2%). In his civitatibus plus quam duae partes omnium Musulmanorum vivunt.[5]

Duo sunt fundamenta litteraria religionis Islamicae: primum Alcoranus, qui verbum Dei Mahometo revelatum habetur; secundum narrationes (Hadit) de vitae moribus (Sunnah) Mahometi, cuius in mores velut "legati Dei" ac exempli se Musulmani formare debent. Omnes ex his litteris sumptae regulae ius Islamicum (شريعة saria) efficiunt.

Musulmani credunt Deum esse unum et incomparabilem, et propositum vitae humanae esse hunc deitatem venerari.[6] Verbum quidem Islam significat 'mentis et spiritús deditionem' ad hoc numen,[7] vel 'submissio' (erga id). Ei etiam credunt Islam esse absolutam et universam primordialis fidei patefactionem, quae multis temporibus locisque a nuntiis Dei revelata est, inter eos Abraham, Moyses, et Iesus, quos ei habent prophetas.[8] Tradunt priores nuntios et patefactiones partim mutatas vel corruptas fuisse,[9] sed Alcoranum enimvero esse integram et ultimam Dei patefactionem.[10] Inter notiones moresque Musulmanorum religiosos sunt Quinque columnae Islamicae, quae pro fundamentalibus venerationis notionibus usibusque necessariis sunt, et lex Islamica (Saria), quae paene omnem vitae societatisque aspectum tangit, consilium in rebus multiplicibus suppeditans, ab aerario et salute, ad militiam et circumiectum.[11][12]

Quinque religionis columnae[recensere | fontem recensere]

In religione Islamica quinque sunt elementa, quae columnae religionis vocantur:

  • fidei professio, hisce verbis expressa: "Testor nullum esse deum nisi Deum Machometumque prophetam eius esse." (Arabice haec locutio Sahada appellatur).
  • preces (‏صلاة‎ salāt): quinquiens quotidie: ante solis ortum, meridie, post meridiem, sole occidente, nocte incipiente. Praescriptum est, ut quemque precem vocatus a muazino de minareto clamatus et lavatio ritualis antecedat. Feria sexta preces meridianae in meschita adhibentur, quod viris debitum officium, feminis autem commendatio est.
  • eleemosyna (‏زكاة‎ zakāt):[13] Tributum, quod ab omni Musulmano sano, libero, adulto ac satis locupleti ad pauperes, servos, debitores et viatores adiuvandos nec non in gihad dandum est. Summa secundum condiciones variat.
  • ieiunium mense Ramadan habitum.
  • peregrinatio Meccam ultimo lunae mense.

Sectae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Prima sura in libro Qur'anico ab Hattat Aziz Efendi manu scripto.

Dividuntur in nonnullas factiones Musulmani, inter quas Sunnitae Siitaeque. Siitae credunt auctoritatem, propheta defuncto, recte in Ali generum Machometi transmissam esse, absque illo in familiam eius; Sunnitae contra credunt illam auctoritatem per electionem transmissam esse, itaque Omari successoribusque eius. Invenies et Sunnitas et Siitas per mundum Islamicum dispositos; praeponderunt tamen Siitae in Irania, Mesopotamia Libanoque, Sunnitae alibi.

Est etiam tertia factio, Secta Charigitica appellata, quae olim magnam Africae Septentrionalis partem occupabat, hodie tantum in Omania (vide Ibaditae) et in tribus parvis Africae Septentrionalis regionibus fideles complures habet.

Loci sacri[recensere | fontem recensere]

Religio Islamica varios locos quasi sacros habet. Principalis est Mecca, ubi sanctuarium Caaba ponitur et quo Musulmani peregrinationem (hajj) faciunt; hi peregrinatores nomine hajji honorantur. Etiam Medina (urbs prophetae) et Hierosolyma sacrae vocantur.

Hegira (Arabice hijra) fuit fuga Mahometi discipulorumque suorum a Mecca ad Iathrib, quod oppidum postea nominatur "Oppidum Prophetae" (Madinat an Nabi), vel breviter Medina.

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Puellae Musulmanae prae Mescitá Istiqlal Iakartae stant. Multae mulieres Musulmanae comas coram omnibus non monstrant.

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Vox Arabica regione variatur. Prima littera vocalis ab [i] per [ɪ] ad [e], et altera littera vocalis a [æ] per [a] et [ä] ad [ɛ] commutatur. In nonnullis regionibus geographicis, sicut Africa boreoccidentali, linguae momento carent.
  2. Deus saepe ab Musulmanis appellatur Allāh, qui origine fuit forma brevis pro al 'ilāh 'ille deus', quod Arabicum al- est articulum definitivum sicut Graecum ho et Anglicum the.
  3. Muslims in: Pew-Templeton Project, die 12 Martii 2015.
  4. Christians in: Pew-Templeton Project, die 12 Martii 2015.
  5. Mapping the global Muslim population, Pew Resarch Center 2009.
  6. Vide: Alcoranus 51:56. "God". Islam: Empire of Faith. Public Broadcasting Service .
  7. "USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts". Usc.edu .
  8. "People of the Book". Islam: Empire of Faith. Public Broadcasting Service .
  9. Accad (2003), Ibn Taymiya, quamquam nonnulli Musulmani textualem omnis Bibliorum veritatem, permulti Musulmani veritatem plurimi verborum accipiunt. Esposito (1998:6,12. Esposito 2002b:4–5. Peters 2003:9. F, Buhl, et A T. Welch, "Muhammad," Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Hava Lazarus-Yafeh, "Tahrif," Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
  10. Bennett 2010:101.
  11. Esposito 2002b:17.
  12. Esposito 2002b:111, 112, 118. "Shari'ah," Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  13. William Montgomery Watt et Alford T. Welch, eds. (1980), "Mohammed und die Frühzeit, islamisches Recht, religiöses Leben," in Der Islam (Die Religionen der Menschheit, vol. 25, ISBN 3170054287) 1:137, 303. Udo Schaefer, Glaubenswelt Islam: Eine Einführung, ed. 2a., noviter tractata (Hildesiae, Turici, Novi Eboraci: Georg Olms, 2002, ISBN 3487101599), p. 70.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Libri et diurni[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Accad, Martin. 2003. The Gospels in the Muslim Discourse of the Ninth to the Fourteenth Centuries: An Exegetical Inventorial Table (Part I). Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 14(1). ISSN 0959-6410. (Anglice)
  • Adil, Hajjah Amina, et Shaykh Nazim Adil Al-Haqqani, et Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani. 2002. Muhammad: The Messenger of Islam. Islamic Supreme Council of America. ISBN 9781930409118. (Anglice)
  • Ahmed, Akbar. 1999. Islam Today: A Short Introduction to the Muslim World. Ed. 2a. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 9781860642579.
  • Armstrong, Karen (2006). Muhammad: A Prophet for our Time. HarperCollins. ISBN 0060598972  (Anglice)
  • Brockopp, Jonathan E. (2003). Islamic Ethics of Life: abortion, war and euthanasia. University of South Carolina press. ISBN 1570034710  (Anglice)
  • Cohen-Mor, Dalya (2001). A Matter of Fate: The Concept of Fate in the Arab World as Reflected in Modern Arabic Literature. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195133986  (Anglice)
  • Curtis, Patricia A. (2005). A Guide to Food Laws and Regulations. Blackwell Publishing Professional. ISBN 9780813819464  (Anglice)
  • Eglash, Ron (1999). African Fractals: Modern Computing and Indigenous Design. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0813526140  (Anglice)
  • Ernst, Carl (2004). Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0807855774  (Anglice)
  • Esposito, John; John Obert Voll (1996). Islam and Democracy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195108167  (Anglice)
  • Esposito, John (1998). Islam: The Straight Path (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195112344  (Anglice)
  • Esposito, John; Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad (2000a). Muslims on the Americanization Path?. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513526-1  (Anglice)
  • Esposito, John (2000b). Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195107999  (Anglice)
  • Esposito, John (2002a). Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195168860  (Anglice)
  • Esposito, John (2002b). What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195157133  (Anglice)
  • Esposito, John (2003). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195125584  (Anglice)
  • Esposito, John (2004). Islam: The Straight Path (3rd Rev Upd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195182668  (Anglice)
  • Farah, Caesar (1994). Islam: Beliefs and Observances (5th ed.). Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 9780812018530  (Anglice)
  • Farah, Caesar (2003). Islam: Beliefs and Observances (7th ed.). Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 978076412226-2  (Anglice)
  • Firestone, Reuven (1999). Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195125800  (Anglice)
  • Friedmann, Yohanan (2003). Tolerance and Coercion in Islam: Interfaith Relations in the Muslim Tradition. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521026994  (Anglice)
  • Ghamidi, Javed (2001). Mizan. Dar al-Ishraq  (Anglice)
  • Goldschmidt, Jr., Arthur; Lawrence Davidson (2005). A Concise History of the Middle East (8th ed.). Westview Press. ISBN 9780813342757  (Anglice)
  • Griffith, Ruth Marie; Barbara Dianne Savage (2006). Women and Religion in the African Diaspora: Knowledge, Power, and Performance. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801883709  (Anglice)
  • Hawting, G. R. (2000). The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661–750. Routledge. ISBN 0415240735  (Anglice)
  • Hedayetullah, Muhammad (2006). Dynamics of Islam: An Exposition. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 9781553698425  (Anglice)
  • Holt, P. M.; Bernard Lewis (1977a). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521291364  (Anglice)
  • Holt, P. M.; Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis (1977b). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521291372  (Anglice)
  • Hourani, Albert; Malise Ruthven (2003). A History of the Arab Peoples. Belknap Press; Revised edition. ISBN 978-0674010178  (Anglice)
  • Humphreys, Stephen (2005). Between Memory and Desire. University of California Press. ISBN 052-0246918  (Anglice)
  • Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar (2004). Counseling American Muslims: Understanding the Faith and Helping the People. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 9780313324727  (Anglice)
  • Koprulu, Mehmed Fuad; Leiser, Gary (1992). The Origins of the Ottoman Empire. SUNY Press. ISBN 0791408191  (Anglice)
  • Kramer, Martin (1987). Shi'Ism, Resistance, and Revolution. Westview Press. ISBN 9780813304533  (Anglice)
  • Kugle, Scott Alan (2006). Rebel Between Spirit And Law: Ahmad Zarruq, Sainthood, And Authority in Islam. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253347114  (Anglice)
  • Lapidus, Ira (2002). A History of Islamic Societies (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521779333  (Anglice)
  • Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam. Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0710204620  (Anglice)
  • Lewis, Bernard (1993). The Arabs in History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192852582  (Anglice)
  • Lewis, Bernard (1997). The Middle East. Scribner. ISBN 978-0684832807  (Anglice)
  • Lewis, Bernard (2001). Islam in History: Ideas, People, and Events in the Middle East (2nd ed.). Open Court. ISBN 978-0812695182  (Anglice)
  • Lewis, Bernard (2003). What Went Wrong?: The Clash Between Islam and Modernity in the Middle East (Reprint ed.). Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0060516055  (Anglice)
  • Lewis, Bernard (2004). The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror. Random House, Inc., New York. ISBN 9780812967852  (Anglice)
  • Madelung, Wilferd (1996). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521646960  (Anglice)
  • Malik, Jamal; John R Hinnells, Inc NetLibrary (2006). Sufism in the West. Routledge. ISBN 0415274087  (Anglice)
  • Menski, Werner F. (2006). Comparative Law in a Global Context: The Legal Systems of Asia and Africa. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521858593  (Anglice)
  • Mohammad, Noor (1985). "The Doctrine of Jihad: An Introduction". Journal of Law and Religion (Journal of Law and Religion, Inc.) 3 (2): 381  (Anglice)
  • Momen, Moojan (1987). An Introduction to Shi`i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi`ism. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300035315  (Anglice)
  • Nasr, Seyed Muhammad (1994). Our Religions: The Seven World Religions Introduced by Preeminent Scholars from Each Tradition (Chapter 7). HarperCollins. ISBN 0060677007  (Anglice)
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  • Parrinder, Geoffrey (1971). World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present. Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited. ISBN 0871961296  (Anglice)
  • Patton, Walter M. (April 1900). "The Doctrine of Freedom in the Korân". The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures (Brill Academic Publishers) 16 (3): 129  (Anglice)
  • Peters, F. E. (1991). "The Quest for Historical Muhammad". International Journal of Middle East Studies  (Anglice)
  • Peters, F. E. (2003). Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691115532  (Anglice)
  • Peters, Rudolph (1977). Jihad in Medieval and Modern Islam. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9004048545  (Anglice)
  • Rippin, Andrew (2001). Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices (2nd ed.). Routledge. ISBN 9780415217811  (Anglice)
  • Ruthven, Malise (2005). Fundamentalism: The Search for Meaning. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192806068  (Anglice)
  • Sahas, Daniel J. (1997). John of Damascus on Islam: The Heresy of the Ishmaelites. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9789004034952  (Anglice)
  • Sachedina, Abdulaziz (1998). The Just Ruler in Shi'ite Islam: The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0195119150  (Anglice)
  • Seibert, Robert F., et Norman Daniel. 1994. Review: Islam and the West: The Making of an Image (Norman Daniel). Review of Religious Research 36(1):88. doi:10.2307/3511655. (Anglice)
  • Sells, Michael Anthony; Emran Qureshi (2003). The New Crusades: Constructing the Muslim Enemy. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231126670  (Anglice)
  • Smith, Jane I. (2006). The Islamic Understanding of Death and Resurrection. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195156492  (Anglice)
  • Stillman, Norman (1979). The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. ISBN 1-82760-198-1  (Anglice)
  • Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn; Seyyed Hossein Nasr (translator) (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Suny press. ISBN 0873952723  (Anglice)
  • Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn; R. Campbell (translator) (2002). Islamic teachings: An Overview and a Glance at the Life of the Holy Prophet of Islam. Green Gold. ISBN 0922817006  (Anglice)
  • Teece, Geoff (2003). Religion in Focus: Islam. Franklin Watts Ltd. ISBN 978-0749647964  (Anglice)
  • Tolan, John V. (2002). Saracens: Islam in the Medieval European Imagination. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231123329  (Anglice)
  • Trimingham, John Spencer (1998). The Sufi Orders in Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195120582  (Anglice)
  • Tritton, Arthur S. (1970) [1930]. The Caliphs and their Non-Muslim Subjects: A Critical Study of the Covenant of Umar. London: Frank Cass Publisher. ISBN 0714619965  (Anglice)
  • Turner, Colin (2006). Islam: the Basics. Routledge (UK). ISBN 041534106X  (Anglice)
  • Turner, Bryan S. (1998). Weber and Islam. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0415174589  (Anglice)
  • Waines, David (2003). An Introduction to Islam. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521539064  (Anglice)
  • Warraq, Ibn (2000). The Quest for Historical Muhammad. Prometheus. ISBN 9781573927871  (Anglice)
  • Warraq, Ibn (2003). Leaving Islam: Apostates Speak Out. Prometheus. ISBN 1591020689  (Anglice)
  • Watt, W. Montgomery (1973). The Formative Period of Islamic Thought. University Press Edinburgh. ISBN 085224245X  (Anglice)
  • Watt, W. Montgomery (1974). Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman (New ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198810784  (Anglice)

Encyclopaediae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Bearman, P. J., T. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, et W. P. Heinrichs, eds. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers ISSN 1573-3912.
  • John Bowden, ed. (2005) (1st ed.). Oxford University Press 
  • Erwin Fahlbusch, William Geoffrey Bromiley, ed. (2001) (1st ed.). Eerdmans Publishing Company, and Brill 
  • Lindsay Jones, ed. (2005) (2a ed.). MacMillan Reference Books 
  • George Thomas Kurian, Graham T. T. Molitor, ed. (1995). MacMillan Reference Books 
  • Paul Lagasse, Lora Goldman, Archie Hobson, Susan R. Norton, ed. (2000) (6th ed.). Gale Group 
  • Richard C. Martin, Said Amir Arjomand, Marcia Hermansen, Abdulkader Tayob, Rochelle Davis, John Obert Voll, ed. (2003). MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0028656038 
  • Jane Dammen McAuliffe, ed. Brill Academic Publishers 
  • William H. McNeill, Jerry H. Bentley, David Christian, ed. (2005). Berkshire Publishing Group 
  • Gabriel Oussani, ed. (1910) 
  • . Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 
  • Salamone Frank, ed. (2004) (1st ed.). Routledge. ISBN 9780415941808 
  • Peter N. Stearns, ed. (2000) (6 ed.). Bartleby 
  • Josef W. Meri, ed. (2005). Routledge. ISBN 0415966906 
  • Doniger, Wendy. 1999. erriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. ISBN 0877790442
  • Glasse, Cyril. 2003. New Encyclopedia of Islam: A Revised Edition of the Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. AltaMira Press. ISSN 9780759101906.
  • Craig, Edward, ed. 1998. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Routledge. ISBN 9780415073103.

Opera addita[recensere | fontem recensere]