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Sharia

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Adhibitio shariae per civitates:
     Sharia rationi iudiciali abest.      Sharia ad personales Mussulmanorum leges adhibetur.      Sharia omnino adhibetur, legibus scelestibus non exclusis.      Variationes regionales in adhibitione shariae.

Sharia vel lex sharia (Arabice شريعة, IPA |ʃaˈriːʕa|), est prima ratio legitima Islamica, a religiosis praeceptis Islamicis derivata, praecipue Alcorano et Hadith. Vocabulum sharia a sharīʿah, verbo Arabico, deducitur, quod significat corpus legum moralium et religiosarum, ex prophetia deductarum, contra leges hominum.[1][2] [3]

Sharia multas res tractat, inter quas scelus, civilitas, et oeconomica, ac res personales sicut coitus, sanitatis cura, diaeta, preces, regimen morum, et ieiunium. Adhaesus ad shariam diutissime in historia una fuit ex proprietatibus fidei Islamicae.[4] Per definitionem severissimam et historice cohaerentem, sharia in Islam habetur Dei lex, quae errare non potest.[5]

Sunt duo primarii shariae fontes: Alcoranum et Hadith, sententiae et vivum Mahometi exemplum.[6] Ad res in his fontibus non recte pertinentes disputatas, sharia per varios modos inter varias sectas Islamicas (Sunniticam et Shiam), et inter varias scholas iurisprudentiae, sicut Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali, et Jafari derivatur.[7] Sharia in his scholis per hierarchicam derivatur, per unam vel plures harum rationum: Ijma (plerumque consensus comitum Mahometi), Qiyas (analogia ex fontibus primariis derivata), Istihsan (sententia quae Islam secundum iudices Islamicos adiuvat), et Urf (mores).

Sodalis Taliban mulierem anno 2001 flagellat propter severam Shariae legem ad vestimenta pertinentem violatam.
Curia shariae Malaccae in urbe Malaesiae.
Obtestator proposito Park51 adversatur, titulum contra shariam ferens.
Mussulmani orant circa Mescitam Grandem Kairuanam, antiquissimam mescitam in Africa Septentrionali. Prex est una ex obligationibus (fard) in sharia antipicatis.

Sharia est fons legum magni momenti in variis civitatibus Islamicis. Nonnullae adhibent omnem vel plurimam partem codicis sharia, et inter has sunt Arabia Saudiana, Sudania, Irania, Iraquia, Afghanistania, Pakistania, Bruneium, Emiratus Arabici Coniuncti, Qatar, Yemenia, et Mauritania. In his civitatibus, homines poenas a sharia mandatas, sicut decollatio, verberatio, et lapidatio, iam emetiuntur, aut secundum aut praeter leges.[8] Introductio et constitutio shariae est diuturnus motuum Islamisticorum finis per orbem terrarum, etiam in civitatibus Occidentalibus, sed conatus ad shariam imponendam duxerunt ad controversiam,[9] violentiam[10] et etiam bellum.[11]

Plurimae civitates shariam rite non agnoscunt; nonnullae autem in Asia, Africa, et Europa partes shariae agnoscunt et accipiunt inter leges de divortio, hereditate, et aliis rebus personalibus, sed solum inter cives Islamicos.[12][13][14] In Britannia, Tribunal Arbitrii Islamicum lege familiarum in sharia utitur ad altercationes statuendas, et haec circumscripta shariae acceptio est controversiosa.[15]

Sententia sceleris, ratio iudicialis, iustitia, et punitio in sharia adiecta a punitione legum saecularium variat.[16][17] Variationes shariae et legum saecularium ad controversiam duxerunt num sharia cum saecularibus rectionis formis, iuribus humanis, libertate sentiendi, et iuribus mulierum congruere possit.[18]

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. R. M. Ritter, ed., New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors: The Essential A-Z Guide to the Written Word (Oxoniae: Oxford University Press, 2005), 349.
  2. Calder et Hooker 2007.
  3. Rehman 2007.
  4. DeLong-Bas 2004:93.
  5. Coulson 2011.
  6. Esposito 2001.
  7. Esposito 1999.
  8. Otto 2010.
  9. Hamann, Katie (29 Decembris 2009). "Aceh's Sharia Law Still Controversial in Indonesia". Voice of America.
  10. BBC News, 3 Ianuarii 2003: "Analysis: Nigeria's Sharia Split": "Thousands of people have been killed in fighting between Christians and Muslims following the introduction of sharia punishments in northern Nigerian states over the past three years."
  11. [1]. Library of Congress Country Studies: Sudan: "The factors that provoked the military coup, primarily the closely intertwined issues of Islamic law and of the civil war in the south, remained unresolved in 1991. The September 1983 implementation of the sharia throughout the country had been controversial and provoked widespread resistance in the predominantly non-Muslim south . . . Opposition to the sharia, especially to the application of hudud (sing., hadd), or Islamic penalties, such as the public amputation of hands for theft, was not confined to the south and had been a principal factor leading to the popular uprising of April 1985 that overthrew the government of Jaafar an Nimeiri."
  12. Otto 2008.
  13. Stahnke et Blitt 2005.
  14. Etiam vide "Sharia Law profile by Country," Emory University (2011).
  15. Bowen 2009; Corbin 2013; Taher 2008.
  16. Encyclopædia Britannica; vide commentarium de Shari'ah (Islamic law), 2006.
  17. Otto 2008.
  18. Al-Suwaidi 1995.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • al-Misri, Ahmad ibn Naqib. 1994. Umdat al-Salik wa Uddat al-Nasik|Reliance of the Traveller: A Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law. Ed retractata. Ed. et conv. ex Arabicop com commentario a Nuh Ha Mim Keller. Amana Publications. ISBN 9780915957729.
  • An-Na'im, Abdullahi Ahmed. 1996. Islamic Foundations of Religious Human Rights. In Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective: Religious Perspectives, ed. John Witte Jr. et Johan D. van der Vyver. Springer Publishing. ISBN 9789041101778.
  • Al-Suwaidi, J. 1995. Arab and western conceptions of democracy. In Democracy, war, and peace in the Middle East, ed. David Garnham et Mark A. Tessler. Bloomingtoniae: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0253209399.
  • ash-Shafi'i, Muhammad ibn Idris. 1993. Risala: Treatise on the Foundations of Islamic Jurisprudence. Islamic Texts Society. ISBN 0946621152.
  • Badr, Gamal Moursi. 1978. Islamic Law: Its Relation to Other Legal Systems. American Journal of Comparative Law 26(2):187–198. doi:10.2307/839667. Proceedings of an International Conference on Comparative Law, Salt Lake City, Utah, February 24–25, 1977. JSTOR 839667.
  • Badr, Gamal Moursi, et Ann Elizabeth Mayer. 1984. Islamic Criminal Justice. American Journal of Comparative Law 32(1):167–169. doi:10.2307/840274. JSTOR 840274.
  • Bakhtiar, Laleh, et Kevin Reinhart. 1996. Encyclopedia of Islamic Law: A Compendium of the Major Schools. Kazi Publications. ISBN 1567444989.
  • Berg, Herbert. 2005. Islamic Law. Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History 3:1030. History Reference Center.
  • Bowen, J. R. 2009. How could English courts recognize Shariah? University of Saint Thomas Law Journal 7:411.
  • Brown, Daniel W. 1996. Rethinking Traditions in Modern Islamic Thought. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521653940.
  • Calder, Norman, et Michael Barry Hooker. 2007. Sharīʿa. Encyclopaedia of Islam. Ed. 2a., ed. P. Bearman, T. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, et W. P. Heinrichs Brill. ISBN 9789004161214.
  • Corbin, Jane. 2013. Inside Britain's Sharia courts. The Telegraph, 7 Aprilis.
  • Coulson, Noel James. 1964. A History of Islamic Law. Islamic Surveys. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press.
  • Coulson, Noel James. 2011. A History of Islamic Law. Aldine. ISBN 9781412818551.
  • Darwish, Nonie. 2008. Cruel and Usual Punishment: The Terrifying Global Implications of Islamic Law. Thomas Nelson. ISBN 9781595551610.
  • DeLong-Bas, Natana J. 2004. Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195169913.
  • Dien, Mawil Izzi 2004. Islamic Law: From Historical Foundations to Contemporary Practice. Notre Dame Illinoesiae: University of Notre Dame Press.
  • Doi, Abd ar-Rahman I., et Abdassamad Clarke. 2008. Shari'ah: Islamic Law. Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd. ISBN 1842000853 (charta); ISBN 9781842000878.
  • El-Fadl, Khaled Abou. 2003. Reasoning with God: Rationality and Thought in Islam. Oneworld. ISBN 1851683062.
  • El-Gamal, Mahmoud A. 2006. Islamic Finance: Law, Economics, and Practice. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521864143.
  • Esposito, John. 1999. The Oxford history of Islam. Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195107999.
  • Esposito, John. 2001. Women in Muslim family law. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 9780815629085.
  • Esposito, John. 2004. The Oxford dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press.
  • Gaudiosi, Monica M. 1988. The Influence of the Islamic Law of Waqf on the Development of the Trust in England: The Case of Merton College. University of Pennsylvania Law Review 136(4):231–261. doi:10.2307/3312162. JSTOR 3312162.
  • Ghamidi, Javed. 2014. Mizan. Dar al-Ishraq. OCLC 52901690.
  • Glenn, H. Patrick. 2014). Legal Traditions of the World: Sustainable Diversity in Law. Ed. 5a. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199669837.
  • Harnischfeger, Johannes. 2008. Democratization and Islamic Law: The Sharia Conflict in Nigeria. Francofurti et Novi Eboraci: Campus Verlag; Sicagi University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9783593382562.
  • Hudson, A. 2003. Equity and Trusts. Ed. 3a. Londinii: Cavendish Publishing. ISBN 1859417299.
  • Horrie, Chris, et Peter Chippindale. 1991. What Is Islam? A Comprehensive Introduction. Virgin Books. ISBN 0753508273.
  • Jackson, Sherman A. 2005. Islam and the Blackamerican: Looking Toward the Third Resurrection. Novi Eboraci et Oxoniae: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195180817.
  • Kafadar, Cemal. 1996. Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. University of California Press. ISBN 0520206002.
  • Lewis, Bernard. 1984. The Jews of Islam. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691008073. Google Books.
  • Liebesny, Majid, et J. Herbert Liebesny, eds. 1955. Origin and Development of Islamic Law. Khadduri: Law in the Middle East, 1. Vasingtoniae: Middle East Institute.
  • Makdisi, John A. 1999. The Islamic Origins of the Common Law. North Carolina Law Review 77(5):1,635–1,739.
  • Makdisi, John A. 2005. Islamic Property Law: Cases and Materials for Comparative Analysis with the Common Law. Carolina Academic Press. ISBN 1594601100.
  • Mumisa, Michael. 2002. Islamic Law: Theory & Interpretation. Amana Publications. ISBN 1590080106.
  • Musa, A. Y. 2008. Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on The Authority Of Prophetic Traditions in Islam. Novi Eboraci: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Otto, Jan Michiel. 2008. Sharia and National Law in Muslim Countries: Tensions and Opportunities for Dutch and EU Foreign Policy: Law, Governance, and Development. Amstelodami: Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 9789087280482.
  • Otto, Jan. 2010. Sharia incorporated a comparative overview of the legal systems of twelve Muslim countries in past and present. Lugduni Batavorum: Leiden University Press. ISBN 9789087280574.
  • Rehman, J. 2007. The sharia, Islamic family laws and international human rights law: Examining the theory and practice of polygamy and talaq. International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family 21(1):108–127.
  • Safi, Omi. 2003. Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 185168316X.
  • Shahin, Omar. 2007. The Muslim Family in Western Society: A Study in Islamic Law. Cloverdale Corporation. ISBN 9781929569304.
  • Stahnke, Tad, et Robert C. Blitt. 2005. The Religion-State Relationship and the Right to Freedom of Religion or Belief: A Comparative Textual Analysis of the Constitutions of Predominantly Muslim Countries. Georgetown Journal of International Law 36(4).
  • Standke, Corinna. 2008. Sharia: The Islamic Law. GRIN Verlag.
  • Taher, Abul. 2008. Revealed: UK’s first official sharia courts. The Sunday Times, 14 Septembris.
  • Tibi, Bassam. 2008. Political Islam, World Politics and Europe. Routledge.
  • Weeramantry, Christopher. 1997. Justice Without Frontiers: Furthering Human Rights. Brill Publishers. ISBN 9041102418.
  • Weiss, Bernard G. 2002. Studies in Islamic Legal Theory. Lugduni Batavorum et Bostoniae: Brill Publishers. ISBN 9789004120662.
Generalia
  • Bearman, P., et al. 19602005. Encyclopaedia of Islam. Ed. Lugduni Batavorum: Brill.

Bibliographia addita[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. 2000. The Holy Qur'an. Conv. Abdullah Yusuf Ali. Ware, Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions. ISBN 9781853267826.
  • Bostom, Andrew. 2012. Sharia Versus Freedom: The Legacy of Islamic Totalitarianism. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1616146664.
  • Bowen, John R. 2009. Private Arrangements: "Recognizing Sharia" in Britain. Boston Review, 1 Martii.
  • Coulson, Noel J. 1964. A History of Islamic Law. Edimburgi: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Elliesie, Hatem. 2014. Binnenpluralität des Islamischen Rechts: Diversität religiöser Normativität rechtsdogmatisch- und methodisch betrachtet. SFB Governance Working Paper Series, Collaborative Research Center 700, Governance in Areas of Limited Statehood, 54. ISSN 18636896.
  • Hallaq, Wael B. 2009. An Introduction to Islamic Law. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521678735.
  • Hussain, Jamila. 2011. Islam: Its Law and Society. Ed. 3a. Annandale, N.S.W. Australiae: The Federation Press. ISBN 1862874999. OCLC 742018517.
  • Kadri, Sadakat. 2011. Heaven on Earth: A Journey Through Shari'a Law. Londinii: The Bodley Head. ISBN 1847920160. OCLC 774921862, OCLC 670282592, OCLC 777379796.
  • Kadri, Sadakat. 2012 Heaven on Earth: A Journey Through Shari'a Law from the Deserts of Ancient Arabia to the Streets of the Modern Muslim World. Editio Americana. Novi Eboraci: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0374168725. OCLC 740628896. Google Books.
  • Khan, Muhammad Muhsin. 1996. The English Translation of Ṣaḥīḥ Al Bukhārī with the Arabic Text. Alexandria Virginiae: Al-Saadawi Publications. ISBN 9781881963592. OCLC 35673415.
  • Mahmassani, Maher. 2014. Islam in Retrospect: Recovering the Message. Olive Branch Press. ISBN 1566569222.
  • Mahmassani, Sobhi. 1961. The Philosophy of Jurisprudence in Islam. Conv. Farhat J. Ziadeh. Lugduni Batavorum: Brill.
  • Mahmassani, Sobhi. 1966. The Principles of International Law in the Light of Islamic Doctrine. Lugduni Batavorum: The Hague Academy of International Law.
  • Potz, Richard. 2011. Islamic Law and the Transfer of European Law. Moguntiaci: European History Online, Institute of European History.
  • Nuh Ha Mim Keller, conv. et ed. 1997. Reliance of the Traveller: Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law. Ed. retractata. Amana Publications. ISBN 9780915957729.
  • Ramadan, Said. 1980. Das islamische Recht: Theorie und Praxis. Wiesbaden. ISBN 3447020784.
  • Rohe, Mathias. 2011. Das islamische Recht: Geschichte und Gegenwart. Ed. 3a. Monaci. ISBN 9783406579554.
  • Sachau, Edurad. 2004. Das Recht der Scharia. Ed. nova. Francofurti.
  • Schacht, Joseph. 1964. An Introduction to Islamic Law. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press.
  • Schacht, Joseph. 1950. The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press.
  • Warner, Bill. 2010. Sharia Law for Non-Muslims. CSPI. ISBN 0979579481.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Shariam spectant.
Wiktionary-ico-de.png Vide Sharia in Victionario.
Wikiquote-logo.svg Vicicitatio habet citationes quae ad Sharia spectant.