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Samanismus

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Samanismus[1] (Neograece σαμανισμός > vocabulo Evenkensi šamán[2]) est mos quo exercitator mutatos conscientiae status attingit ad mundum spiritualem percipiendum ut eius energias transcendentales in hunc mundum afferat atque cum eis communicet.[3]

Prima depictio samani Sibirici, a Nicolao Witsen exploratore Nederlandico adumbrata, qui narrationem suarum peregrinationum inter homines Samoiedicos et Tungusicos anno 1692 scripsit. Ipse, hanc imaginem Presbyter Diaboli appellans, homini ungues pro pedibus dedit, ut eius proprietates daemonicae melius significarentur.[4]

Samanus[5] vicissim est homo qui in mundum spirituum benevolentium et malevolentium penetrare posse habetur, qui usitate in statum stuporis per ritus intrat, cum divinationem sanationemque efficit.[6] Vocabulum saman originem trahat in lingua Evenkensi, una e linguis Tungusicis Asiae Septentrionalis. Secundum Juha Janhunen ethnolinguistam, "investigatores vocabulum in omnibus sermonibus Tungusicis attestantur,[7] sicut Negidal, Lamut, Udehe/Orochi, Nanai, Ilcha, Orok, Manchu, et Ulcha, et "nihil sumptionem contradicere videtur significationem samanum etiam e Proto-Tungusica derivasse,"[8] et originem fortasse trahat abhinc millenniorum saltem duo.[9] Vocabulum ad culturam Occidentalem introductum est postquam copiae Russicae vicerant Regnum Casanense samanisticum anno 1552.[10]

Chartula cursualis Russica in photographemate anno 1908 ab S. I. Borisov condito samanam ethnicitatis sane Chakassum depingit.[11][12]

Vocabulum shamanismus primum ab anthropologis Occidentalibus adhibebatur qui antiquam Turcorum Mongolorumque religiones observabant, praeter religiones hominum vicinorum qui Tungusice et Samoiedice loquebantur. Nonnulli anthropologi Occidentales, varietatem traditionum religiosarum observantes, vocabulum sensu latissimo adhibere coeperunt, ad usus magico-religiosos non cognatos describendos intra religiones ethnicas aliarum regionum Asiae, Africae, Australasiae repertos, et adeo ignotarum Americae regionum, quia hos usus inter se similes esse credebant.[13]

Samanus Insularum Moluccanarum Australium spiritus malos qui pueros occupant exorcizat. Buru Indonesiae, 1920.
Echinopsis pachanoi florens, cactus entheogenica quae plus quam 3000 annorum in samanismo adhibetur.[14] Hodie, longe plurimum mescalini e cactis columnaribus extrahitur, non e Lophophora williamsii, quae vulnerabilis est.[15];
Crepitaculum corvidum, saeculo undevicensimo. Museum Brooklynense.
Samanus-sacerdos Goldes ethnous in eius vestimentis sacris.
Samanus Samianus et eius tympanum.
Samanus Oroqensis Sinarum septentrionalium.
Sacerdos Mayanus ritus curationis ad Tikal facit.
Samanus e cultura shuara in silva Amazonica Aequatoriae, Iunio 2006.
Samanus Urarina, 1988.

Mircea Eliade scribit "Prima huius rei multiplicis definitio, et fortasse minime periculosa, erit: shamanismus est 'ars ecstasis religiosae.'"[16][17] Samanismus propositum amplectitur quod dicit samanos esse nuntios vel internuntios inter mundum hominum et mundum spirituum; etenim ei dicuntur morbos per animam emendatam tractare. Levare traumata quae animum vel spiritum affligunt physicum singuli corpus recurat. Samanus praeterea regna supernaturalia vel planities esotericas intrat ac quaestiones solvendas quae communitatem affligunt. Samani alios mundos vel dimensiones visere possunt ad animas dementes ducendas et ad morbos animae humanae a rebus alienis affectos melius faciendos. Operatur samanus plerumque intra mundum spiritualem, qui vicissim mundum humanum afficit. Aequilibrium restituere malum amovit.[17]

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Warning icon.svg Fons nominis Latini desideratur (addito fonte, hanc formulam remove)
  2. Janhunan 1986: 194:97.
  3. Hoppál 1987: 76.
  4. Hutton 2001: 32.
  5. Vide nomen samani hoc in loco: "Professor Galiński putat hunc locum templum gentis cuiusdam a samanis ductae fuisse." Iconoclastes, "Templum samanisticum in Polonia repertum," Ephemeris, 2 Septembris 2017.
  6. "OxfordDictionaries - Dictionary, Thesaurus, & Grammar" 
  7. Anglice: "the word is attested in all of the Tungusic idioms."
  8. Anglice: "nothing seems to contradict the assumption that the meaning 'shaman' also derives from Proto-Tungusic."
  9. Janhunen 1986: 97–98.
  10. Warning icon.svg Citatio desiderata (addito fonte, hanc formulam remove)
  11. Hoppál 2005: 77, 287.
  12. Znamensky 2005: 128.
  13. Alberts 2015: 73–79.
  14. "A Brief History of the San Pedro Cactus" .
  15. "Lophophorawilliamsii" .
  16. Anglice: "A first definition of this complex phenomenon, and perhaps the least hazardous, will be: shamanism = 'technique of religious ecstasy.'"
  17. 17.0 17.1 Eliade 1972: 3–7.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Alberts, Thomas. 2015. Shamanism, Discourse, Modernity. Farnhamiae: Ashgate. ISBN 9781472439864.
  • Barüske, Heinz. 1969. Eskimo Märchen. Die Märchen der Weltliteratur. Dusseldorpii et Coloniae: Eugen Diederichs Verlag.
  • Boglár, Lajos. 2001. A kultúra arcai: Mozaikok a kulturális antropológia köreiből. TÁRStudomány. Budapestini: Napvilág Kiadó. ISBN 9639082945.
  • Bolin, Hans. 2000. Animal Magic: The mythological significance of elks, boats and humans in north Swedish rock art. Journal of Material Culture 5(2): 153–176.
  • Czaplicka, M. A. 1914. Types of shaman. In Shamanism in Siberia: Aboriginal Siberia: A study in social anthropology. Praefatio R. R. Marett. Oxoniae: Sommerville College, University of Oxford, Clarendon Press. ISBN 1605060607.
  • Dana, Kathleen Osgood. 2004. Áillohaš and his image drum: the native poet as shaman. Nordlit 15 (aestas). Faculty of Humanities, University of Tromsø.
  • Deschênes, Bruno. 2002. Inuit Throat-Singing. Musical Traditions The Magazine for Traditional Music throughout the World.
  • Diószegi, Vilmos. 1968. Tracing shamans in Siberia: The story of an ethnographical research expedition. E Hungarica in Anglicum conversus ab Anita Rajkay Babó. Oosterhout: Anthropological Publications.
  • Diószegi, Vilmos. 1962. Samanizmus. Élet és Tudomány Kiskönyvtár. Budapestini: Gondolat.
  • Diószegi, Vilmos. 1958, 1998. A sámánhit emlékei a magyar népi műveltségben. Budapestini: Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN 9630575426.
  • DuBois, Thomas A. 2009. An introduction to shamanism. Cantabrigiae et Novi Eboraci: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521873536, ISBN 0521873533, ISBN 9780521695367 (charta), ISBN 0521695368 (charta).
  • Fienup-Riordan, Ann. 1994. Boundaries and Passages: Rule and Ritual in Yup'ik Eskimo Oral Tradition. Normaniae Oclahomae: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0585121907.
  • Fock, Niels. 1963. Waiwai: Religion and society of an Amazonian tribe. Nationalmuseets skrifter, Etnografisk Række (Ethnographical series), VIII. Hafniae: National Museum of Denmark.
  • Freuchen, Peter. 1961. Book of the Eskimos. Clevelandiae et Novi Eboraci: The World Publishing Company. ISBN 449308022.
  • Gulia, Kuldip Singh. 2005. Human Ecology of Sikkim: A Case Study of Upper Rangit Basin. Dellii: Kalpaz Publications. ISBN 8178353253.
  • Hajdú, Péter, ed. 1975. A rokonság nyelvi háttere. In Uráli népek: Nyelvrokonaink kultúrája és hagyományai. Budapestini: Corvina Kiadó. ISBN 9631309002.
  • Hoppál, Mihály. 1994. Sámánok, lelkek és jelképek. Budapestini: Helikon Kiadó. ISBN 9632082982.
  • Hoppál, Mihály. 1998. A honfoglalók hitvilága és a magyar samanizmus. In Folklór és közösség, 40–45. Budapestini: Széphalom Könyvműhely. ISBN 9639028142.
  • Hoppál, Mihály. 2005. Sámánok Eurázsiában. Budapestini: Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN 9630582953.
  • Hoppál, Mihály. 2006. Sámánok, kultúrák és kutatók az ezredfordulón. In Sámánok és kultúrák, ed. Mihály Hoppál, Botond Szathmári, et András Takács, 9–25. Budapestini: Gondolat. ISBN 9639450286.
  • Hoppál, Mihály. 2007. Eco-Animism of Siberian Shamanhood. In Shamans and Traditions. Bibliotheca Shamanistica, vol 13: 17–26. Budapestini: Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN 9789630585217.
  • Hoppál, Mihály. 2007. Is Shamanism a Folk Religion? In Shamans and Traditions. Bibliotheca Shamanistica, vol. 13: 11–16. Budapestini: Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN 9789630585217.
  • Janhunen, Juha. 1986. Siberian shamanistic terminology. Suomalais-ugrilaisen Seuran toimituksia / Memoires de la Société finno-ougrienne 194: 97–117.
  • Hugh-Jones, Christine. 1980. From the Milk River: Spatial and Temporal Processes in Northwest Amazonia. Cambridge Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521225442.
  • Hugh-Jones, Stephen. 1980. The Palm and the Pleiades: Initiation and Cosmology in Northwest Amazonia. Cambridge Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521219523.
  • Kleivan, Inge, et B. Sonne. 1985. Eskimos: Greenland and Canada. Iconography of religions, sectio VIII, "Arctic Peoples," fasciculus 2. Institute of Religious Iconography • State University Groningen. Lugduni Batavorum: E. J. Brill. ISBN 9004071601.
  • Lupa. 2012. NewPaths to Animal Totems. Woodbury Minnesotae: Llewellyn Worldwide. ISBN 9780738733371.
  • Menovščikov, G. A. (= Г. А. Меновщиков). 1968. Popular Conceptions, Religious Beliefs and Rites of the Asiatic Eskimoes. In Popular beliefs and folklore tradition in Siberia, ed. Vilmos Diószegi. Budapestini: Akadémiai Kiadó.
  • Nagy, Beáta Boglárka. 1998. Az északi szamojédok. In Finnugor kalauz, ed. Márta Csepregi, 221–234. Series Panoráma. Budapestini: Medicina Könyvkiadó. ISBN 9632438132.
  • Nattiez, Jean Jacques. Inuit Games and Songs • Chants et Jeux des Inuit. Musiques & musiciens du monde • Musics & musicians of the world. Monte Regii: Research Group in Musical Semiotics, Faculty of Music, University of Montreal.
  • Noll, Richard, et Kun Shi. 2004. Chuonnasuan (Meng Jin Fu), The Last Shaman of the Oroqen of Northeast China. 韓國宗敎硏究 (Journal of Korean Religions). Seuli: 西江大學校: 宗教硏究所 (Sŏgang Taehakkyo: Chonggyo Yŏnʾguso) 6: 135–162. [1]
  • Reinhard, Johan. 1976. Shamanism and Spirit Possession: The Definition Problem. In Spirit Possession in the Nepal Himalayas, ed. J. Hitchcock et R. Jones, 12–20. Dellii Novi: Vikas Publishing House.
  • Shimamura, Ippei. 2014. The Roots Seekers: Shamanism and Ethnicity among the Mongol Buryats. Yokohamae Iaponiae: Shumpusha.
  • Turner, Robert P., David Lukoff, Ruth Tiffany Barnhouse, et Francis G. Lu. 1995. Religious or Spiritual Problem: A Culturally Sensitive Diagnostic Category in the DSM-IV. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 183(7): 435–444.
  • Voigt, Miklós. 2000. Sámán – a szó és értelme. In Világnak kezdetétől fogva: Történeti folklorisztikai tanulmányok, 41–45. Budapestini: Universitas Könyvkiadó. ISBN 9639104396.
  • Witzel, Michael. 2011. Shamanism in Northern and Southern Eurasia: their distinctive methods and change of consciousness. Social Science Information 50(1): 39–61. doi:10.1177/0539018410391044.

Bibliographia addita[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Campbell, Joseph. 1959, 1976. The Masks of God: Primitive Mythology. Novi Eboraci et Londinii: Penguin Books. ISBN 0140194436.
  • Harner, Michael. 1980. The Way of the Shaman: A Guide to Power and Healing. Harper & Row Publishers.
  • de Miller, Richard, ed. 1980. The Don Juan Papers: Further Castaneda Controversies. Sanctae Barbarae Californiae: Ross-Erikson.
  • Devereux, George. as Neurotics. American Anthropologist, New Series, 63(5): pars 1:1088–1090.
  • Fikes, Jay Courtney. 1993. Carlos Castaneda: Academic Opportunism and the Psychedelic Sixties. Millennia Press Canada. ISBN 0969696000.
  • Hultkrantz, Åke, ed. honoris causa. [2]. Journal of the International Society for Shamanistic Research.
  • Jenkins, Philip. 2004. Dream Catchers: How Mainstream America Discovered Native Spirituality. Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195161157.
  • Kehoe, Alice. 2000. Shamans and Religion: An Anthropological Exploration in Critical Thinking. Londinii: Waveland Press. ISBN 1577661621.
  • Manners, David Charles. 2011. In the Shadow of Crows. Oxoniae: Signal Books. ISBN 1904955924.
  • Paper, Jordan D. 1995. The Spirits are Drunk: Comparative Approaches to Chinese Religion. Albaniae Novi Eboraci: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0791423158.
  • Smith, Frederick M. 2006. Possessed: Deity and Spirit Possession in South Asian Literature. Novi Eboraci: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231137486.
  • Tedlock, Barbara. 1992. Time and the Highland Maya. University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0826313582.
  • Tomášková, Silvia. 2013. Wayward Shamans: the prehistory of an idea. Berkeleiae: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520275324.
  • Weber, Michel. 2015. Shamanism and proto-consciousness. In Deus Unicus, ed. René Lebrun, Julien De Vos, et É. Van Quickelberghe. Actes du colloque «Aux origines du monothéisme et du scepticisme religieux» organisé à Louvain-la-Neuve les 7 et 8 juin 2013 par le Centre d’histoire des Religions Cardinal Julien Ries et Pierre Bordreuil in memoriam. Turnhout, Brepols, coll. Homo Religiosus, série II, 14, pp. 247–260.
  • Znamenski, Andrei. 2003. Shamanism in Siberia: Russian Records of Siberian Spirituality. Dordrech et Bostoniae: Kluwer/Springer. ISBN 1402017405.
  • Znamensky, Andrei A. 2005. Az ősiség szépsége: altáji török sámánok a szibériai regionális gondolkodásban (1860–1920). In Csodaszarvas: Őstörténet, vallás és néphagyomány, 1:117–134, ed. Ádám Molnár. Budapestini: Molnár Kiadó. ISBN 9632182006.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Wiktionary-ico-de.png Vide samanismum in Victionario.
Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad samanismum spectant.