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Animismus

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Sculptura spiritus custodialis.

Animismus (ab anima[1] est cosmotheoria quae docet entitates non humanas—sicut animalia, plantae, et res inanimatae—essentiam spiritualem possidere.[2][3][4]

Animismus in anthropologia religionis est ratio fidei nonnullorum populorum indigenorum,[5] praecipue ante reliionem ordinatam ortam.[6] Quamquam cuique culturae sunt variae mythologiae et ritus, animismus usitatissimum filum ex populorum indigenarum conspectibus spiritualibus vel supernaturalibus describere traditur. Conspectus animisticus est tam elementarius, mundanus, quotidianus, adeo neglectus ut plurimis indigenis animisticis in suorum linguis non est verbum quod cum animismo (vel etiam religione) congruat[7]; verbum enim animismus merus constructus anthropologicus est.

Eduardus Tylor Eques acceptam animismi definitionem in anthropologia excogitavit.

Plerumque ob tales discrepantias ethnolinguisticae et culturales, opiniones discrepantur num notio animismi ad latam fidem religiosam aut ad adultam religionem sui iuris pertineat. Definitio usitata et accepta solum saeculo undevicensimo exeunte crevit, ab Eduardo Tylor Equite "una ex primis anthropologiae notionibus, si non prima,"[8] excogitata.[9]

Animismus fidem amplectitur non esse separationem inter mundum spiritualem et physicam (vel materialem), et animas vel spiritus exsistere non solum in hominibus, et etiam in nonnullis animalibus aliis, plantis, saxis, proprietatibus geographicis sicut montes et flumina, vel aliis entitatibus in circumiectis naturalibus inventis, inter quas tonitrus, ventus, et umbrae. Animismus sic dualismum Cartesianum reicit. Animismus praeterea sententias abstractas verbis, nominibus veris, et metaphoris in mythologia attribuere possunt. Nonnulli cives mundi non tribalis (sicut auctor Daniel Quinn, sculptor Lawson Oyekan, et multi Neopagani) se animisti habent.[10]

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Segal 2004:14.
  2. Stringer 1999.
  3. Hornborg 2006.
  4. Haught 1990:19
  5. Hicks 2010:359: "Tylor's notion of animism—for him the first religion—included the assumption that early Homo sapiens had invested animals and plants with souls."
  6. James 1999.
  7. The Pluralism Project, 2005.
  8. Anglice: "one of anthropology's earliest concepts, if not the first."
  9. Bird-David 1991:S67.
  10. Harvey 2006:9.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Adler, Margot. 2006. Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America. Penguin.
  • Animism. 2007. The Columbia Encyclopedia. Ed. 6a. Bartleby.com.
  • Armstrong, Karen. 1994. A History of God: The 4,000-Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Ballantine Books.
  • Bird-David, Nurit. 1991. "Animism" Revisited: Personhood, Environment, and Relational Epistemology. Current Anthropology 40:67–91. DOI 10.1086/200061. Reimpressus in Readings in Indigenous Religions, ed. Graham Harvey (Londinii et Novi Eboraci: Continuum, 2002), 72–105.
  • Dean, Bartholomew. 2009. Urarina Society, Cosmology, and History in Peruvian Amazonia. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-3378-5.
  • Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe. 2003. Ideas that Changed the World. Dorling Kindersley.
  • Forbes, Andrew, et David Henley.2012. Lamphun's Little-Known Animal Shrines. In Ancient Chiang Mai. Vol, 1. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books.
  • Harvey, Graham. 2005. Animism: Respecting the Living World. Londinii: Hurst and Co.; Novi Eboraci: Columbia University Press; Adelaide: Wakefield Press.
  • Haught, John. 1990. What Is Religion?: An Introduction. Novi Eboraci: Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-3117-X.
  • Hicks, David. 2010. Ritual and Belief: Readings in the Anthropology of Religion. Ed. 3a. Rowman Altamira.
  • Hornborg, Alf. 2006. Animism, fetishism, and objectivism as strategies for knowing (or not knowing) the world. Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology 71(1):21–32. DOI 10.1080/00141840600603129.
  • James, Helen. 1999. Animism. ELMAR Project, coordinatum ab Elliott Shaw cum Ian Favell. University of Cumbria.
  • The Pluralism Project. 2005. Native American Religious and Cultural Freedom: An Introductory Essay. Cantabrigiae: President and Fellows of Harvard College and Diana Eck. Textus.
  • Segal, Robert. 2004. Myth: A Very Short Introduction. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press.
  • Stringer, Martin D. 1999. Rethinking Animism: Thoughts from the Infancy of our Discipline. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 5(4):541–556. DOI 10.2307/2661147.
  • Thomas, Northcote Whitridge. 1911. Animism. Encyclopædia Britannica, ed. Hugh Chisholm. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press.

Bibliographia addita[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Badenberg, Robert. 2007. How about "Animism"'? An Inquiry beyond Label and Legacy. In Mission als Kommunikation: Festschrift für Ursula Wiesemann zu ihrem 75. Geburtstag, ed. Klaus W. Müller. Norimbergae: VTR. ISBN 978-3-937965-75-8. Bonnae: VKW. ISBN 978-3-938116-33-3.
  • Hallowell, A. Irving. 1960. Ojibwa ontology, behavior, and world view. In Culture in History, ed. Stanley Diamond. Novi Eboraci: Columbia University Press. Reimpressus in Graham Harvey, ed. (2002), Readings in Indigenous Religions (Londinii et Novi Eboraci: Continuum), 17–49.
  • Ingold, Tim. 2006. Rethinking the animate, re-animating thought. Ethnos 71(1):9–20.
  • Käser, Lothar. 2004. Animismus: Eine Einführung in die begrifflichen Grundlagen des Welt- und Menschenbildes traditionaler (ethnischer) Gesellschaften für Entwicklungshelfer und kirchliche Mitarbeiter in Übersee. Bad Liebenzell: Liebenzeller Mission. ISBN 3-921113-61-X.
  • Käser, Lothar. 2004. Einführung in seine begrifflichen Grundlagen. Neuendettelsau: Erlanger Verlag für Mission und Okumene. ISBN 3-87214-609-2.
  • Wundt, Wilhelm Maximilian. 1906. Mythus und Religion. Völkerpsychologie 2. Lipsiae.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]