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Bison bison

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American bison k5680-1.jpg
Bison bison bison

Classis : Mammalia 
Ordo : Artiodactyla 
Familia : Bovidae 
Subfamilia : Bovinae 
Tribus : Bovini 
Subtribus : Bovina 
Genus : Bison 
Species : Bison bison 
(Linnaeus, 1758)
   
Palaeontologia
0.01–0 m.a.
Holocaeno ineunte – praesens
Conservationis status
Territorium
Bison bison map.svg
Bison bison athabascae.
Vocatio bisonis.
Mas adultus (ultra) et femina adulta (citra), in Yellowstone National Park.
Sceletus bisonis.
Bison currere videtur. Series photographematum ab Eduardo Muybridge factorum, primum anno 1887 in Animal Locomotion edita.

Bison bison est species bisonis cuius vasti greges in America Septentrionali olim vagabantur. Eius spatium historicum ante annum 9000 a.C.n., magna bisonum zona appellatur, tractus vigentium terrarum graminearum qui ab Alasca ad Sinum Mexici, ad orientem usque ad litus Atlanticum (in nonnullis regionibus paene ad tidewater Atlanticum) ad Novum Eboracum, et ad meridiem usque ad Georgiam, et, secundum nonnullos fontes, usque ad Floridam extendebatur, atque in Carolina Septentrionali prope Buffalo Ford in Catawba Flumine anno 1750 videbatur.[2][3][4] Paene exstinctus factus est propter venationem mercatoriam saeculo undevicensimo effectam morbosque bovinos ex bobus domesticis introductis. Species saeculo duodevicensimo exeunte plus quam 60 milliones animalium numerari putatur, sed ante annum 1889 solum 541 animalia enumerabantur. Medio saeculo vicensimo, rationes gregum augendorum prospere eveniebant, et 31 000 animalium ferorum hodie in vita sunt,[5] plerumque in aliquot saeptis nationalibus aliisque saeptis hodie inclusi. Animalia huius species praeterea post nonnullas reintroductiones etiam in variis Iacutiae et Mexici regionibus libere vagantur.

Describuntur duae subspecies vel oecotypi: Bison bison bison ("bison planitiei"), magnitudine minor, gibbere rotundiori, et Bison bison athabascae ("bison silvestris"), maior, gibbere quadrato.[6][7][8][9][10][11] Praeterea, Bison bison bison in B. b. montanae planitiei septentrionalis et B. b. bison planitiei meridianae fortasse consistit, ut summa sit tres.[9] Quae autem distinctio late non approbatur. Bison silvestris est una ex maximis bovidarum exstantium speciebus feris in mundo, solum a Bove gauro Asiae superata.[12] Inter animalia terrestria in America Septentrionali exstantia, bison est gravissimum et longissimum, secundumque ab altissimo, post Alcem alcem.

Indi Americani qui in Magnis Planitiebus nonnulla millennia habitabant religione aliisque culturae proprietatibus cum bisonte Americano artissime coniungebantur. Quod animal est mammal nationale Civitatum Foederatarum Americae.

Descriptio[recensere | fontem recensere]

Bisonti hieme saetae longae, villosae, atrofuscae, atque aestate saetae leves fuscaeque pallidae sunt. Bisontes mares feminis multo maiores gravioresque sunt. Phenotypus bisontis silvestris phenotypo bisontis planitiei fortasse est primitivior, cum hic ut videtur se ex mixtura Bisontis occidentalis et Bisontis antiqui evolveret.[13] Bisontes planitiei saepe minores, bisontes silvestres saepe maiores sunt. Maxima longitudo a capite ad clunes est 3.5 metra in maribus et 2.85 metra in feminis; cauda a 30 ad 95 centimetra addit.[13][14][15] Altitudines ad withers a 152 ad 186 centimetra in B. b. bisonte et circa 2 metra in B. b. athabascae variare possunt.[15] Pondera a 318 ad 1179 chiliogrammata variare possunt,[15][16][17][18] a 460 ad 988 chiliogrammata, medianis a 730 ad 792.5 chiliogrammata (B.b. bison), et 943.6 chiliogrammata (B.b.athabascae) in maribus, et a 360 ad 640 chiliogrammata, medianis a 450 ad 497.6 chiliogrammata, in feminis,[13] quamquam minima pondera usitata pondera circa aetatem maturitatis sexualis repraesentant, a duo ad tris fere annos aetatis.[19][20][21][22][23][13] Maximum pondus umquam notum in B. b. bisonte erat 1270 chiliogrammata,[24] sed mares usque ad 1360 chiliogrammata aestimati sunt.[25] B. b. athabascae B. b. bisonte est multo maior et gravior.[13] Bison captivus pro carne alitus gravis praeter natura esse potest, et maximus bison sic semidomesticus 1724 chiliogrammata ponderis fuit.[16] Capita et corpora superiora sunt permagna. Ambobus sexibus sunt brevia cornua curva, quae usque ad 60 centimetra longa et a 90 centimetra ad 124 centimetra lata crescunt,[26][25] et quibus pugnandi causa intra gregem et pro defensione utuntur.

Bisontes sunt herbivora, quae graminibus cyperaceisque planitierum Americae Septentrionalis vescuntur. Quotidie duas horas pascuntur, duas horas quiescunt, duas horas ruminant, et tum ut iterum pascantur ad novum locum migrant.

Pinacotheca: bison in cultura latiore[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. IUCN (vide situs scientificos).
  2. Project Gutenburg E Book – The Extermination of the American Bison.
  3. "American Buffalo (Bison bison) species page". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service .
  4. William T. Hornaday, Superintendent of the National Zoological Park (10 Februarii 2006) [1889]. The Extermination of the American Bison. Smithsonian Institution .
  5. Aune, K., Jørgensen, D. & Gates, C. 2017. Bison bison (errata version published in 2018). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T2815A123789863. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T2815A45156541.en.
  6. Geist V. (1991). "Phantom subspecies: the wood bison, Bison bison "athabascae" Rhoads 1897, is not a valid taxon, but an ecotype". Arctic 44 (4): 283–300 
  7. Formula:Cite conference.
  8. Bork, A. M.; C. M. Strobeck; F. C. Yeh; R. J. Hudson; R. K. Salmon (1991). "Genetic relationship of wood and plains bison based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms". Can J Zool 69 (1): 43–48 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Halbert, Natalie D.; Terje Raudsepp; Bhanu P. Chowdhary; James N. Derr (2004). "Conservation Genetic Analysis of the Texas State Bison Herd". Journal of Mammalogy 85 (5): 924–931 
  10. Wilson, G. A.; C. Strobeck (1999). "Genetic variation within and relatedness among wood and plains bison populations". Genome 42 (3): 483–96 
  11. Boyd, Delaney P. (April 2003) (MS thesis). Conservation of North American Bison: Status and Recommendations. University of Calgary .
  12. The Genetics of Cattle, 2nd Edition 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 de Jong 1986:37.
  14. Halloran 1960.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Boeskorov et al. 2011.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Meagher, M. (1986). "Bison bison". Mammalian Species (266): 1–8 
  17. McDonald 1981: 316.
  18. The Animal Files
  19. Castelló 2916.
  20. Berger et Peacock 1988.
  21. Rutberg 1984.
  22. Rutberg 1986.
  23. Roden, Vervaecke, et Van Elsacker 2005.
  24. Berger et Cunningham 1994: 162.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Legendary Bison Bulls,
  26. Burt 1976: 224.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Berger, Joel, et Carol Cunningham. 1994. Bison: mating and conservation in small populations. Novi Eboraci: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-08456-7.
  • Berger, Joel, et M. Peacock. 1988. "ariability in size-weight relationships of Bison bison." Journal of Mammalogy 69 (3), 618–24.
  • Boeskorov, Gennady G., Olga R. Potapova, Albert V. Protopopov, Valery V. Plotnikov, Larry D. Agenbroad, Konstantin S. Kirikov, Innokenty S. Pavlov, Marina V. Shchelchkova, Innocenty N. Belolyubskii, Mikhail D. Tomshin, Rafal Kowalczyk, Sergey P. Davydov, Stanislav D. Kolesov, Alexey N. Tikhonov, et Johannes van der Plicht. 2016. "The Yukagir Bison: The exterior morphology of a complete frozen mummy of the extinct steppe bison, Bison priscus from the early Holocene of northern Yakutia, Russia." Quaternary International 406 (25 Iunii): pars B,, 94–110.
  • Branch, E. Douglas. (1929) 1997. The Hunting of the Buffalo. Ed. nova. Lincolniae: University of Nebraska Press. Google Books.
  • Burt, William Henry. 1976. A Field Guide to the Mammals: North America North of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  • Castelló, J. R. 2016. Bovids of the World: Antelopes, Gazelles, Cattle, Goats, Sheep, and Relatives. Princetoniae: Princeton University Press.
  • Dary, David A. 1974. The Buffalo Book. Sicagi: Swallow Press.
  • de Jong, C. G. Van Zyll. 1986. "A systematic study of recent bison, with particular consideration of the wood bison (Bison bison athabascae Rhoads 1898)." National Museum of Natural Sciences.
  • Gard, Wayne. 1954. The Great Buffalo Hunt. Lincolniae: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Halloran F. A. 1960. "American Bison Weights and Measurements from the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge." Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science, 212–218.
  • Isenberg, Andrew C. 2000. The Destruction of the Bison: An Environmental History, 1750–1920. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. Google Books.
  • Lott, Dale F. 2002. American Bison: A Natural History. Berkeleiae: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24062-9, ISBN 0520233387. Google Books.
  • Louie, Flores Dan. 1991. "Bison Ecology and Bison Diplomacy: The Southern Plains from 1800 to 1850." Journal of American History 78 (2): 465–85. doi:10.2307/2079530. JSTOR 2079530.
  • McDonald, J. 1981. North American Bison: Their classification and Evolution. Berkeleiae, Angelopoli, Londinii: University of California Press.
  • McHugh, Tom. 1972. The Time of the Buffalo. Lincolniae: University of Nebraska Press. Google Books.
  • Meagher, Margaret Mary. 1973. The Bison of Yellowstone National Park. Vasingtoniae: Government Printing Office. Archivum.]
  • Coke, Rister Carl. 1929. "The Significance of the Destruction of the Buffalo in the Southwest." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 33: 34–49.
  • Roden, C., H. Vervaecke, et L. Van Elsacker. 2005. "Dominance, age and weight in American bison males (Bison bison) during non-rut in semi-natural conditions." Applied Animal Behaviour Science 92 (1), 169–77.
  • Roe, Frank Gilbert. 1951. The North American Buffalo: A Critical Study of the Species in Its Wild State. Toronti: University of Toronto Press. JSTOR.
  • Rutberg, A. T. 1984. "Birth synchrony in American bison (Bison bison): response to predation or season?" Journal of Mammalogy 65 (3), 418–23.
  • Rutberg, A. T. 1986. "Dominance and its fitness consequences in American bison cows." Behaviour 96 (1), 62–91.
  • Shaw, James H. 1995. "How Many Bison Originally Populated Western Rangelands?" Rangelands 17, no. 5 (October): 148–50. JSTOR.
  • Smits, David D. 1994, 1995. "The Frontier Army and the Destruction of the Buffalo, 1865–1883]." Western Historical Quarterly 25: 313–38 et 26: 203-208. PDF.
  • Zontek, Ken. 1995. "Hunt, Capture, Raise, Increase: The People Who Saved the Bison." Great Plains Quarterly 15: 133–49. Editio interrelialis.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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