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Birota

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Birota[1] (-ae, f.) est quodlibet vehiculum plerumque binis rotis praeditum, uno post alterum in forma metallica afficto, quo unus homo vel rarius duo aut plures homines se movere possunt. Catena rotas pedaliaque conectit ut birotarii pedalibus versantibus progrediantur. Qui birota vehitur birotarius vel cyclista appellatur.

Birotae saeculis undevicensimo et vicensimo in Europam excogitatae, evolutae, et introductae sunt. Hodie omni in orbe terrarum exstant plus quam 1 000 000 000 birotarum,[2][3][4][5] qui numeri numeros autocinetorum magnopere superant, ambo in summa et per summam exemplarium fabricatarum.[6][7][8]

Birotae in multis orbis terrarum regionibus sunt principalis transportationis modus, et populo gratissimae oblectamenti res sunt, quae ad varios usus adaptantur, sicut ludibria puerilia, salutem adultorum, adhibitiones militarias, vigilium, et tabellarium, certamina birotarum, et ausa in circis exhibita, ut in funambulismo. Praecipue Nederlandensibus et Sinensibus, birotatio esse principale fere modum eundi dicitur.

Minime commutatur fundamentalis birotae usitatae forma vel configuratio post 1885 fere, annum cum primum exemplar catenis utens excogitatum esset.[9] Multa autem singula meliora facta sunt, praecipue post materias modernas et designationem a computatris adiuvatam adventam, innovationes quae permultas designationes ad varia birotationis genera aptissimas siniverunt.

Historia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Vehiculum Draisienne et Laufmaschine (Anglice dandy horse) appellatum, primus transportationis modus qui solum binis rotis in tandem utebatur, a Carolo Drais, quodam barone Germanico, excogitatum est. Prima birota nunc habetur, sed ei non erant pedalia.[10][11][12][13] Drais hoc machinam coram populo Manhemii anno 1817 Lutetiaeque anno 1818 protulit.[14][15] Eques, super formam ligneam a binis rotis fultam sedens, vehiculum pedibus impellerit, cum rotam anteriorem gubernaret.[14]

Pinacotheca[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nexus interni

Draisienne ligneum (circa 1820), prima birota et archetypus birotae.
Exemplar birotarum populo mundi gratissimum—atque vehiculum ullius generis populo mundi gratissimum—est Columba Volans, birota Sinensis, cuius circiter 500 milliones fabricatae sunt.[3]
Homo birota utitur ut bona Uagadugi in Burcina Faso transportet.
Mulier cum birota, decennio 190.
Homines in Uganda birota utuntur ad bananas transportandas.

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Ebbe Vilborg, Norstedts svensk-latinska ordbok, editio secunda (2009).
  2. DidYouKnow.org.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Lapsus in citando: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Koeppel2007
  4. Lapsus in citando: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Economist2011
  5. Lapsus in citando: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named worldmeters
  6. Lapsus in citando: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Squatriglia2008
  7. Lapsus in citando: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named AMA2006
  8. Lapsus in citando: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ABC
  9. Herlihy 2004: 200–50, 266–71, 280.
  10. Scally, Derek (10 Iunii 2017). "World's first bicycle ride took place 200 years ago" (en) 
  11. "Frames & Materials" 
  12. Gliemann, Jennifer (21 Martii 2017). "200th anniversary: How the bicycle changed society" (en-US) 
  13. Limebeer, D. J. N.; Massaro, Matteo (2018). Dynamics and Optimal Control of Road Vehicles. Oxford University Press. pp. 13–15. ISBN 9780192559814 .
  14. 14.0 14.1 "Baron von Drais' Bicycle". Canada Science and Technology Museum .
  15. Herlihy 2004: 26.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • All About Bicycling. Rand McNally.
  • Ballantine, Richard. 1975. Richard's Bicycle Book. Pan.
  • Berto, Frank. 2005. The Dancing Chain: History and Development of the Derailleur Bicycle. Franciscopoli: Van der Plas Publications. ISBN 1-892495-41-4.
  • Caunter, C. F. 1972. The History and Development of Cycles. Londinii: Science Museum.
  • Couzereau, Béatrice. Fachwörterbuch der Zweiradtechnik. Theodisce—Anglice—Francice. ISBN 3-87073-054-4.
  • The Data Book: 100 Years of Bicycle Component and Accessory Design. Franciscopoli: Van der Plas Publications. ISBN 1-892495-01-5.
  • Dodge, Pryor. Faszination Fahrrad: Geschichte, Technik, Entwicklung. Delius-Klasing. ISBN 3-89595-118-8.
  • Fehlau, Gunnar. 1000 Tipps für Biker. ISBN 978-3-87073-322-3.
  • Gressmann, Michael. Fahrradphysik und Biomechanik. Delius-Klasing. ISBN 3-89595-023-8.
  • Herlihy, David V. 2004. Bicycle: The History. Portu Novo: Yale University Press.
  • Kirshner, Daniel. 1980. "Some nonexplanations of bicycle stability." American Journal of Physics 48 (1).
  • Lessing, Hans-Erhard. Automobilität: Karl Drais und die unglaublichen Anfänge. Maxime-Verlag. ISBN 3-931965-22-8.
  • Lessing, Hans-Erhard, ed. Ich fahr so gerne Rad: Geschichten vom Glück auf zwei Rädern. DTV. ISBN 978-3-423-20985-4.
  • Moreno, Shonquis, et Ole Wagner. 2010. Velo: bicycle culture and design. Ed. Robert Klanten et Sven Ehmann. Berolini: Gestalten. ISBN 978-3-89955-284-3.
  • Perry, David B. 1995. Bike Cult: the Ultimate Guide to Human-powered Vehicles. Four Walls Eight Windows.
  • "Randonneurs USA". PBP: Paris-Brest-Paris. March 31, 2005 
  • Sarig, Roni. 1997. The Everything Bicycle Book. Adams Media Corporation.
  • U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. America's Highways 1776–1976. Praecipue pp. 42–43. Vasingtoniae: US Government Printing Office.
  • Wilson, David Gordon, Eduardus Borysewicz, Gregorius LeMond, Davis Phinney, Connie Carpenter. Bicycling Science. Cantabrigiae Massachusettae: MIT press. ISBN 0-262-73154-1.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad birotas spectant.