Roman numeral 10000 CC DD.svg

Monismus

E Vicipaedia
Salire ad: navigationem, quaerere
Punctum circumdatum ab assectatoribus Pythagorae et Graecis posterioribus adhibebatur ad primum ens metaphysicum repraesentandum, ipsum Monadem vel Absolutum nominatum.
Tabula monismum medium cum dualismo, physicalismo, et idealismo Cartesiano comparat. Tabula Anglice signata.

Monismus est sententia quae unitatem (Graece μόνος) ad notionem (e.g., exsistentia) attribuit. Monismus substantiarum ergo est sententia philosophica quae varias res exsistentes per singulam realitatem vel substantiam enodari posse dicit.[1] Alia definitio dicit omnes res exsistentes ex fonte ab eis distincto ortas esse (e.g. in Neoplatonismo, omnia ex uno deducuntur).[2] Quod saepe monismus prioritatis appellam, dicit solum unam rem per ontologiam esse primam, omnibus rebus aliis priorem.

Alia distinctio est differentia inter monismum substantiae et monismum exsistentiae.[3] Monismus substantiae ponit solum unum rerum genus (e.g., materia vel mens) exsistere, quamquam multae res ex ea fieri possunt; monismus autem exsisteniae ponit exsistere, sensu stricto, solum unam rem (e.g. universum), quod solum inter multas res arte et ad arbitrium dividi potest.

Historia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Vocabulum monismus saeculo duodevicensimo a Christiano Wolffio[4] in libro Logic (1728) propositus est,[5] ad varia cogitationis philosophicae genera designanda quae dualitatem corporis et mentis tollere conabantur[6] et ad omnia phaenomena enodanda per unum principium coniungens vel patefactiones unius substantiae.[4]

Quaestio mentis et corporis in philosophia coniunctionem interrogat mentis et materiae, et praecipue coniunctionem conscientiae et cerebri. Haec quaestio insigniter a Renato Cartesio saeculo septimo decimo tractata est, dualismum Cartesianum gignens, atque a philosophis praearistotelianis,[7][8] in philosophia Avicenniana,[9] et in prioribus traditionibus Asianis et disertius Indis.

Quaestio mentis et corporis tandem ad rationem identitatis absolutae a Hegel et Schelling propositam adhibita est.[10] Postea verbum latius adhibebatur, ad ullam rationem principium coniungens postulantem adhibitum.[11] Dualismus, propositio contraria, etiam latior facta est, pluralismum amplectendum.[12] Quam ob rem, verbum est "certa ratione ambiguum."[13][14]

Unam legis e paginis de
disserentibus

Greek Roman Laurel wreath vector.svg

Monismus praeterea philosophis minus gratus factus est ob philosophiam analyticam saeculo vicensimo ineunte ortam, quae a neohegelianis defecerunt. Carnap et Ayer, acres positivismi fautores, "omni quaestioni ut mysticismus perturbatus irridebant."[15][16]

Quaestio mentis et corporis in psychologia sociali et disciplinis cognatis rediit, cum philosophi animum agitare de interactione mentis et corporis[17] et reicere dualismi mentis et corporis incipirent in thesi identitatis, hodierna monismi forma.[18] Monismus autem ad philosophiam mentis iam attinet,[19] ubi varia argumenta defenduntur.[20]

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Cross et Livingstone 1974.
  2. Brugger 1972.
  3. G. Strawson, "Nietzsche's metaphysics?" in Nietzsche on Mind and Nature, ed. M. Dries et P. Kail (Oxford University Press 2014).
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Monism," Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, ed. 6a.
  5. jrank.org, Monism
  6. Luke Mastin, The basics of philosophy: a huge subject broken down into manageable chunks, http://www.philosophybasics.com.
  7. Robert M. Young (1996). "The mind-body problem". In R. C. Olby, G. N. Cantor, J. R. Christie, M. J. S. Hodges, eds.. Companion to the History of Modern Science (Paperback reprint of Routledge 1990 ed.). Taylor and Francis. pp. 702–11. ISBN 0415145783 .
  8. Robinson, Howard (3 Novembris 2011). "Dualism". In Edward N. Zalta, ed. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2011 Edition) .
  9. Henrik Lagerlund (2010). "Introduction". In Henrik Lagerlund, ed. Forming the Mind: Essays on the Internal Senses and the Mind/Body Problem from Avicenna to the Medical Enlightenment (Paperback reprint of 2007 ed.). Springer Science+Business Media. p. 3. ISBN 9048175305 .
  10. Urmson 1991:297.
  11. Urmson 1991:297.
  12. Urmson 1991:297.
  13. Anglice: "systematically ambiguous."
  14. Urmson 1991:297.
  15. Anglice: "ridiculed the whole question as incoherent mysticis."
  16. Schaffer.
  17. Fiske 2010:195.
  18. Fiske 2010:195-196.
  19. Urmson 1991:297.
  20. Mandik 2010; McLaughlin 2009.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Abernethy, George L., et Thomas A. Langford. 1970. Introduction to Western Philosophy: Pre-Socratics to Mill. Belmont Californiae: Dickenson.
  • Brugger, Walter, ed. 1972. Diccionario de Filosofía. Barcinonae: Herder.
  • Buswell, Robert E. Jr., et Robert M. Gimello, eds. 1994. Paths to Liberation: The Marga and its Transformations in Buddhist Thought. Dellii: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.
  • Chande, M. B. 2000. Indian Philosophy in Modern Times.Atlantic Publishers & Distributors.
  • Cross, F. L., et E. A. Livingstone. 1974. Monism. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church.xoniae: Oxford University Press.
  • Dasgupta, Surendranath. 1992. A history of Indian philosophy. Pars 1. Motilall Banarsidass.
  • Dense, Christian D. Von. 1999. Philosophers and Religious Leaders. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • Fiske, Susan T., Daniel T. Gilbert, et Garnder Lindzey. 2010. Handbook of Social Psychology. Vol. 1. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Flood, Gavin. 1996. An Introduction to Hinduism. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43878-0.
  • Fowler, Jeaneane D. 2002. Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press.
  • Hawley, Michael. 2006. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888—1975).
  • Hori, Victor Sogen. 1999. Translating the Zen Phrase Book. Nanzan Bulletin 23. PDF.
  • Kalupahana, David J. 1992. The Principles of Buddhist Psychology. Dellii: ri Satguru Publications.
  • Kalupahana, David J. 1994. A history of Buddhist philosophy. Dellii: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited.
  • Kasulis, Thomas P. 2003. Ch'an Spirituality. In Buddhist Spirituality: Later China, Korea, Japan and the Modern World, ed. Takeuchi Yoshinori. Dellii: Motilal Banarsidass.
  • Liang-Chieh. 1986. The Record of Tung-shan. Kuroda Institute.
  • Low, Albert. 2006. Hakuin on Kensho: The Four Ways of Knowing. Bostoniae et Londinii: Shambhala.
  • Maezumi, Taizan, et Bernie Glassman. 2007. The Hazy Moon of Enlightenment. Wisdom Publications.
  • Mandik, Pete. 2010. Key Terms in Philosophy of Mind. Continuum International Publishing Group.
  • McLaughlin, Brian, Ansgar Beckermann, et Sven Walter. 2009. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mind. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press.
  • Michaels, Axel. 2004. Hinduism: Past and present. Princetoniae: Princeton University Press.
  • Momen, Moojan. 1999, 2009. The Phenomenon of Religion: Understanding Religion: A Thematic Approach. Oxoniae: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 978-1-85168-599-8. Textus.
  • Nakamura, Hajime. 1991. Ways of Thinking of Eastern Peoples: India, China, Tibet, Japan. Dellii: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited.
  • Puligandla, Ramakrishna. 1997. Fundamentals of Indian Philosophy. Dellii: D. K. Printworld (P) Ltd.
  • Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli, et Charles A. Moore. 1957. A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy. Ed. 12a. Pricnetoniae: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01958-4.
  • Rambachan, Anatanand. 1994. The Limits of Scripture: Vivekananda's Reinterpretation of the Vedas. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  • Renard, Philip. 1999. Ramana Upanishad. Traiecti ad Rhenum: Servire.
  • Sehgal, Sunil. 1999. Encyclopaedia of Hinduism: T–Z, Volume 5. Sarup & Sons.
  • Sharf, Robert H. 1995. Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience. Numen 42. PDF.
  • Yrmson, James Opie. 1991. The Concise Encyclopedia of Western Philosophy and Philosophers. Routledge.
  • White, David Gordon, ed. 2000. Introduction. In Tantra in Practice. Princetoniae et Oxoniae: Princeton University Press.
  • Williams, Paul. 1994. Mahayana Buddhism. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-02537-0.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Wikiquote-logo.svg Vicicitatio habet citationes quae ad Monismus spectant.