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Positivismus

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Positivismus est theoria philosophica quae dicit scientia positiva in rebus naturalibus et earum proprietatibus et coniunctionibus fundari. Ergo, data ex experientia sensoria deducta, per rationem et logicam intellecta, est solus omnis scientiaecertae fons.[1] Positivismus affirmat scientiam firmam (certitudinem vel veritatem) solum in hac scientia derivata inveniri. Data comprobata (facta positiva) ex sensibus accepta indicia empirica agnoscuntur; ergo positivismus in empirismo innitur.[1]

Anna Robertus Iacobus Turgot. Pictura Antonii Graincourt, nunc Versaliis conservata.
Ordem e Progresso ('Ordo et Progressus'), sententiola Brasiliae, in vexillo visa, notiones positivismi evocat.

Notiones positivismi eorum fontem inveniunt in formulis Ioannis Baptistae Le Rond D'Alembert et Annae Roberti Iacobi Turgot, atque eorum amicorum et discipulorum Iosephi Ludovici Lagrange et Nicolai de Condorcet.

Positivismus habet societatem humanam, sicut mundus physicus, secundum generales leges operari. Scientia introspectiva et declarativa reicitur, sicut metaphysica et theologia. Quamquam enodatio positivistica est materia recurrens in historia cogitationis Occidentalis,[2] sententia hodierna ab Augusto Comte philosopho saeculo undevicensimo ineunte excogitata est.[3] ut mundus physicus per gravitatem et alias leges absolutas, arguit Comte, ita societas operatur,[4] unde Comte positivismum in Religionem Humanitatis sustulit.

Positivismus est pars antiquae rixae generalis philosophiae et poesis, insigniter a Platone exposita, et deinde recreata certamen scientiarum et humanitatum,[5] Plato iudicium poesis ex conspectu philosophiae elabora in dialogis de Phaedro 245a, Symposio 209a, Republica 398a, Legibus 817 b-d, et Ionte.[6] Gulielmus Dilthey fecit ut discrimen Geisteswissenschaft (humanitum) et Naturwissenschaften (scientiae naturalis) populo gratum esset.[7]

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. 1.0 1.1 John J. Macionis et Linda M. Gerber, Sociology, septima editio Canadiana, Pearson Canada.
  2. Cohen et Maldonado 2007.
  3. Auguste Comte .
  4. Macionis 2012:11.
  5. Egan, Kieran (1997) The Educated Mind, pp. 115-116: "Positivism is marked by the final recognition that science provides the only valid form of knowledge and that facts are the only possible objects of knowledge; philosophy is thus recognized as essentially no different from science [. . .] Ethics, politics, social interactions, and all other forms of human life about which knowledge was possible would eventually be drawn into the orbit of science [. . .] The positivists' program for mapping the inexorable and immutable laws of matter and society seemed to allow no greater role for the contribution of poets than had Plato. [. . .] What Plato represented as the quarrel between philosophy and poetry is resuscitated in the 'two cultures' quarrel of more recent times between the humanities and the sciences."
  6. Saunders 1987:46.
  7. Wallace 2008:27.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Amory, Frederic. 1999. Euclides da Cunha and Brazilian Positivism. Luso-Brazilian Review 36(1):87–94.
  • Cohen, Louis, et Antonio Maldonado. 2007. Research Methods in Education. British Journal of Educational Studies 55(4):9. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8527.2007.00388_4.x.
  • Giddens, Anthony. 1974. Positivism and Sociology. Londinii: Heinemann.
  • Gilson, Gregory D., et Irving W. Levinson, eds. 2012. Latin American Positivism: New Historical and Philosophic Essays. Lexington Books.
  • Kremer-Marietti, Angèle. 1980. L'Anthropologie positiviste d'Auguste Comte. Lutetiae: Librairie Honoré Champion.
  • Kremer-Marietti, Angèle. 1982. Le positivisme. Collection "Que sais-je?" Lutetiae: PUF.
  • LeGouis, Catherine. 1997. Positivism and Imagination: Scientism and Its Limits in Emile Hennequin, Wilhelm Scherer, and Dmitril Pisarev. Londinii: Bucknell University Press.
  • Macionis, John J. 2012. Sociology. Ed. 14a. Bostoniae: Pearson. ISBN 9780205116713.
  • Mill, John Stuart. Auguste Comte and Positivism.
  • Mises, Richard von. 1951. Positivism: A Study In Human Understanding. Cantabrigiae Massachusettae: Harvard University Press.
  • Pickering, Mary. 1993. Auguste Comte: An Intellectual Biography. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rorty, Richard Rorty. 1982. Consequences of Pragmatism.
  • Saunders, T. J. 1987. Introduction to Ion. Londinii: Penguin Books.
  • Schunk, Dale H. 1991, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008. Learning Theories: An Educational Perspective. Ed. 5a. Pearson, Merrill Prentice Hall.
  • Marxists Internet Archive. 2012. "Positivism." 23 Februarii.
  • Wallace, Edwin R., et John Gach, eds. 2008. Historiography: Medicine and Psychiatry. In History of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology: With an Epilogue on Psychiatry, ed. Edwin R. Wallace, IV, et John Gach, 3ff.
  • Whetsell, Travis, et Patricia M. Shields. The Dynamics of Positivism in the Study of Public Administration: A Brief Intellectual History and Reappraisal. Administration & Society. doi:10.1177/0095399713490157.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]