|Pagina adhuc usque elaboratur...|
Haec pagina nondum perfecta in manibus auctoris est. Quapropter rogaris ut nihil nisi minora hic mutes, maiora autem ante disputes illic.
Si vero auctor ipse per septem dies nihil mutaverit, hanc formulam delere licet.
Iogurtum sive iugurtha est lacticinium ex fermentatione bacteriali lactis factum. Fieri potest ex quolibet lacte, sed hodie saepissime ex vaccino. Textura gelatinosa saccharo lactico in acidum lacticum evenit, necnon sapor acer.
De nomine primisque auctoribus[recensere | fontem recensere]
Scriptorum, qui de iogurto disseruerint, antiquissimus Plinius maior esse videtur: "Mirum barbaras gentes, quae lacte vivant, ignorare aut spernere tot saeculis casei dotem, densantes id alioqui in acorem iucundum et pingue butyrum". Ita verbis "acorem iucundum" Plinius ad iogurtum mediae Asiae allusit, nomine Graeco "oxygala" minime adducto. Ipse oxygalam alio contextu descripsit. Sed Augerius Gislenius Busbequius anno 1555 oxygalam antiquam eandem esse asseveravit atque sorbitionem Asiaticam, quam ipse primus Latinistarum nomine distinxit:
- "... aut acidi lactis genus, Galeno non ignoti, quod ipse oxygalam, isti iugurtham dicunt, nihil requirant præterea. Lac illud diluunt aqua frigidissima, panemque interunt: eoque utuntur in magno aestu et siti. Cuius sane utilitatem nos quoque in magnis caloribus saepe experti sumus. Cibus is cum palato et ventriculo gratissimus est, tum ad extinguendam vehementiorem sitim vim habet admirabilem. Magna eius copia passim venalis est, ubicunque sunt caravasciarai (hoc est ... Turcarum diversoria), quemadmodum et aliorum obsoniorum".
Busbequius, qui eo tempore prope Ancyram iter faciebat, hoc vocabulum e nomine Turcico dempsit, quod forma yuğrut iam saeculo VIII in documentis Uighuricis relatum erat, saeculo XI in fontibus litterariis tam in lexico Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk Mahometi al-Kāšġarī [en] quam apud poëtam Karachanidam Iosephus Ḫāṣṣ Ḥājib [en]. Turcice a saeculo XIV hodie usque yoğurt scribitur, unde nomen Theodiscum Jogurt, Anglicum yogurt, Neograecum γιαούρτι, Francogallicum yaourt.
De historia[recensere | fontem recensere]
- In Bulgaria excellent yaourt, or sour milk
- In Peloponneso Yaourt, which seems to be a Tartar invention introduced into Greece by the Turks, is made from the best milk of sheep or goats. To make the pityà or coagulum — take some leaven of bread, that is to say, flour and water turned sour, and squeeze a lemon upon it, dissolve it in boiling milk, and keep it twenty-four hours. To make the yaourt — boil some new milk till it foams, stirring it frequently, leave it till it is cool enough for the finger to bear the heat; then throw in the pityá, of which a Turkish coffee-cup full is sufficient to make several quarts of yaourt. Then cover it that it may not cool too fast, and in three hours it is fit for use. On all future occasions a cup of the old yaourt is the best pityá for the new.
- Inter Beduinos "They ... were never backward in offering me the youart, a kind of whey, which is the principal delicacy to be found amongst the wandering tribes".
- In Creta On nous offre du yaourti, seule nourriture de tous ces malheureux. -- Yaourti: lait caillé très-aigre
- In Peloponneso a sort of very sour clotted cream
- In Corcyra "Yaourti: a sort of junket of curdled milk sprinkled with cinnamon".
- "Mrs. Beaver stood with her back to the fire, eating her morning yoghort. She held the carton close under her chin and gobbled with a spoon. 'Heavens, how nasty this stuff is. I wish you’d take to it, John. You’re looking so tired lately. I don’t know how I should get through my day without it' ".
De variationibus[recensere | fontem recensere]
Armenian: մածուն matsun) or matsoni (Georgian: მაწონი mats'oni) is a fermented milk product of Armenian origin
In Northern Iran, Mâst Chekide is a variety of kefir yogurt with a distinct sour taste.
Dahi is a yogurt from the Indian subcontinent, known for its characteristic taste and consistency. The word dahi seems to be derived from the Sanskrit word dadhi ("sour milk"), one of the five elixirs, or panchamrita, often used in Hindu ritual. Sweetened dahi (mishti doi or meethi dahi) is common in eastern parts of India, made by fermenting sweetened milk. While cow's milk is currently the primary ingredient for yogurt, goat and buffalo milk were widely used in the past, and valued for the fat content (see buffalo curd). (en:wiki)
Dadiah or dadih is a traditional West Sumatran yogurt made from water buffalo milk, fermented in bamboo tubes.
Yogurt that has been strained to filter or remove the whey is known as Labneh in Middle Eastern countries. It has a consistency between that of yogurt and cheese. In North America, strained yogurt is commonly called "Greek yogurt". Powdered milk is sometimes added in lieu of straining to achieve thickness. In Britain as "Greek-style yogurt".
An unusual Moroccan yoghurt, rayib, is made from milk thickened with the hairy hearts of wild Moroccan artichokes (2000 C. Hanger World Food: Morocco 59: OED)
Skyr is an Icelandic cultured dairy product, similar to strained yogurt traditionally served cold with milk and a topping of sugar
De usu cibario[recensere | fontem recensere]
The sausage had been ... stuffed into a hunk of bread with a piece of onion. It went very well with a glass of the yogurt drink ayran. (2007 New Yorker 9 July 49/1 OED)
Ayran, doogh ("dawghe" in Neo-Aramaic) or dhallë is a yogurt-based, salty drink. It is made by mixing yogurt with water and (sometimes) salt.
Borhani (or burhani) is a spicy yogurt drink from Bangladesh. It is usually served with kacchi biryani at weddings and special feasts. Key ingredients are yogurt blended with mint leaves (mentha), mustard seeds and black rock salt (Kala Namak). Ground roasted cumin, ground white pepper, green chili pepper paste and sugar are often added.
Lassi is a yogurt-based beverage that is usually slightly salty or sweet, and may be commercially flavored with rosewater, mango or other fruit juice. Salty lassi is usually flavored with ground, roasted cumin and red chilies, may be made with buttermilk.
An unsweetened and unsalted yogurt drink usually called simply jogurt is consumed with burek and other baked goods in the Balkans. Lassi is a common Indian beverage made from stirred liquified yogurt that is either salted or sweetened with sugar commonly, less commonly honey and combined with fruit pulp to create flavored lassi. Consistency can vary widely, with urban and commercial lassis having uniform texture through being processed, whereas rural and rustic lassi has discernible curds or fruit pulp. (en:wiki) Takram (sa:तक्रम्)
Mâst Chekide is usually mixed with a pesto-like water and fresh herb purée called delal. Common appetizers are spinach or eggplant borani, Mâst-o-Khiâr with cucumber, spring onions and herbs, and Mâst-Musir with wild shallots. In the summertime, yogurt and ice cubes are mixed together with cucumbers, raisins, salt, pepper and onions and topped with some croutons made of Persian traditional bread and served as a cold soup. Ashe-Mâst is a warm yogurt soup with fresh herbs, spinach and lentils. Even the leftover water extracted when straining yogurt is cooked to make a sour cream sauce called kashk, which is usually used as a topping on soups and stews.
Tarator and Cacık are cold soups made from yogurt during summertime in eastern Europe. They are made with ayran, cucumbers, dill, salt, olive oil, and optionally garlic and ground walnuts. Tzatziki in Greece and milk salad in Bulgaria are thick yogurt-based salads similar to tarator.
That which they seem to prefer is meat of any kind pounded with meal or flower, seasoned with pepper and salt; which being formed into balls, is boiled and eaten with yaourt, which the Arabs call lebban (1805 J. Griffiths Trav. Europe, Asia Minor, & Arabia xxiv. 387 OED)
Raita is a condiment made with yogurt in the Indian subcontinent
Khyar w Laban (cucumber and yogurt salad) is a dish in Lebanon and Syria. Also, a wide variety of local Lebanese and Syrian dishes are cooked with yogurt like "Kibbi bi Laban" Rahmjoghurt, a creamy yogurt with much higher fat content (10%) than many yogurts offered in English-speaking countries. Dovga, a yogurt soup cooked with a variety of herbs and rice, is served warm in winter or refreshingly cold in summer. Jameed, yogurt salted and dried to preserve it, is consumed in Jordan. Zabadi is the type of yogurt made in Egypt, usually from the milk of the Egyptian water buffalo. It is particularly associated with Ramadan fasting, as it is thought to prevent thirst during all-day fasting.
Saepe cum fructibus, vanilla, vel theobromate conditur. Large amounts of sugar – or other sweeteners for low-energy yogurts – are often used in commercial yogurt. Some yogurts contain added modified starch, pectin (found naturally in fruit) or gelatin to create thickness and creaminess. This type of yogurt may be marketed under the name Swiss-style, although it is unrelated to conventional Swiss yogurt. Some yogurts, often called "cream line", are made with whole milk which has not been homogenized so the cream rises to the top. In many countries, sweetened, flavored yogurt is common, typically sold in single-serving plastic cups. Common flavors may include vanilla, honey, and toffee, and various fruits. In the early 21st century, yogurt flavors inspired by desserts, such as chocolate or cheesecake, became common. Sweetened yogurt drinks are the usual form in Europe (including the UK) and the US, containing fruit and added sweeteners. These are typically called "drinkable yogurt". Also available are "yogurt smoothies", which contain a higher proportion of fruit and are more like smoothies.
Labneh may be used for sandwiches in Middle Eastern countries. Olive oil, cucumber slices, olives, and various green herbs may be added. It can be thickened further and rolled into balls, preserved in olive oil, and fermented for a few more weeks. It is sometimes used with onions, meat, and nuts as a stuffing for a variety of pies or kibbeh balls.
Some types of strained yogurts are boiled in open vats first, so that the liquid content is reduced. The East Indian dessert, a variation of traditional dahi called mishti dahi, offers a thicker, more custard-like consistency, and is usually sweeter than western yogurts. In western Indian (Marathi and Gujarati) cuisine, strained yogurt is macerated with sugar and spices such as saffron, cardamom and nutmeg to make the dessert "shrikhand". Strained yogurt is also enjoyed in Greece and is the main component of tzatziki (from Turkish "cacık"), a well-known accompaniment to gyros and souvlaki pita sandwiches: it is a yogurt sauce or dip made with the addition of grated cucumber, olive oil, salt and, optionally, mashed garlic. Srikhand, a dessert in India, is made from strained yogurt, saffron, cardamom, nutmeg and sugar and sometimes fruits such as mango or pineapple.
De re diaetetica; de facultate macrobiotica[recensere | fontem recensere]
We may live to be 120 by the use of yogurt. (1909 Ann. Amer. Acad. Polit. & Soc. Sci. 34 174 OED) Stokowski..was concerned with retaining his youth—and Garbo, always a food faddist, was into the ‘yoga and yoghourt’ experience. (1980 Sunday Times 14 Sept. (Colour Suppl.) 85/4 OED)
Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]
- "Kurier", die 07.05.2012
- Ita apud Busbequium (vide locos), sine dubio ex similitudine cum nomine antiquo Iugurtha
- "lac iogurtinum, lac coagulatum Turcicum": Ebbe Vilborg, Norstedts svensk-latinska ordbok, editio secunda, 2009
- Plinius, Naturalis historia 11.239
- Plinius, Naturalis historia 28.134-135
- #Busbequius (1595)
- #Clauson (1972)
- #Ḫāṣṣ Ḥājib
- William Macmichael, Journey from Moscow to Constantinople (1819) pp. 142-143
- #Leake (1830)
- A. W. Kinglake, Eothen (1844) p. 250
- Jules Ballot, Histoire de l'insurrection crétoise (Lutetiae: Dentu, 1868) p. 201
- Isabel Armstrong, Two Roving Englishwomen in Greece (Londinii, 1893)
- Lawrence Durrell, Prospero's Cell (1945) p. 139
- Evelyn Waugh, A Handful of Dust (1934) p. 3
- Kareh Moraba, "The Story of Kashk" in Gastronomica vol. 16 (2016) pp. 97-100 JSTOR
Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]
- Fontes antiquiores
- saec. XI : Mahometus al-Kāšġarī [en], Dīwān Luġāt al-Turk (Robert Dankoff, ed. et interpr., Maḥmūd al-Kāšγarī: Compendium of The Turkic Dialects (Dīwān Luγāt at-Turk). 3 voll. Cantabrigiae Massachusettensium, 1982) 1 2 3
- saec. XI : Iosephus Ḫāṣṣ Ḥājib [en], Qutadğu Bilig (Robert Dankoff, interpr., Yusuf Khass Hajib: Wisdom of Royal Glory (Kutadgu Bilig): a Turko-Islamic mirror for princes. Chicagine: University of Chicago Press, 1983)
- 1555 : Augerius Gislenius Busbequius, Legationis Turcicae epistolae (p.68 editionis 1595)
- 1830 : W. M. Leake, Travels in the Morea (1830) vol. 1 p. 17-18
- 1905 : Stamen Grigoroff, "Étude sur une lait fermentée comestible: le "kissélo mléko" de Bulgarie" in Revue médicale de la Suisse romande (1905)
- 1907 : Henriette Davidis; Gertrude Wiemann, ed., Praktisches Kochbuch für die bürgerliche und feine Küche ... Neue illustrierte Ausgabe (Berolini: W. Herlet, 1907) Textus apud Gutenberg (praeceptum re vera non iogurti, potius kefir)
- Historica et generalia
- "Yoghurt" in Alan Davidson, The Oxford Companion to Food (Oxoniae: Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-211579-0) p. 859; Tom Jaine, ed., 2a ed. 2006; 3a ed. 2014
- Mauro Fisberg, Rachel Machado, "History of yogurt and current patterns of consumption" in Nutrition Reviews vol. 73 suppl. 1 (2015) pp. 4–7
- Perin Gurel, "Live and Active Cultures: Gender, Ethnicity, and “Greek” Yogurt in America" in Gastronomica vol. 16 (2016) pp. 66-77 JSTOR
- Eric Hansen, "Of Yogurt and Yörüks" in Saudi Aramco World (Iulio 2008)
- "Yogurt" in Harold McGee, On Food and Cooking (Novi Eboraci: Scribner, 1984; Londinii: Allen & Unwin, 1986) pp. 33-34, cf. pp. 558-559
- Nevena Nancheva, "Bacillus Bulgaricus: The Breeding of National Pride" in Atsuko Ichijo, Venetia Johannes, Ronald Ranta, edd., The emergence of national food: the dynamics of food and nationalism. Londinii: Bloomsbury (2019) pp. 61-72
- Elitsa Stoilova, "From a Homemade to an Industrial Product: Manufacturing Bulgarian Yogurt" in Agricultural History vol. 87 (2013) pp. 73-92 JSTOR
- Mustafa Tayar, "Herkes için yoğurt" in Dünya Gida (20 Iunii 2013)
- Murat Yurdakök, "Yoğurdun öyküsü, probiyotiklerin tarihi" in Çocuk Sağlığı ve Hastalıkları Dergisi vol. 56 (2013) pp. 43-60
- Microbiologica et diaetetica
- Naglaa Hani El-Abbadi, Maria Carlota Dao, Simin Nikbin Meydani, "Yogurt: role in healthy and active aging" in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition vol. 99 (2014) pp. 1263S–1270S
- Arne Astrup, "Yogurt and dairy product consumption to prevent cardiometabolic diseases: epidemiologic and experimental studies" in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition vol. 99 (2014) pp. 1235S–1242S
- Chen Chen et al., "Role of lactic acid bacteria on the yogurt flavour: A review" in International Journal of Food Properties vol. 20 (2017)
- Hefa Cheng, "Volatile Flavor Compounds in Yogurt: A Review" in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition vol. 50 (2010)
- S. Desobry-Banon, N. Vetier, J. Hardy, "Health benefits of yogurt consumption. A review" in International Journal of Food Properties vol. 2 (1999) pp. 1-12
- J. Bruce German, "The future of yogurt: scientific and regulatory needs" in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition vol. 99 (2014) pp. 1271S–1278S
- Paul F. Jacques, Huifen Wang, "Yogurt and weight management" in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition vol. 99 (2014) pp. 1229S–1234S
- André Marette, Eliane Picard-Deland, "Yogurt consumption and impact on health: focus on children and cardiometabolic risk" in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition vol. 99 (2014) pp. 1243S-1247S
- Martine Piaia et al., "Assessment of the Benefits of Live Yogurt: Methods and Markers for in vivo Studies of the Physiological Effects of Yogurt Cultures" in Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease vol. 15 (2003)
- Dennis A. Savaiano, "Lactose digestion from yogurt: mechanism and relevance" in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition vol. 99 (2014) pp. 1251S–1255S
- Petya Velikova et al., "Microbial diversity and health-promoting properties of the traditional Bulgarian yogurt" in Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment vol. 32 (2018)
- "Yuğrut" in Gerard Clauson, An etymological dictionary of pre-thirteenth-century Turkish (Oxonii: Clarendon Press, 1972) p. 905 exemplar mutuabile
- "Yogurt" in The Oxford English Dictionary (Oxonii: Clarendon Press, 1989. 20 voll.)
Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]
- Ayşe Baysal, "Yoghurt; A Globalizing Turkish Food" apud Turkish Cuisine
- "History of Yogurt" apud YogurtRight!
- "Homemade Yogurt Recipe with its History"
- "Dahi: An Ayurvedic View Of Yoghurt" apud Alandi Ayurveda