Parnassius apollo

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Parnassius apollo Pirineus.JPG
Parnassius apollo, latus superius

Classis : Insecta 
Ordo : Lepidoptera 
Familia : Papilionidae 
Subfamilia : Parnassiinae 
Tribus : Parnassiini 
Genus : Parnassius 
Species : P. apollo 
Parnassius apollo 
(Linnaeus, 1758)  
Conservationis status
Territorium
Apollo distribution map.png
Tabula distributionis
Parnassius apollo.

Parnassius apollo est papilio subfamiliae Parnassiinarum familiae Papilionidarum. Species ob traditionem classicam ex Apollone, uno e duodecim deis Olympicis, appellatur.

Subspecies[recensere | fontem recensere]

Inter subspecies sunt:[1][2][3]

  • Parnassius apollo apollo L.
  • Parnassius apollo alpherakyi Krulikowsky, 1906
  • Parnassius apollo bartholomaeus Stichel, 1899
  • Parnassius apollo democratus Kulikowsky, 1906
  • Parnassius apollo filabricus Sagarra, 1933
  • Parnassius apollo gadorensis Rougeot & Capdeville, 1969 (Sierra de Gádor). Exstincta.
  • Parnassius apollo geminus Schawerda, 1907
  • Parnassius apollo graecus Ziegler, 1901
  • Parnassius apollo hesebolus Nordmann, 1851
  • Parnassius apollo hispanicus Oberthür, 1909 (Hispania media)
  • Parnassius apollo limicola Stichel, 1906
  • Parnassius apollo merzbacheri Fruhstorfer, 1906
  • Parnassius apollo nevadensis Oberthür, 1891 (Serra Nivata)
  • Parnassius apollo provincialis Kheil, 1905
  • Parnassius apollo pyrenaica Harcourt-Bath, 1896
  • Parnassius apollo rhodopensis Markowitsch, 1910 (Graecia, Balcaniae)
  • Parnassius apollo rhaeticus Fruhstorfer, 1906
  • Parnassius apollo rhea (Poda, 1761)
  • Parnassius apollo rubidus Fruhstorfer, 1906
  • Parnassius apollo sibiricus Nordmann, 1851
  • Parnassius apollo sicilae Oberthür, 1891
  • Parnassius apollo valesiacus Fruhstorfer, 1906
  • Parnassius apollo vinningensis Stichel, 1899 (Mosella Germaniae)
Habitatio Parnassii apollonis in La Thuile, loco IItalico, circiter 2700 metra super aequore maris.

Haec species colles et alpina continentalium Europae montium prata pascuaque florentia in Hispania, Scandinavia, Europaque Media, in Balcaniis ad Graeciam septentrionalem, atque in Alpibus inter Italiam et Franciam petit.[4][1] Invenitur etiam in nonnullis regionibus Asiae Mediae (Iacutia). Eius habitatio a 400 metris super aequor maris usque ad 2300 metra patet, sed loca supra 1000 metra praeponit.[5]

Pinacotheca[recensere | fontem recensere]

Fetum unum in anno habet. Adulti a Maio mense ad Septembrem volant,[6][5] nectare a floribus effecto vescentes.[7]

Circulus vitae Parnassii apollonis
Par inter se coeunt.
Sphragis in femina.

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. 1.0 1.1 distribution and images
  2. Smart 1975.
  3. Pro indice pleniore subspecierum et singulis de typis speciminum in Museo Britannico (Historia Naturalis), vide Ackery 1973.
  4. Todisco, Valentina; Gratton, Paolo; Cesaroni, Donatella; Sbordoni, Valerio. "Phylogeography of Parnassius Apollo: Hints on Taxonomy and Conservation of a Vulnerable Glacial Butterfly Invader". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 101 (1): 178 .
  5. 5.0 5.1 Captain's European Butterfly Guide.
  6. Still, J. (1996) Butterflies and Moths of Britain and Europe. Harper Collins, London.
  7. Fred, M. S.; O'Hara, R.B.; Brommer, J. E. (2006). "Consequences of the spatial configuration of resources for the distribution and dynamics of the endangered Parnassius apollo butterfly". Biological Conservation 130: 183–192 .

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Ackery, P. R. 1973. A list of the type-specimens of Parnassius (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in the British Museum (Natural History). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Entomology) 29(1):1—35, 1 pl. interretialis.
  • Capdeville, Pierre. 19781980. Les races géographiques de Parnassius apollo. Sciences Nat, Venette.
  • Dolek, M., et A. Geyer. 2002. Conserving biodiversity on calcareous grasslands in the Franconian Jura by grazing: a comprehensive approach. Biological Conservation 104:351–60. doi:10.1016/s0006-3207(01)00200-2.
  • Mérit, Xavier, et Véronique Mérit. 2006. Les Parnassius de France. Bulletin des Lépidoptéristes parisiens 15(33). Lutetae.
  • Möhn, Edwin. 2005 Schmetterlinge der Erde, Butterflies of the world. Pars 23, Papilionidae; XII. Parnassius apollo. Ed. Erich Bauer et Thomas Frankenbach. Keltern: Goecke & Evers; Cantuariae: Hillside Books. ISBN 9783937783161.
  • Smart, P. 1975. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Butterfly World. Londinii: Hamlyn Publishing Group.
  • Weiss, Jean-Claude. 2005. The Parnassiinae of the World. Pars 4. Cantuariae: Hillside Books. Textus.
  • Witkowsky, Z., J. Budzik, et A. Kosior. 1992. Restoration of the Apollo butterfly in Pieniny National Park. Chrońmy Przyrodę Ojczystą 1992:3–4.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Parnassium apollonem spectant.