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Archaeopteryx

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Archaeopteryx lithographica (Berlin specimen).jpg

Classis : Aves 
Ordo : Archaeopterygiformes 
Avialae 
Familia : Archaeopterygidae 
Genus : Archaeopteryx 
Meyer, 1861 (nomen conservandum)[1]
   
Palaeontologia
150–145 m.a.Iurassicum superius
Subdivisiones: Species
* A. lithographica Meyer, 1861
  • A. bavarica Wellnhofer, 1993
Synonyma
*Griphosaurus
Wagner, 1862 [nomen rejectum]
  • Griphornis
    Woodward, 1862 [nomen rejectum]
  • Archaeornis
    Petronievics, 1917
  • Jurapteryx
    Howgate, 1984
  • Wellnhoferia?
    Elżanowski, 2001
Archaeopteryx sizes ranging between about 25 and 50 cm long and between 25 and 60 cm in wingspan
Specimina cum homine sapienti comparata.

Archaeopteryx (f.; Graece ἀρχαῖος 'antiqua' + πτέρυξ 'ala, pinna'), aliquando Theodisce Urvogel ('primordia avis') in variis linguis appellata, est exstinctum genus dinosauriorum avibus similium, fossile transitionale inter dinosauria pinnata non aviana et aves hodiernas ut videtur. Quod fossile, primum in Iura Franconiana prope oppidum Solnhofen repertum, palaeontologis librisque populo gratis paene ubique inter saecula undevicensimum exiens et vicensimum unum iniens receptum est, titulo veterrimae avis notae. Subdivisio est cladi Avialarum.[2] Priores autem avialae nunc inventae sunt, inter quas Anchiornis, Xiaotingia, Aurornis.[3]

Archaeopteryx abhinc annorum a 150 fere ad circa 145 milliones vixit, tempore Iurassico Superiore, in terris nunc Germaniae meridianae et Portugaliae, cum Europa archipelagus insularum in mari humili calidoque esset, aequatori multo propior quam hodie. Magnitudine Picae picae similis, maximis singulis fortasse corvis similibus,[4] maxima Archaeopterygis species usque ad 0.5 metrum longae crescere poterant. Contra autem earum magnitudinem, alas latas, et coniecturalem volandi prolabiendique facultatem, Archaeopteryx aliorum parvorum dinosauriorum Mesozoicorum, non avium hodiernarum, similior erat. Has proprietates cum dromaeosauridis et troodontidis potissimum communicabant: mandibulam acribus dentibus, tris digitos unguibus, longam caudam osseam, secundum pedis digitum hyperextensibilem ("unguem necantem"), pinnas (quae praeterea homoeothermiam implicant), variasque sceleti proprietates.[5][6]

Cladogramma[recensere | fontem recensere]

Infra est cladogramma a Pascale Godefroit et aliis anno 2013 editum.[7]

Avialae

Aurornis




Anchiornis




Archaeopteryx




Xiaotingia





Shenzhouraptor



Rahonavis





Balaur




Avebrevicauda (aves hodiernas comprehendit)









Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. "Opinion 2283 (Case 3390) Archaeopteryx lithographica von Meyer, 1861 (Aves): conservation of usage by designation of a neotype" in Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature vol. 68 (2011) pp. 230–33.
  2. Xu, X; You, H; Du, K; Han, F (28 July 2011). "An Archaeopteryx-like theropod from China and the origin of Avialae". Nature 475 (7357): 465–70 .
  3. Pascal et al. 2013.
  4. Erickson et al. 2009
  5. Yalden 1984.
  6. Chiappe et Witme 2002: 151.
  7. Godefroit et al. 2013.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Beer, G. R. de. 1954. Archaeopteryx lithographica: a study based upon the British Museum specimen. Londinii: Trustees of the British Museum.
  • Chambers, P. 2002. Bones of Contention: The Fossil that Shook Science. Londinii: John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-6059-4.
  • Chiappe, L. M., et L. M. Witme, eds. 2002. Mesozoic birds: above the heads of dinosaurs. Berkeleiae et Angelopoli: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20094-4. Google Books.
  • Erickson, Gregory M., Oliver W. M. Rauhuit, Zhonghe Zhou, Alan H. Turner, Brian D. Inouye, Dongyu Hu, et Mark A. Norell. 2009. "Was Dinosaurian Physiology Inherited by Birds? Reconciling Slow Growth in Archaeopteryx." PLoS One 4 (10): e7390, ed. Robert Desalle. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.7390E. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007390. PMC 2756958. PMID 19816582. Editio interretialis.
  • Feduccia, A. 1996. The Origin and Evolution of Birds. Portu Novo Connecticutae: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-06460-8.
  • Godefroit, Pascal, Andrea Cau, Dong-Yu Hu, François Escuillié, Wenhao Wu, et Gareth Dyke. 2013. "A Jurassic avialan dinosaur from China resolves the early phylogenetic history of birds." Nature 498 (7454): 359–62. Bibcode:2013Natur.498..359G. doi:10.1038/nature12168. PMID 23719374. PDF.
  • Heilmann, G. 1926. The Origin of Birds. Londinii: Witherby.
  • Huxley, T. H. 1871. Manual of the anatomy of vertebrate animals. Londinii.
  • Mayr, Gerald. 2017. Avian evolution: the fossil record of birds and its paleobiological significance. Francofurti: Senckenberg Research Institute Frankfurt, Senckenberganlage. Chichester Sussexiae Occidentalis et Hoboken Novae Caesareae: Wiley Blackwell. ISBN 9781119020769, ISBN 111902076X.
  • Meyer, H. von. 1861. Archaeopteryx lithographica (Vogel-Feder) und Pterodactylus von Solenhofen. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefakten-Kunde 678–79, lamina V.
  • Rauhut, Oliver W. M., Christian Foth, Helmut Tischlinger. 2018. "The oldest Archaeopteryx (Theropoda: Avialiae): a new specimen from the Kimmeridgian/Tithonian boundary of Schamhaupten, Bavaria." Peer Journal 26 Ianuarii 2018. Editio interretialis.
  • Shipman, P. 1998. Taking Wing: Archaeopteryx and the Evolution of Bird Flight. Londinii: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-84156-4.
  • Steiner, Hans. 1962. "Befunde am dritten Exemplar des Urvogels Archaeopteryx." Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zürich. PDF.
  • Stephan, Burkhard. 2003. "Die nachweisbaren Strukturen der Federn von Archaeopteryx mit Anmerkungen zu Longisquama und diversen Proavis-Modellen." Mitt. Mus. Nat.kd. Berl., Geowiss. Reihe 6 (2003) 183–93. PDF.
  • Wellnhofer, P. 2008. Archaeopteryx: Der Urvogel von Solnhofen. Monaci: Verlag Friedrich Pfeil. ISBN 978-3-89937-076-8.
  • Yalden D. W. 1984. "What size was Archaeopteryx?" Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 82 (1–2): 177–88. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1984.tb00541.x.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Wikidata-logo.svg Situs scientifici:  • Biodiversity • Encyclopedia of Life • Fossilworks
Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Archaeopterygem spectant.