Roman numeral 10000 CC DD.svg
Mille Paginae.png

Domus Han

E Vicipaedia
Salire ad: navigationem, quaerere
Domus Han anno 2 (terra fusca), cum praesidiis militum (punctis flavis), civitatibus clientibus (punctis viridibus), et civitatibus stipendiariis (punctis croceis) usque Crater Tarim (Anglice: Tarim Basin) in occidentalibus Mediae Asiae regionibus.

Domus Han (202 a.C.n.220) fuit altera imperatoria Sinarum domus, quae Domui Qin (221 a.C.n.206 a.C.n.) successit et Regnis Tribus (220 a.C.n.265) antecessit. Domus condita est a Liu Bang, duce rustico, post mortem appellato Imperatore Gaozu Han (regnavit 202 a.C.n.195 a.C.n.). Domus breviter interrupta est a Domu Xin (923) regentis Wang Mang; hoc interregnum dividit Han in duo tempora: Han Occidentalem (202 a.C.n.9 p.C.n.) et Han Orientalem (25220). Per circa quattuor saecula, tempus domus Han habetur aetas aurea in historia Sinensi (Zhou 2003:34). Adhuc hodie, populi maximi Sinae gregis ethnici se appellant populi Han (Schaefer 2008:279).

Historia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Prima Sinae domus imperatoria fuit Domus Qin (221 a.C.n.206 a.C.n.), cuius victoria Civitates Bellantes Sinenses in unam dicionem redegerat; sed imperio post mortem Qin Shi Huang, primi imperatoris, instabili, domus auctoritas intra tantum quattuor annos concidit, et imperium in Regna Duodeviginti diffissum est (Ebrey 1999:60–61). Duo duces hominum seditiosorum, Xiang Yu (m. 202 a.C.n.) Regni Chu et Liu Bang (m. 195 a.C.n.) populi Han, tunc armis inter se ad hegemon Sinae decernendum pugnaverunt. Quisque Regnorum Duodeviginti foedus cum Xiang Yu vel Liu Bang fecit (Loewe 1986:116–122). Quamquam hic fuit imperii capax, ille eum apud Proelium Gaixianum, in terra hodiernae provinciae Anhui, vicit. Titulum Imperatoris Sinae mox adsumpsit, et regnavit ab 202 a.C.n. ad 195 a.C.n.; post mortem appellatur Imperator Gaozu (Davis 2001:44–46). Caput sui imperii elegit Chang'an (Loewe 1986:122).

Han Occidentalis[recensere | fontem recensere]

Interregnum Wang Mang et bellum civile[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nummus aereus per regnum Wang Mang (regnavit 923) factus

Societas et cultura[recensere | fontem recensere]

Classis socialis[recensere | fontem recensere]

Crater "lacquerware"? Domus Han Occidentalis.
Patina "lacquerware"? Domus Han Occidentalis.

In Sinensi graduum societate, imperator summum societatis administrationisque locum tenuit; is autem saepe fuit iuvenis, temperatus a procuratore regni, sicut imperatore vidua vel paucis cognatis maribus (Ch'ü 1972:66–72). Sub imperatorem fuerunt reges, socii tribus imperatoris, nomine Liu (Bielenstein 1980:105–107; Ch'ü 1972:76). Alii homines, nobilibus inclusis, et plebs, servis exclusis, ad unum ex viginti gradibus (二十公乘 ershi gongcheng) pertinuerunt.

Coniugium, genus, consanguinitas[recensere | fontem recensere]

Serva sericata temporis Han in palla serica; fictilia Sinensia
Saltatrix sericata temporis Han in palla serica; fictilia Sinensia

Familia tempore Han fuit patrilinealis, et quattuor ad quinque socii familiae usitate unum domum habitaverunt. Homines variarum aetatum cuiusque familiae eandem domum non habitaverunt, dissimiles familiarum inferiorum domuum imperialium (Ch'ü 1972:3–9; Hinsch 2002:46–47). Secundum normis Confucianis, quisque socius familia habuit suum proprium observantiae consuetudinisque gradum. Exempli gratia, tempus luctus patris discrepavit a tempore luctus patrui (Ch'ü 1972:9–10). Coniugia designata (Anglice: arranged marriages) fuerunt usitata, patris opinione de progeniei coniuge graviore quam matris (Ch'ü 1972:34; Hinsch 2002:35). Coniugia monogamosa? quoque sunt usitata, quamquam nobiles administratoresque alti fuerunt tam divites quam potuerunt concubinas sufficere et sustinere (Ch'ü 1972:44–47; Hinsch 2002:38–39). Mos (non lex) fuit quod viri feminaeque aliquando potuerunt divortium facere cum coniuge et iterum matrimonio se coniungere (Ch'ü 1972:37–43; Hinsch 2002:40–45).

Alimentum[recensere | fontem recensere]

Comunissimae fruges quotidianae fuerunt triticum, hordeum, oryza, milium, et fabae (Wang 1982:52). Fructus et holera quae homines communiter ederunt fuerunt castaneas, pira, pruna, persica, melones, pruna armeniaca, fraga, Myricas rubras (Sinice: 杨梅 yángméi), zizypha, Crescentias cujete (Sinice: 葫蘆 húlu et 葫子 húzi), folia harundinis Indicae et Brassicae junceae, et taro (Wang 1982:53, 206). Animalia domestica ab hominibus esa fuerunt pulli, anates, anseres, boves, oves, sues, cameli, et canes. Testudines et pisces ex fluminibus et lacubus capti sunt. Venationes saepe consumptae fuerunt bubones, phasiani, picae, cervi sika, et Bambusicolae thoracici (Wang 1982:57–58). Condimenta usitata fuerunt saccharum, mel, sal, et "soy sauce"? (Hansen 2000:119–121). Homines cervisiam et vinum quotidie consumpserunt (Hansen 2000:119; Wang 1982:206).

Religio, cosmologia, metaphysica[recensere | fontem recensere]

Sepulcrum latericium (Anglice: vault) culturae Han Orientalis apud Luoyang.

Familiae Sinae Han animalia alimentaque apud templa et aedicula deis, spiritibus, et maioribus rite sacrificaverunt (Ch'ü 1972:30–31). Crediderunt quemque hominem animam duarum partium habuisse: animam spiritus (魂 hun), quae post mortem ad paradisum immortalium (xian) peregrinaret, et animam corporis (魄 po), quae in sepulcro tumulove terrestri maneret, et iterum cum anima spiritus coniungi posset solum per quasdam caerimonias rituales (Csikszentmihalyi 2006:140–141; Hansen 2000:119). Imperator fuit summus civitatis sacerdos, qui ad caelum, gravissimas deitates (appellatas Tres Domini et Quinque Vires), et spiritus (神 shen) montium et fluminum, sacrificia fecit (Ch'ü 1972:71). Homines crediderunt tres regna—caelum, terra, homines—conligatos esse a naturalibus vicissitudinibus virium yin et yang et iterationibus quinque phasium (Csikszentmihalyi 2006:167; Ebrey 1999:78–79; Loewe 1994:55; Sun & Kistemaker 1997:2–3). Cum imperator proprios ritus, ethicas, et mores non secutus sit, libratio harum mutationum cosmologicarum lapsa esset et ergo acciderent terraemotus, inundationes, siccitates, pestilentiae, locustarum examina, et aliae calamitates (de Crespigny 2007:496, 592; Ebrey 1999:78–79; Loewe 1986:201).

Impressio lapidis Han qui aulam maiorum cultorum (祠堂, citang) monstrat.

Habitum est homines immortalitatem adsequi? si ei territorium Matris-Reginae Occidentis vel Montem Penglai attingerent? (Loewe 2005;Csikszentmihalyi 2006:116–117; "Funerary Practice in Han Times," 101–102). Taoistae aetatis Han eremitae conati sunt immortalitatem adsequi ab exercitationibus spirationis, rationibus sexualibus, et usibus elixirium medicarum? (Hansen 2000:144). Ante saeculum secundum a.C.n., Taoistae magnas hierarchicalesque societates religiosas, sicut Viam Quinque Oryzae Modii instituerunt, cuius adsectatores crediderunt Laozi, philosophum sapientem (floruit saeculo sexto a.C.n.), fuisse vatem sacrum, qui salutem et sanitatem offerret si adsecutores peccata confiterentur,? venerationem deorum impurorum (qui carnis sacrificia acceperunt) vetarent, et partes Tao Te Ching canerent (Hansen 2000:144–146).

Buddhismus Sinam aevo Han Orientalis intravit, et primum in litteris commemoratus est anno 65 (Demieville 1986:821–822; Needham 1972:112). Liu Ying (m. 71), semifrater? Imperatoris Ming ex Han (regnavit 5775), fuit inter primos Buddhismi fautores Sinenses, sed Buddhismus Sinensis eo tempore cum Taoismo Huang-Lao arte consociatus est (Demiéville 1986:821–822). Primum notum Sinae templum Buddhisticum, Templum Equi Albi, per imperium Ming aedificatum est (Demiéville 1986:823). Gravissimae Buddhismi orsae in linguam Sinicam saeculo secundo conversae sunt; hae Orsam Capitulorum Quadraginta Duo, Perfectionem Sapientis, Orsam Shurangama, et Orsam Pratyutpanna comprehenderunt (Akira 1998:247–251; vide etiam Needham 1972:112).

Oeconomica[recensere | fontem recensere]

Variationes in nummis[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nummus wushu (五銖), per regnum Imperatoris Wu (regnavit 141 a.C.n.87 a.C.n.), 25.5 mm per diametrum

Vectigal et bona[recensere | fontem recensere]

Scientia, technologia, et ingenarium[recensere | fontem recensere]

Domus Han fuit aevum unicum in evolutione scientiae et technologiae Sinensium, auctus scientifici et technologici per Domum Song (960–1279) paene similis (Jin, Fan, & Liu 1996:178–179; Needham 1972:111).

Medicina[recensere | fontem recensere]

Medici aevi Han habuerunt corpus humanum sequi regulas naturae quae omnem universum regulabant, videlicet circulos cosmologicos yin et yang et phases quinque (wu xing). Quidque corporis organum cum propria phasi consociatum est. Morbus habitus est signum disruptionis vigoris vitae (qi) per canales qui ad quoddam organum ducunt.

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Vexillum sericum ex Mawangdui Changshae in Provincia Hunan.
Replica seismometri a Zhang Heng facti.
Aureatae animalium figurinae ex Domu Han: equus, elephas, bos, et unicornu
  • Adshead, Samuel Adrian Miles. 2000. China in World History. Londinii: MacMillan Press Ltd. Novi Eboraci: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-22565-2.
  • Akira, Hirakawa. 1998. A History of Indian Buddhism: From Sakyamani to Early Mahayana. Conversus a Paul Groner. New Delhi: Jainendra Prakash Jain At Shri Jainendra Press. ISBN 81-208-0955-6.
  • An, Jiayao. 2002. "When Glass Was Treasured in China," in Silk Road Studies VII: Nomads, Traders, and Holy Men Along China's Silk Road. Ediderunt Annette L. Juliano et Judith A. Lerner, 79-94. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers. ISBN 2-503-52178-9.
  • Balchin, Jon. 2003. Science: 100 Scientists Who Changed the World. Novi Eboraci: Enchanted Lion Books. ISBN 1-59270-017-9.
  • Beck, Mansvelt. 1986. "The Fall of Han." In The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C.–A.D. 220. Ediderunt Denis Twitchett et Michael Loewe, 317–376. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24327-0.
  • Bielenstein, Hans. 1980. The Bureaucracy of Han Times. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22510-8.
  • Bielenstein, Hans. 1986. "Wang Mang, the Restoration of the Han Dynasty, and Later Han," in The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C.–A.D. 220. Ediderunt Denis Twitchett et Michael Loewe, 223–290. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24327-0.
  • Block, Leo. 2003. To Harness the Wind: A Short History of the Development of Sails. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-209-9.
  • Bower, Virginia. 2005. "Standing man and woman," in Recarving China's Past: Art, Archaeology, and Architecture of the 'Wu Family Shrines.' Edidit Naomi Noble Richard, 242–245. Portus Novus et Londinii: Yale University Press and Princeton University Art Museum. ISBN 0-300-10797-8.
  • Bowman, John S. 2000. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Novi Eboraci: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11004-9.
  • Buisseret, David. 1998. Envisioning the City: Six Studies in Urban Cartography. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-07993-7.
  • Bulling, A. 1962. "A Landscape Representation of the Western Han Period," Artibus Asiae 25(4):293–317.
  • Chang, Chun-shu. 2007. The Rise of the Chinese Empire: Volume II; Frontier, Immigration, & Empire in Han China, 130 B.C.–A.D. 157. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-11534-0.
  • Ch'en, Ch'i-Yün. 1986. "Confucian, Legalist, and Taoist Thought in Later Han." In Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C.–A.D. 220. Ediderunt Denis Twitchett et Michael Loewe, 766–806. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24327-0.
  • Ch'ü, T'ung-tsu. 1972. Han Dynasty China: Volume 1: Han Social Structure. Edidit Jack L. Dull. Seattle et Londinii: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-95068-4.
  • Chung, Chee Kit. 2005. "Longyamen is Singapore: The Final Proof?," in Admiral Zheng He & Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 981-230-329-4.
  • Cotterell, Maurice. 2004. The Terracotta Warriors: The Secret Codes of the Emperor's Army. Rochester: Bear and Company. ISBN 1-59143-033-X.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, Mark. 2006. Readings in Han Chinese Thought. Indianapolis and Cantabrigiae: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 0-87220-710-2.
  • Cullen, Christoper. 2006. Astronomy and Mathematics in Ancient China: The Zhou Bi Suan Jing. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-03537-6.
  • Cutter, Robert Joe. 1989. The Brush and the Spur: Chinese Culture and the Cockfight. Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong. ISBN 962-201-417-8.
  • Dauben, Joseph W. 2007. "Chinese Mathematics." In The Mathematics of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, and Islam: A Sourcebook. Edidit Victor J. Katz, 187–384. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11485-4.
  • Davis, Paul K. 2001. 100 Decisive Battles: From Ancient Times to the Present. Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514366-3.
  • Day, Lance, et Ian McNeil. 1996. Biographical Dictionary of the History of Technology. Novi Eboraci: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-06042-7.
  • de Crespigny, Rafe. 2007. A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23-220 AD). Leiden: Koninklijke Brill. ISBN 90-04-15605-4.
  • Demiéville, Paul. 1986. "Philosophy and religion from Han to Sui." In Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C.–A.D. 220. Ediderunt Denis Twitchett et Michael Loewe, 808–872. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24327-0.
  • Deng, Yingke. 2005. Ancient Chinese Inventions. Anglico conversus ab Wang Pingxing. Beijing: China Intercontinental Press. ISBN 7-5085-0837-8.
  • Di Cosmo, Nicola. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77064-5.
  • Ebrey, Patricia. 1974. "Estate and Family Management in the Later Han as Seen in the Monthly Instructions for the Four Classes of People." Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 17(2):173–205.
  • Ebrey, Patricia. 1986. "The Economic and Social History of Later Han," in Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C.–A.D. 220. Ediderunt Denis Twitchett et Michael Loewe, 608-648. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24327-0.
  • Ebrey, Patricia 1999. The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66991-X.
  • Fairbank, John K., et Merle Goldman. 1998. China: A New History, Enlarged Edition. Cantabrigiae Massachusettae: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-11673-9.
  • Greenberger, Robert. 2006. The Technology of Ancient China. Novi Eboraci: Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. ISBN 1-4042-0558-6.
  • Hansen, Valerie. 2000. The Open Empire: A History of China to 1600. Novi Eboraci et Londinii: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-97374-3.
  • Hardy, Grant. 1999. Worlds of Bronze and Bamboo: Sima Qian's Conquest of History. Novi Eboraci: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11304-8.
  • Hinsch, Bret. 2002. Women in Imperial China. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-7425-1872-8.
  • Hsu, Cho-Yun. 1965. "The Changing Relationship between Local Society and the Central Political Power in Former Han: 206 B.C.–8 A.D." Comparative Studies in Society and History 7(4):358–370.
  • Hsu, Elisabeth. 2001. "Pulse diagnostics in the Western Han: how mai and qi determine bing." In Innovations in Chinese Medicine. Edidit Elisabeth Hsu, 51-92. Cantabrigiae, Novi Eboraci, Oakleigh, Madrid, et Cape Town: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80068-4.
  • Hsu, Mei-Ling. 1993. "The Qin Maps: A Clue to Later Chinese Cartographic Development." Imago Mundi 45:90–100.
  • Huang, Ray. 1988. China: A Macro History. Armonk et Londinii: M. E. Sharpe Inc., an East Gate Book. ISBN 0-87332-452-8.
  • Hulsewé, A. F. P. 1986. "Ch'in and Han law." In The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C.–A.D. 220. Ediderunt Denis Twitchett et Michael Loewe, 520-544. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24327-0.
  • Jin, Guantao, Fan Hongye, et Liu Qingfeng. 1996. "Historical Changes in the Structure of Science and Technology (Part Two, a Commentary)." In Chinese Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology. Ediderunt Fan Dainian and Robert S. Cohen, Anglico conversus ab Kathleen Dugan et Jiang Mingshan, 165–184. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 0-7923-3463-9.
  • Kramers, Robert P. 1986. "The Development of the Confucian Schools," in Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C.–A.D. 220. Ediderunt Denis Twitchett et Michael Loewe, 747-756. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24327-0.
  • Lewis, Mark Edward. 2007. The Early Chinese Empires: Qin and Han. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-02477-X.
  • Lienert, Ursula. 1980. Das Imperium der Han. Köln: Museen der Stadt Köln.
  • Liu, Xujie. 2002. "The Qin and Han Dynasties" in Chinese Architecture, 33–60. Edidit Nancy S. Steinhardt. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09559-7.
  • Liu, Guilin, Feng Lisheng, Jiang Airong, et Zheng Xiaohui. 2003. "The Development of E-Mathematics Resources at Tsinghua University Library (THUL)." In Electronic Information and Communication in Mathematics. Ediderunt Bai Fengshan and Bern Wegner, 1–13. Berlin, Heidelberg, et Novi Eboraci: Springer Verlag. ISBN 3-540-40689-1.
  • Lloyd, Geoffrey Ernest Richard. 1996. Adversaries and Authorities: Investigations into Ancient Greek and Chinese Science. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-55695-3.
  • Lo, Vivienne. 2001. "The influence of nurturing life culture on the development of Western Han acumoxa therapy." In Innovation in Chinese Medicine. Edidit Elisabeth Hsu, 19–50. Cantabrigiae, Novi Eboraci, Oakleigh, Matriti, et Cape Town: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80068-4.
  • Loewe, Michael. 1968. Everyday Life in Early Imperial China during the Han Period 202 BC–AD 220. Londinii: B. T. Batsford Ltd.; Novi Eboraci: G. P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 0-87220-758-7.
  • Loewe, Michael. 1974. Crisis and conflict in Han China, 104 BC to AD 9. Londinii: Allen & Unwin.
  • Loewe, Michael. 1986. "The Former Han Dynasty." In The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C.–A.D. 220. Ediderunt Denis Twitchett et Michael Loewe, 103–222. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24327-0.
  • Loewe, Michael. 1994. Divination, Mythology and Monarchy in Han China. Cantabrigiae, Novi Eboraci, et Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45466-2.
  • Loewe, Michael. 2005. "Funerary Practice in Han Times." In Recarving China's Past: Art, Archaeology, and Architecture of the 'Wu Family Shrines.' Edidit Naomi Noble Richard, 23–74. Portus Novus et Londinii: Yale University Press and Princeton University Art Museum. ISBN 0-300-10797-8.
  • McClain, Ernest G., et Ming Shui Hung. 1979. "Chinese Cyclic Tunings in Late Antiquity." Ethnomusicology 23(2):205–224.
  • Morton, William Scott, et Charlton M. Lewis. 2005. China: Its History and Culture: Fourth Edition. Novi Eboraci: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-141279-4.
  • Needham, Joseph. 1972. Science and Civilization in China: Volume 1, Introductory Orientations. Londinii: Syndics of the Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-05799-X.
  • Needham, Joseph. 1986a. Science and Civilization in China: Volume 3; Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. ISBN 0-521-05801-5.
  • Needham, Joseph. 1986b. Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology; Part 1, Physics. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd. ISBN 0-521-05802-3.
  • Needham, Joseph. 1986c. Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology; Part 2, Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd. ISBN 0-521-05803-1.
  • Needham, Joseph. 1986d. Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 3, Civil Engineering and Nautics. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd. ISBN 0-521-07060-0.
  • Needham, Joseph, et Tsien Tsuen-Hsuin. 1986. Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 1, Paper and Printing. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. ISBN 0-521-08690-6.
  • Neinhauser, William H., Charles Hartman, Y. W. Ma, et Stephen H. West. 1986. The Indiana Companion to Traditional Chinese Literature. Vol. 1. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-32983-3.
  • Nelson, Howard. 1974. "Chinese Maps: An Exhibition at the British Library." The China Quarterly 58:357–362.
  • Nishijima, Sadao. 1986. "The Economic and Social History of Former Han." In Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C.–A.D. 220. Ediderunt Denis Twitchett et Michael Loewe, 545-607. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24327-0.
  • Norman, Jerry. 1988. Chinese. Cantabrigiae et Novi Eboraci Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29653-6.
  • Omura, Yoshiaki. 2003. Acupuncture Medicine: It's Historical and Clinical Background. Mineola: Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-486-42850-8.
  • Pigott, Vincent C. 1999. The Archaeometallurgy of the Asian Old World. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. ISBN 0-924171-34-0.
  • Pirazzoli-t’Serstevens, Michèle. 1982. La Chine des Han : histoire et civilisation. Lutetiae: Presses universitaires de France.
  • Ronan, Colin A. 1994. The Shorter Science and Civilization in China: 4 (an abridgement of Joseph Needham's work). Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-32995-7.
  • Schaefer, Richard T. 2008. Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society: Volume 3. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc. ISBN 1-4129-2694-7.
  • Shen, Kangshen, John N. Crossley, et Anthony W. C. Lun. 1999. The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art: Companion and Commentary. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-853936-3.
  • Steinhardt, Nancy N. 2005a. "Pleasure tower model." In Recarving China's Past: Art, Archaeology, and Architecture of the 'Wu Family Shrines.' Edidit Naomi Noble Richard, 275-281. Portus Novus et Londinii: Yale University Press and Princeton University Art Museum. ISBN 0-300-10797-8.
  • Steinhardt, Nancy N. 2005b. "Tower model.," In Recarving China's Past: Art, Archaeology, and Architecture of the 'Wu Family Shrines.' Edidit Naomi Noble Richard, 283–285. Portus Novus et Londinii: Yale University Press and Princeton University Art Museum. ISBN 0-300-10797-8.
  • Straffin, Philip D., Jr. 1998. "Liu Hui and the First Golden Age of Chinese Mathematics." Mathematics Magazine 71(3):163–181.
  • Sun, Xiaochun, et Jacob Kistemaker. 1997. The Chinese Sky During the Han: Constellating Stars and Society. Leiden, Novi Eboraci, Köln: Koninklijke Brill. ISBN 90-04-10737-1.
  • Temple, Robert. 1986. The Genius of China: 3,000 Years of Science, Discovery, and Invention. With a forward by Joseph Needham. Novi Eboraci: Simon and Schuster, Inc. ISBN 0-671-62028-2.
  • Teresi, Dick. 2002. Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science—From the Babylonians to the Mayas. Novi Eboraci: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-684-83718-8.
  • Thorp, Robert L. 1986. "Architectural Principles in Early Imperial China: Structural Problems and Their Solution," The Art Bulletin 68(3):360–378.
  • Tom, K. S. 1989. Echoes from Old China: Life, Legends, and Lore of the Middle Kingdom. Honolulu: The Hawaii Chinese History Center of the University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1285-9.
  • Torday, Laszlo. 1997. Mounted Archers: The Beginnings of Central Asian History. Durham: The Durham Academic Press. ISBN 1-900838-03-6.
  • Turnbull, Stephen R. 2002. Fighting Ships of the Far East: China and Southeast Asia 202 BC–AD 1419. Oxoniae: Osprey Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 1-84176-386-1.
  • Wagner, Donald B. 2001. The State and the Iron Industry in Han China. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Publishing. ISBN 87-87062-83-6.
  • Wang, Yu-ch'uan. 1949. "An Outline of The Central Government of The Former Han Dynasty." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 12(1/2):134–187.
  • Wang, Zhongshu. 1982. Han Civilization. Anglico conversus ab K. C. Changet Conlaboratores. Portus Novus et Londinii: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02723-0.
  • Xue, Shiqi. 2003. "Chinese lexicography past and present" in Lexicography: Critical Concepts. Edidit R. R. K. Hartmann, 158–173. Londinii et Novi Eboraci: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-25365-9.
  • Yü, Ying-shih. 1967. Trade and Expansion in Han China: A Study in the Structure of Sino-Barbarian Economic Relations. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Yü, Ying-shih. 1986. "Han Foreign Relations," in The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C.–A.D. 220. Ediderunt Denis Twitchett et Michael Loewe, 377–462. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24327-0.
  • Watson, William. 2000. The Arts of China to AD 900. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08284-3.
  • Zhang, Guanuda. 2002. "The Role of the Sogdians as Translators of Buddhist Texts." In Silk Road Studies VII: Nomads, Traders, and Holy Men Along China's Silk Road. Ediderunt Annette L. Juliano et Judith A. Lerner, 75-78. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers. ISBN 2-503-52178-9.
  • Zhou, Jinghao 2003. Remaking China's Public Philosophy for the Twenty-First Century. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. ISBN 0-275-97882-6.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Domus Han spectant.