Zerynthia polyxena

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DianeJLH.jpg
Conspectus dorsalis

Classis : Insecta 
Ordo : Lepidoptera 
Familia : Papilionidae 
Subfamilia : Parnassiinae 
Tribus : Zerynthiini 
Genus : Zerynthia 
Species : Z. polyxena 
Zerynthia polyxena 
(Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)  
Synonyma
* Papilio cassandra Geyer, 1828[1]
  • Papilio creusa Meigen, 1829
  • Papilio hypermnestra Scopoli, 1763
  • Papilio hypsipyle Schulze, 1776
  • Papilio hypsipyle Fabricus, 1777
  • Zerynthia polyxena D., 1775
  • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena
Specimen monstratum.
Conspectus dorsalis.

Zerynthia polyxena est papilio subfamiliae Parnassiinarum familiae Papilionidarum.

Subspecies et varietates[recensere | fontem recensere]

Inter subspecies sunt:[1][2]

  • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) Italia
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. punctata Schultz, 1908
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. marpha Schultz, 1908
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. rubra Hoffmann], 1916
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. bella Neuburger, 1903
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. bipunctata Cosmovici, 1892
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. meridionalis Hoffmann, 1916
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. tripunctata Zelezny, 1916
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. nora Schultz, 1908 (kreusa Tomala)
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. muelleri Bryk, 1921 (mulleri Bryk, recte muelleri)
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. springeri Ronnicke, 1906
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. reducta Zelezny, 1915
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. nigromaculata Zelezny, 1915
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. unimaculata Zelezny, 1915
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. demaculata Schultz, 1908
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. confluens Schultz, 1908
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. lateviltata Schultz, 1908
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. fasciata Begrer, 1919
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. skalae Zelezny, 1917
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. derubescens Zullich, 1928
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. alba Esper, 1805
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. subalba Schultz, 1908
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. rufescens Oberthur, 1879
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. meta Meigen
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. ochracea Staudinger, 1861
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. cellopura Eisner
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. basinigra Eisner
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. quincunx Eisner
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. divisa Schultz, 1908
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. ornata Eisner
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. vitrina Rothschild
    • Zerynthia polyxena polyxena f. irregularis Holland
  • Zerynthia polyxena aemiliae (Rocci, 1929) Italia septentrionalis; Lombardia: Massa Lombarda, Mutina, Labro
  • Zerynthia polyxena albanica (Riemel, 1927) Albania
  • Zerynthia polyxena australis Esper, 1780 (medesicaste Hoffmannsegg) (Francia meridiana: Provincia ad Pyrenaeos orientales)
    • Zerynthia polyxena australis f. alicea Neuburger, 1903
    • Zerynthia polyxena australis f. paucipunctata Neuburger
    • Zerynthia polyxena australis f. tristis Verity
    • Zerynthia polyxena australis f. divisa Schultez
    • Zerynthia polyxena australis f. hartmanni Staudfuss, 1896
    • Zerynthia polyxena australis f. unipunctata Eisner, 1954
    • Zerynthia polyxena australis f. minusculus Eisner
    • Zerynthia polyxena australis f. vitrina Rothschild sensu Eisner
    • Zerynthia polyxena australis f. aperta Eisner, 1954
    • Zerynthia polyxena australis f. quincunx Eisner
    • Zerynthia polyxena australis f. honnerathii Boisduval, 1832
    • Zerynthia polyxena australis f. albescens Eisner
    • Zerynthia polyxena australis f. binaria Eisner
  • Zerynthia polyxena bosniensis (Eisner, 1974) Bosnia
    • Zerynthia polyxena bosniensis f. ochracea Staudinger, 1861
    • Zerynthia polyxena bosniensis f.reducta Zelzny, 1915
  • Zerynthia polyxena bryki (Eisner, 1954) in finibus Montis Nigri et Herzegovinae
  • Zerynthia polyxena cantabrica Gomez-Bustille (Hispania: Cantabrica)
  • Zerynthia polyxena carmenae (Sabariego et Martinez, 1991) in Bulgaria
  • Zerynthia polyxena cassandra (Geyer, 1828) Francia meridiana et Italia septentrionali
    • Zerynthia polyxena cassandra f. ochracea Staudinger, 1861
    • Zerynthia polyxena cassandra f. vitrina Rothschild, 1918
    • Zerynthia polyxena cassandra f. inornata Pionneau
    • Zerynthia polyxena cassandra f. bella Neuburger
    • Zerynthia polyxena cassandra f. reducta Železný, 1915
    • Zerynthia polyxena cassandra f. quincunx Eisner
    • Zerynthia polyxena cassandra f. microcreusa Verity, 1947
    • Zerynthia polyxena cassandra f. deminuta Verity, 1947
  • Zerynthia polyxena cassandra-clara (Verity, 1947) in Croatia
  • Zerynthia polyxena castiliana Ruhl, 1892 (transcastilia Mon) (Hispania media: Castella, Albarracín)
    • Zerynthia polyxena castiliana f. derubescens Schultz
    • Zerynthia polyxena castiliana f. honnorathii Boisduval, 1832 (henrietta Timmins)
    • Zerynthia polyxena castiliana f. tristis Verity, 1906
    • Zerynthia polyxena castiliana f. semitristis de Sagarra, 1930
    • Zerynthia polyxena castiliana f. ornatissima Blachier, 1908
    • Zerynthia polyxena castiliana f. nigricans Holland
    • Zerynthia polyxena castiliana f. alicea Neuburger, 1903
  • Zerynthia polyxena catalonica de Sagarra 1930 (Hispania: Catalonia)
    • Zerynthia polyxena catalonica f. semitristis de Sagarra, 1930
  • Zerynthia polyxena caucasiae (Nardelli & Hirschfeld, 2002) Caucasus septentrio-occidentalis
  • Zerynthia polyxena creusa Meigen, 1829 (Italia media: Albintimilium (Verity, 1950); cf. Eisner, 1974)
  • Zerynthia polyxena decastroi (Sala & Bollino, 1992) Italia
  • Zerynthia polyxena deminuta (Verity, 1947) Francia meridiana
  • Zerynthia polyxena demnosia Freyer, 1833 (Dahl MS) (albanica Riemel], thusnelda Schultz) (= ssp. macedonia Eisner, 1974 (Macedonia Graeca, Thessalia, Dalmatia, Albania)
    • Zerynthia polyxena demnosia f. quincunx Eisner
    • Zerynthia polyxena demnosia f. vitrina Rothschild
    • Zerynthia polyxena demnosia f. ochracea Staudinger, 1861
  • Zerynthia polyxena gracilis (Schultz, 1908) Turcia boreo-orientalis: Bursa, Karagja Dagh
  • Zerynthia polyxena idaensis (Eisner, 1974) Creta
    • Zerynthia polyxena idaensis f. rumina Linne, 1758
  • Zerynthia polyxena latevittata (Verity, 1919) Sicilia
  • Zerynthia polyxena latiaris (Stichel, 1907) Italia meridiana: Calabria, Roma, Albanus Mons
  • Zerynthia polyxena linnea (Bryk, 1932) Italia, Elba
  • Zerynthia polyxena macedonia (Eisner, 1974) Macedonia
  • Zerynthia polyxena michaelis (Nardelli, 1993) Italia
  • Zerynthia polyxena microcreusa (Verity, 1947) Francia meridiana
  • Zerynthia polyxena minima Gerhardinger, 1951 Hispania: Toletum)
  • Zerynthia polyxena nemorensis (Verity, 1919) Italia: Tuscania, Florentia.
  • Zerynthia polyxena nigra (Sijaric, 1989) Bosnia
  • Zerynthia polyxena padana (Rocci, 1929) Italia septentrionalis: Pedemontium, Lombardia, Augusta Taurinorum
  • Zerynthia polyxena patrizii (Nardelli, 1993) Italia
  • Zerynthia polyxena petheri Romei, 1927 (Hispania meridiana: Serra Nivata in Vandalitia)
  • Zerynthia polyxena petri (Bryk, 1932) Graecia, Ucraina meridiana: Cherson, Kiovia, Juzinyi Bug inferior, Crimaea
  • Zerynthia polyxena polymnia (Millière, 1880) Graecia: Euboea
  • Zerynthia polyxena reverdinii (Fruhstorfer, 1908) Italia occidentalis et borealis: Liguria.
  • Zerynthia polyxena silana (Storace, 1962) Italia
  • Zerynthia polyxena sontae (Sijaric, 1989) Serbia
  • Zerynthia polyxena taygetana (Rosen, 1929) Graecia: Taygetus, Peloponnesus
  • Zerynthia polyxena thesto Fruhstorfer, 1908 Unio Rerum Publicarum Sovieticarum Socialisticarum meridio-occidentalis: Volga inferior, Saratow, Tanais inferior
    • Zerynthia polyxena thesto f. rufescens Oberthur, 1879
    • Zerynthia polyxena thesto f. muelleri Bryk, 1991
    • Zerynthia polyxena thesto f. cellopura Eisner
  • Zerynthia polyxena tristis de Lattin, 1950 Turcia
  • Zerynthia polyxena vipsania Hemming, 1941 (:latevittata Verity, 1919 latevittata Schultz, 1908: creusa Mann, nec Meigen, Dahl MS: polymnia Ragusa, 1906, (Sicilia)

Distributio[recensere | fontem recensere]

Z. polyxena in Europa Media et Meridiana (Francia meridio-orientali, Italia, Slovacia, et Graecia) late distribuitur, omnem Balcaniam habitans, terrasque ad meridiem Kazakhstaniae et Uralium attingens.[3][2]

Usitata Z. polyxenae habitatio, Regional Park of Capanne di Marcarolo (Pedemontium), circa 900 m supra aequor maris.

Habitatio[recensere | fontem recensere]

Invenitur hic papilio in locis calidis et apricis, ut in pratis gramineis, vinetis, ripis fluminum, locis uliginosis, agris cultis, rupibus saxosis, sursum 1700 metris tenus supra aequor maris, sed plerumque sub 900 metris.

Pinacotheca[recensere | fontem recensere]

Circulus vitae Zerynthiae polyxenae

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Capinera, J. L., ed. 2008. Encyclopedia of Entomology. Ed. 2a. 4 voll. Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V. ISBN 978-1-4020-6242-1. LCCN 2008930112, OCLC 837039413.
  • Dapporto, L. [In prelo.] Speciation in Mediterranean refugia and post-glacial expansion of Zerynthia polyxena (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae). J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0469.2009.00550.x.
  • Higgins, L. G, et N. D. Riley. 1970. A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Britain and Europe.
  • Kükenthal, W., ed.. (1998) 1999. Handbuch der Zoologie / Handbook of Zoology. Vol. 4: Arthropoda - 2. Hälfte: Insecta - Lepidoptera, moths and butterflies . . . in Kristensen, N. P. (a cura di), Handbuch der Zoologie, Fischer, M. (Scientific Editor), Teilband/Part 35: Volume 1: Evolution, systematics, and biogeography, Berolini et Novi Eboraci: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-015704-8. OCLC 174380917.
  • Nazari, V., Sperling, F.A.H. 2007; Mitochondrial DNA divergence and phylogeography in western Palaearctic Parnassiinae (Lepidoptera:Papilionidae): how many species are there? Insect Syst Evol 38:121–38.
  • Scoble, M. J. [1992] 2011. The Lepidoptera: Form, Function and Diversity. Ed. 2a. Londinii: Oxford University Press & Natural History Museum. ISBN 978-0-19-854952-9. LCCN 92004297, OCLC 25282932.
  • Stehr, F. W., ed. [1987] 1991. Immature Insects 2 vol. Ed. 2a. Dubuque Iovae: Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0-8403-3702-3. LCCN 85081922, OCLC 13784377.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Wikispecies-logo.svg Vide Zerynthiam polysenam apud Vicispecies.
Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Zerynthiam polysenam spectant.