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Positivismus logicus

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Aditus Seminarii Mathematici in Universitate Vindobonensi, Boltzmanngasse 5, ubi Circulus Vindobonensis conveniebat.

Positivismus logicus et empirismus logicus, qui una neopositivismum constituerunt, fuerunt motus in Philosophia Occidentali qui verificationismum amplectebatur, per rationem quae sermonem philosophicum defendere conatus est per fundamenta cum optimis exemplaribus scientiae empiricae communicata. In hac epistemologia, solum dicta logice vel empirice confirmata significationem cognitivam haberent. Conatus ad philosophiam in hanc philosophiam scientificam mutandam destinabantur ad confusionem dictionis obscurae et coniecturarum inhaerentium quae comprobari poterant prohibendam.[1] Circuli Berolinensis et Vindobonensis positivismum logicum annis 1920 exeuntibus proposuerunt.

Positivistae logici, Ludovici Wittgenstein Tractatum Logico-Philosophicum interpretantes, principium confirmationis normamque significationis cognitivae agnoverunt. Ex logicismo Bertrandi Russell, mathematicam ad logicam redigere conabantur, cum atomismo logico Russelliano, phaenomenalismo Ernesti Mach (num mens solam experientiam sensoriam veram aut capacem sciat, quae res contentae omnium scientiarum est, sive physica sive psychologia), et cogitationes Percy Bridgman quas alii operationalismum appellabant. Ea re, solum res per cognitionem significantes quae comprobari poterant scientificae, quandoquidem res quae comprobari non possunt erant dicta falsa, non physica, cognitione carentes (num metaphysica, animi motus, vel alia sint), disputatione philosophica non digna, cognitionem rerum ordinare vel scientiam novam excolere nequientia.

Positivismus logicus late describitur positionem extremam, quae dicit linguam physicam numquam attingere debere aliquid innotabile, etiam ut videtur nucleares causalitatis, mechanismi, principiorum notiones, sed sic dicere est in maius extollere. Argumenta de talibus rebus quae videri non possunt metaphorica essent—observationes simplices in abstracto consideratae—aut, maxime alienae, res metaphysicae vel affectus animi moventes. Leges theoreticae redigerentur in leges empiricas, cum vocabula theoretica significationes ex data observata per regulas congruentiae colligerent. Mathematica physicae ad logicam symbolicam per logicismum redigeret, cum reconstructio rationalis linguam naturalem in pares normativas mutaret, omnibus per syntaxem logicam ordinatis et coniunctis. Theoria scientifica declararetur cum sua ratione comprobationis, qua via calculus logicus vel effectio empirica eius falsum aut veritatem comprobare posset.

Annis 1930 exeuntibus, positivistae logici, Germaniam et Austriam relinquentes, in Britanniam et Civitates Foederatas confugerunt. Multi antehac in locum phaenomenalismi Ernesti Mach physicalismum Ottonis Neurath substituerant, et Rudolfi Carnap in verificationis meram confirmationem substituere petiverat. Bello Orbis Terrarum II anno 1945 confecto, positivismus logicus mitior factus est, empirismus logicus appellatus, plerumqe in America a Carolo Gustavo Hempel, qui exemplar legitimum tegens explanationis scientificae exposuit. Motus positivismi logici factus est solidum philsophiae analyticae fundamentum,[2] et in philosophiam Anglosphaerae dominabatur, philosophia scientiae non exclusa, cum scientias usque ad annos 1960 moveret. Sed motus suas difficultates medias non resolvit,[3][4][5] et sua dogmata magis magisque reprehendebantur, vehementissime ab Norwood Hanson, Carolo Hempel, Thoma Kuhn, Carolo Popper, Hilarius Putnam, W. V. O. Quine.

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Friedman 1999:xiv.
  2. Vide "Vienna Circle" in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  3. Smith 1986:314.
  4. Bunge 1996:317.
  5. "Popper, Falsifiability, and the Failure of Positivism," 7 Augusti 2000.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Bechtel, William. 1988. Philosophy of Science: An Overview for Cognitive Science. Hillsdale Novae Caesareae: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Bunge, M. A. 1996. Finding Philosophy in Social Science. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300066067.
  • Friedman, Michael. 1999. Reconsidering Logical Positivism. Novi Eboraci: Cambridge University Press.
  • Novick, Peter. 1988. That Noble Dream: The 'Objectivity Question' and the American Historical Profession. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press.
  • Smith, L. D. 1986. Behaviorism and Logical Positivism: A Reassessment of the Alliance. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804713016. Google Books.
  • Stahl, William A., Robert A Campbell, Yvonne Petry, et Gary Diver. 2002. Webs of Reality: Social Perspectives on Science and Religion. Piscataway Novae Caesareae: Rutgers University Press.
  • Suppe, Frederick, ed. 1977. The Structure of Scientific Theories. Ed. 2a. Urbanae: University of Illinois Press.

Bibliographia addita[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Achinstein, Peter, et Stephen Francis Barker. 1969. The Legacy of Logical Positivism: Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Baltimorae: Johns Hopkins Press.
  • Ayer, Alfred Jules. 1959. Logical Positivism. Glencoe Illinoesiae: Free Press.
  • Barone, Francesco. 1986. Il neopositivismo logico. Roma Bari: Laterza.
  • Bergmann, Gustav. 1954. The Metaphysics of Logical Positivism. Novi Eboraci: Longmans Green.
  • Cirera, Ramon. 1994. Carnap and the Vienna Circle: Empiricism and Logical Syntax. Atlantae: Rodopi.
  • Edmonds, David, et John Eidinow. 2001. Wittgenstein's poker: the story of a ten-minute argument between two great philosophers. Novi Eboraci: Ecco. ISBN 0066212448.
  • Friedman, Michael. 1999. Reconsidering Logical Positivism. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press.
  • Gadol, Eugene T. 1982. Rationality and Science: A Memorial Volume for Moritz Schlick in Celebration of the Centennial of his Birth. Vindobonae: Springer.
  • Geymonat, Ludovico. 1934. La nuova filosofia della natura in Germania. Torini.
  • Giere, Ronald N., et Alan W. Richardson. 1997. Origins of Logical Empiricism. Minneapoli: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Hanfling, Oswald. 1981. Logical Positivism. Oxoniae: B. Blackwell. ISBN 023105386X.
  • Jangam, R. T. 1970. Logical Positivism and Politics. Dellii: Sterling Publishers.
  • Janik, Allan, et Stephen Toulmin. 1973. Wittgenstein's Vienna. Londinii: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
  • Kraft, Victor. 1953. The Origin of Neo-positivism, a Chapter in the History of Recent Philosophy. Novi Eboraci: Greenwood Press.
  • McGuinness, Brian. 1979. Wittgenstein and the Vienna Circle: Conversations Recorded by Friedrich Waismann. Conv. Joachim Schulte et Brian McGuinness. Novi Eboraci: Barnes & Noble Books.
  • Milkov, Nikolay, ed. 2015. Die Berliner Gruppe: Texte zum Logischen Empirismus von Walter Dubislav, Kurt Grelling, Carl G. Hempel, Alexander Herzberg, Kurt Lewin, Paul Oppenheim und Hans Reichenbach. Hamburgi: Meiner.
  • Mises von, Richard. 1951. Positivism: A Study in Human Understanding. Cantabrigiae: Massachusettae: Harvard University Press.
  • Munz, Peter. 2004. Beyond Wittgenstein's poker: new light on Popper and Wittgenstein. Aldershot Hantoniae Angliae et Burlingtoniae Montis Viridis: Ashgate. ISBN 0754640159; ISBN 0754640167 (carta).
  • Parrini, Paolo. 1983. Empirismo logico e convenzionalismo: saggio di storia della filosofia della scienza. Mediolani: F. Angeli.
  • Parrini, Paolo, Wesley C. Salmon, et Merrilee H. Salmon, eds. 2003. Logical Empiricism: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Pittsburgi: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  • Reisch, George. 2005. How the Cold War Transformed Philosophy of Science : To the Icy Slopes of Logic. Novi Eboraci: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rescher, Nicholas. 1985. The Heritage of Logical Positivism. Lanham Terrae Mariae: University Press of America.
  • Richardson, Alan, et Thomas Uebel, eds. 2007. The Cambridge Companion to Logical Positivism. Novi Eboraci: Cambridge University Press.
  • Salmon, Wesley, et Gereon Wolters, eds. 1994. Logic, Language, and the Structure of Scientific Theories: Proceedings of the Carnap-Reichenbach Centennial, University of Konstanz, 21–24 May 1991. Pittsburgi: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  • Sarkar, Sahotra, ed. 1996. Decline and Obsolescence of Logical Empiricism: Carnap vs. Quine and the Critics. Novi Eboraci: Garland Publishing.
  • Sarkar, Sahotra, ed. 1996. The Emergence of Logical Empiricism: From 1900 to the Vienna Circle. Novi Eboraci: Garland Publishing.
  • Sarkar, Sahotra, ed. 1996. The Legacy of the Vienna Circle: Modern Reappraisals. Novi Eboraci: Garland Publishing.
  • Sarkar, Sahotra, ed. 1996. Logical Empiricism and the Special Sciences: Reichenbach, Feigl, and Nagel. Novi Eboraci: Garland Publishing.
  • Sarkar, Sahotra, ed. 1996. Logical Empiricism at Its Peak: Schlick, Carnap, and Neurath. Novi Eboraci: Garland Publishing.
  • Spohn, Wolfgang, ed. 1991. Erkenntnis Orientated: A Centennial Volume for Rudolf Carnap and Hans Reichenbach. Bostoniae: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Stadler, Friedrich. 2001. The Vienna Circle: Studies in the Origins, Development, and Influence of Logical Empiricism. Ed. 1a. Novi Eboraci: Springer.
  • Stadler, Friedrich. 2015. The Vienna Circle: Studies in the Origins, Development, and Influence of Logical Empiricism. Ed. 2a. Dordrecht: Springer.
  • Stadler, Friedrich, ed. 2003. The Vienna Circle and Logical Empiricism: Re-Evaluation and Future Perspectives. Dordrecht, Bostoniae, Londinii: Kluwer.
  • Werkmeister, William. 1937. Seven Theses of Logical Positivism Critically Examined. The Philosophical Review 46(3):276–297. doi:10.2307/2181086. JSTOR 2181086.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Comentarii a positivistis logicis scripti
Commentarii de positivismo logico
Commentarii de rebus cognatis