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Albertus Einstein

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Wikidata-logo.svg Albertus Einstein
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Albertus Einstein: imago
Albertus Einstein: subscriptio
Nativitas: 14 Martii 1879; Ulma
Obitus: 18 Aprilis 1955; Princetonia
Patria: Regnum Virtembergiae, no value, Helvetia, Res Publica Vimariana, Civitates Foederatae Americae

Officium

Munus: physicus, Q16389557, Inventor, Q18931655, Astronomus, Praeceptor
Patronus: Q685539, Universitas Carolina Pragensis

Consociatio

Religio: agnosticismus

Familia

Genitores: Q88665; Q4357787
Coniunx: Q68761, Q76346
Proles: Q123371, Q118253, Q468357

Memoria

Laurae: Q808424, Praemium Nobelianum physicae, Q753072, Q1711648, Q1419938, Q317038, Q3141777, Q28003, Q15056034
Albertus Einstein

Albertus Einstein (14 Martii 187918 Aprilis 1955) fuit philosophus naturae et rerum physicarum investigator anno 1921 praemio Nobeliano laureatus.

Annus mirabilis et opera eius[recensere | fontem recensere]

Albertus Einstein et Nicolaus Bohr.

Einstein, unus ex physicis maximi momenti saeculi vicensimi, operibus de physica theoretica conscriptis nos rem naturam novo quodam modo intellegere docuit. Anno mirabili 1905, publicos fecit quattuor libellos.[1] Duo operis suis titulis De corporum moventium electrodynamica (Germanice Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper) et Pendetne inertia corporis in sua energia? (Germanice "Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energiegehalt abhängig?")[2] fuerunt quibus generis humani totus spatii temporisque intellectus renovatus est, ex quo relativitatis specialis evolvit. Alius libellus fuit De motu particulae parvae in fluido statario suspensae quem theoria cinetica calorica molecularis requirit (Germanice "Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen"),[3] qui statuit existentia atomorum molecularumque. Suus libellus titulo De perspectiva heuristica circa productionem et transformationem lucis (Germanice "Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt")[4] effectum photoelectricum explicavit, propter quam anno 1921 praemio Nobeliano laureatus est.

Einstein multa alia magni momenti opera scientifica fecit. Anno 1915 Enstein provulgavit suum magnum opus relativitatis generalis quod theoriam gravitatis praesentat forma relativitatis congruente.[5]

Vita[recensere | fontem recensere]

Albertus et Elsa.
Einstein civis Americanus anno 1940 fit.

Albertus filius Arminii Einstein et uxoris eius Paulinae Ulmae in Virtembergia Iudaeus origine anno 1879 natus est.[6] Alberti familia Monachium anno 1880 migravit, quo loco pater et avunculus eius officinam condiderunt. Anno 1881 Alberti soror Maria nata est.

Albertum puerum virum illustrissimum esse futurum nemo providit. Prima enim verba tres annos natus locutus est; tamen discipulus bonus erat. Anno 1884 viola canere didicit. Quattuor annis post in Gymnasio Luitpoldino litteris artibusque trivii institutus est.

Annos 18961905 universitatem ETH in Helvetia astitit, ubi Milevam Marić cognovit quae in matrimonium duxit anno 1903. Anno 1905, edita dissertatione in Universitate Turiciana ad gradum doctoris rerum naturalium promotus est.

Postea cursus academicus suus progressus est cum positiones Bernae, Pragae, Turici, et in Germania sumpsit. Anno 1919, Albertus divortium cum Mileva fecit, et Elsam Löwenthal in matrimonium duxit.

Anno 1932, Einstein fascismi metu gliscentis commotus in Civitatibus Foederatis Americae consedit, neque umquam in Germaniam revertit, quia in patria eius die 30 Ianuarii 1933 Adolfus Hitler ad summam rerum accessit, et legibus novis inauditisque ferendis gentem Iudaeorum opprimere coepit.

Opera[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Einstein, Albert (1901), "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen (Conclusions Drawn from the Phenomena of Capillarity)", Annalen der Physik 4 (3): 513 
  • Einstein, Albert (1905a), "Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt (On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light)", Annalen der Physik 17 (6): 132–148  This annus mirabilis paper on the photoelectric effect was received by Annalen der Physik 18 March.
  • Einstein, Albert (1905b), A new determination of molecular dimensions . This PhD thesis was completed 30 April and submitted 20 July.
  • Einstein, Albert (1905c), "On the Motion – Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat – of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid", Annalen der Physik 17 (8): 549–560 . This annus mirabilis paper on Brownian motion was received 11 May.
  • Einstein, Albert (1905d), "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies", Annalen der Physik 17 (10): 891–921 . This annus mirabilis paper on special relativity was received 30 June.
  • Einstein, Albert (1905e), "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?", Annalen der Physik 18 (13): 639–641 . This annus mirabilis paper on mass-energy equivalence was received 27 September.
  • Einstein, Albert (1915), "Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation (The Field Equations of Gravitation)", Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften: 844–847 
  • Einstein, Albert (1917a), "Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie (Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity)", Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften 
  • Einstein, Albert (1917b), "Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung (On the Quantum Mechanics of Radiation)", Physikalische Zeitschrift 18: 121–128 
  • Einstein, Albert (11 July 1923), "Fundamental Ideas and Problems of the Theory of Relativity", Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901–1921, Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company 
  • Einstein, Albert (1924), "Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases (Quantum theory of monatomic ideal gases)", Sitzungsberichte der Preussichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Physikalisch-Mathematische Klasse: 261–267 . First of a series of papers on this topic.
  • Einstein, Albert (1926), "Die Ursache der Mäanderbildung der Flussläufe und des sogenannten Baerschen Gesetzes", Die Naturwissenschaften 14 (11): 223–224 . On Baer's law and meanders in the courses of rivers.
  • Einstein, Albert; Podolsky, Boris; Rosen, Nathan (15 May 1935), "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?", Physical Review 47 (10): 777–780 
  • Einstein, Albert (1940), "On Science and Religion", Nature (Edinburgh: Scottish Academic) 146 (3706): 605, ISBN 0707304539 
  • Einstein, Albert et al. (4 December 1948), "To the editors", New York Times (Melville, NY: AIP, American Inst. of Physics), ISBN 0735403597 
  • Einstein, Albert (May 1949), "Why Socialism?", Monthly Review 
  • Einstein, Albert (1950), "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation", Scientific American CLXXXII (4): 13–17 
  • Einstein, Albert (1954), Ideas and Opinions, New York: Random House, ISBN 0517003937 
  • Einstein, Albert (1969) (German), Albert Einstein, Hedwig und Max Born: Briefwechsel 1916–1955, Munich: Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung, ISBN 388682005X 
  • Einstein, Albert (1979), Autobiographical Notes, Paul Arthur Schilpp (Centennial ed.), Chicago: Open Court, ISBN 0875483526 . The chasing a light beam thought experiment is described on pages 48–51.
  • Collected Papers: John Stachel, Martin J. Klein, a. J. Kox, Michel Janssen, R. Schulmann, Diana Komos Buchwald and others (eds.) (1987–2006), The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Vol. 1–10, Princeton University Press 

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Vide pagina Anglice en:Annus Mirabilis Papers.
  2. A. Einstein, "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper", Annalen der Physik 17, 891-921, 1905; A. Einstein, "Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energiegehalt abhängig?", Annalen der Physik 18, 639-641, 1905; Et vide Lectura Praemii Nobilici Alberti Einstein, "Fundamental Ideas and Problems of the Theory of Relativity."
  3. "Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt", Annalen der Physik 17:132-148 (1905); Anglice vel Germanice.
  4. A. Einstein, "Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt", Annalen der Physik 17:132-148, 1905.
  5. Albert Einstein, "Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation (The Field Equations of Gravitation)," Koniglich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften 844-847 (1915).
  6. Res de vita Alberti Einstein potimur ex pagina Anglice en:Albert Einstein.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Brian, Denis. 1996. Einstein: a life. Cicestriae: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-11459-6
  • Fölsing, Albrecht. 1997. Albert Einstein: A Biography. Novi Eboraci: Penguin Viking. Conversus ex Theodisca ab Ewald Osers.
  • Highfield, Roger, et Paul Carter. 1993. The Private Lives of Albert Einstein. Londinii: Faber and Faber. ISBN 9780571167449.
  • Hoffmann, Banesh, cum Helen Dukas. 1972. Albert Einstein: Creator and Rebel. Londinii: Hart-Davis, MacGibbon Ltd.
  • Isaacson, Walter 2007. Einstein: His Life and Universe. Novi Eboraci: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. ISBN 9780743264730.
  • Moring, Gary. 2004. The complete idiot's guide to understanding Einstein (ed. 1a, 2000). Indianapoli Indianae: Alpha books (Macmillan USA). ISBN 0028631803.
  • Oppenheimer, J. R. 1971. On Albert Einstein. in Science and synthesis: an international colloquium organized by Unesco on the tenth anniversary of the death of Albert Einstein and Teilhard de Chardin, 8–12. Acroasis habita in UNESCO House Lutetiae die 13 Decembris 1965. Springer-Verlag. Etiam divulgatus in The New York Review of Books, 17 Martii 1966. On Albert Einstein by Robert Oppenheimer
  • Pais, Abraham. 1982. Subtle is the Lord: The science and the life of Albert Einstein. Oxford University Press.
  • Pais, Abraham 1994. Einstein Lived Here. Oxford University Press.
  • Parker, Barry 2000. Einstein's Brainchild. Prometheus Books.
  • Schweber, Sylvan S. 2008. Einstein and Oppenheimer: The Meaning of Genius. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674028289.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]