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Cyprinus carpio

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Superclassis : Osteichthyes 
Classis : Actinopterygii 
Subclassis : Neopterygii 
Infraclassis : Teleostei 
Superordo : Ostariophysi 
Ordo : Cypriniformes 
Superfamilia : Cyprinioidea 
Familia : Cyprinidae 
Subfamilia : Cyprininae 
Genus : Cyprinus 
Species : Cyprinus carpio 
Linnaeus, 1758
   
Conservationis status

Cyprinus carpio est divulgatus aquae dulcis species piscium subfamiliae Cyprininarum ordinis Cypriniformium, qui aquas eutrophicas in lacubus magnisque fluminibus Europaeis Asiaticisque petit.[2][3] Multitudines ferae habentur exstinctione vulnerabiles ab International Union for Conservation of Nature,[1] sed species domita est, atque in circumiecta per paene totum orbem terrarum introducta est (vide "aquaculturam"), et saepe habetur species invasiva,[2] unde in indice centum mundi specierum maxime invasivarum perscribitur. Familia Cyprinidarum ex eo appellatur.

"Carpio communis" [Cyprinus carpio]. Pictura ab Alexandro Francisco Lydon facta.

Taxinomia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Speciei sunt duae subspecies.

Tertia subspecies, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus (carpio Amurensis), in Asia Orientali endemicus, olim agnoscebatur,[4] sed auctoritates eum separatam tractant speciem nomine Cyprinus rubrofuscus.[1][5] Cyprinus carpio et varii cognati Asiani morphologice puri meristica separari possunt, et genetice inter se differunt, sed progenies inter se gignunt.[1][6] Cyprinus carpio cum Carassio aurato progenies gignere potest.[7][8]

Historia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Cyprinus carpio ferus in Nederlandia.

Cyprinus carpio in Europa et Asia endemicus est, et in omnes orbis terrarum regiones praeter polos introductus est. Ei sunt tertius a piscibus saepissimis introductis,[9] et temporibus Imperii Romani in piscinis iam colebantur.[10] Carpiones cibo in multis regionibus prosunt, sed etiam pestes in aliis regionibus habentur.[11] Carpiones primitivi in interiori fluminis Danuvi delta abhinc annorum 2000 fere habitabant.[12] Regio ubi primum inveniebantur etiam ad Pontem Euxinum, Mare Caspium, et Lacum Oxianum extendebatur.

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 IUCN (vide situs scientificos)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Fishbase: Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758.
  3. Arkive: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) Formula:Webarchive.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Jian Feng Zhou, Qing Jiang Wu, Yu Zhen Ye & Jin Gou Tong (2003), "Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp." Genetica 119: 93–97.
  5. Craig 2015: 297.
  6. Zhou et al. 2004.
  7. Taylor et Mahon 1977.
  8. Photo of goldfish x common carp hybrid Formula:Webarchive in Melton Hill Reservoir, ex Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency.
  9. Courtenay et Welcomme 1989: 520.
  10. Balon, Eugene K. (1974), "Probable Origin of Domestication", Domestication of the carp Cyprinus caprio L., Royal Ontario Museum, pp. 16–18 .
  11. "Common Carp: Aliens Among Us." N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Octobris 2014. <http://alienspecies.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/eng/species/common-carp&gt.
  12. "Balon, E. K. (2004), "About the oldest domesticates among fishes," Journal of Fish Biology 65 (Supplement A): 1–27. In Carp Fishing Science" .

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Sceletus Cyprini carpionis.
Photographema radiographicum Cyprini carpionis.
Cyprini carpiones ex Multavia, flumine in Republica Cechiana.
Eruditio
  • Courtenay, Walter R., et R. L. Welcomme. 1989. ""International Introductions of Inland Aquatic Species." Copeia 1989, no. 2 (23 Maii): 520. doi:10.2307/1445460. ISSN 0045-8511. JSTOR 1445460.
  • Craig, J. F., ed. 2015. Freshwater Fisheries Ecology. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-118-39442-7.
  • Smith, Peter J., et S. Margaret McVeagh. 2005. Genetic Analysis of Carp, Goldfish and Carp-Goldfish-Hybrids in New Zealand. DOC Research and Development Series 29. New Zealand Department of Conservation.
  • Taylor, J., et R. Mahon. 1977. "Hybridization of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus, the first two exotic species in the lower Laurentian Great Lakes." Environmental Biology of Fishes 1 (2): 205-208.
  • Zhou, J., Q. Wu, Z. Wang, et Y. Ye. 2004. "Molecular Phylogenetics of Three Subspecies of Common carp Cyprinus Carpio, based on sequence analysis of cytochrome b and control region of mtDNA." Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 42 (4): 266–69.
Praecepta culinaria
  • 1330 : Hu Si-hui, Propria ad mensam Imperatoris principia (Paul D. Buell, Eugene N. Anderson, edd. et interprr., A Soup for the Qan: Chinese dietary medicine of the Mongol era as seen in Hu Szu-hui's Yin-shan cheng-yao [Londinii: Kegan Paul, 2000] pp. 294, 306, 311)
  • 1654 : Iosephus Cooper, The Art of Cookery Refin'd and Augmented, containing an Abstract of Some Rare and Rich Unpublished Receipts of Cookery collected from the Practise of that Incomparable Master of These Arts, Mr. Jos. Cooper, Chiefe Cook to the Late King. Londinii: R. Lowndes (pp. 28-30, 111-113 apud Google Books) ("How to stew a carp ... How to make a carpe-pie")
  • 1658 : Théodore de Mayerne, Archimagirus Anglo-Gallicus; or, excellent and approved receipts and experiments in cookery. Londinii: Bedell and Collins, 1658 (p. 41 apud Google Books) ("A bisque of carps")
  • 1665 : Robert May, The Accomplisht Cook. Londinii: Wood (pp. 303-304 apud Google Books) ("a bisque of carps ... a bisk with carps and other several fishes")
  • 1796 : Yuan Mei, Suiyuan shidan (Sean J. S. Chen, ed. et interpr., 糟鯗 = Xiang in Wine-lees)

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Cyprinum carpionem spectant.
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