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Chebeb

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Ars coquinaria Iranica: Chebeb pullinum[ku] (جوجه‌کباب Ǧūǧe-kabāb) sicut in Irania paratur

Chebeb[1] vel alchubebe[2] (conversio vocabuli Arabici كَبَاب‎ kabāb "caro subassata") est modus ciborum praeparandorum a principio Arabicus vel Levantinus, qui cito a Turcis, multo tardius ab Europaeis acceptus est. Praesertim ad carnes, saepe et ad pisces fructusque necnon fungos adhibetur.

De significationibus[recensere | fontem recensere]

Chebeb: praeceptum Latine scriptum. Iamboninus Cremonensis, Liber de ferculis et condimentis (BNF latin 9328 f. 161r)

Appellationi sensus latus sensusque strictiores recognosci oportet. Sensu lato chebeb est ferculum sive et epulum quae e cibis in veruculis sive in singulo veru ut assentur tentis constat. Tale ferculum parari potest aut a peregrinis qui focum sub caelo accendunt, aut in coquinis suis a coquis, aut ab institoribus in viis nundinisque. Variis speciebus generis chebeb sive hoc nomine simplici, sive aliis nuncupationibus pluribus, mundus ganeonum comissatorumque fruitur: praecipue šašlyk vel šiškebab vel chebab, videlicet offulae carnis in veruculis subassatum, iure sive et condimentis inspersis;[3] döner kebap insuper seu šawarma seu gyrus,[4][5] qui in Turcia saeculo XIX inventum esse videtur, videlicet cumulus frustulorum carnis agninae vel vervecinae in singulo veru verticali assae, successive desectae ut cibum emptoribus offeretur.

De fontibus historicis[recensere | fontem recensere]

Etiamsi in Europam non nisi recenter introducatur, chebeb ab iter facientibus antiquioribus crebriter descriptum est, primum a Bertrandone de la Broquière qui narrationem explorationum suarum anno 1433 conscripsit. Aksu in oppido prope Prusam esuriens kaymak de lacte bubalino ad repletionem sumpsit, atque sub nocte Turcis suadentibus "carnem aegre semicoctam" quam "in veru assantes desecavimus".[6] Anno circiter 1580 Prosper Alpinus in Historia Aegypti naturali inter cibos Aegyptios "altero modo ipsam [carnem] in parva frusta dissectam et veruculis ferreis acuum modo infixam" enumerat, quam "super crates ferreas igne supposito positam torrefaciunt, quam succo limonum aspersam avidè esitant. Non fit convivium sine vervecina carne hoc quidem modo super craticulas torrefacta."[7]

Ars coquinaria Turcmenensis: Chebab acipenserorum (nərə balığının kababı)

Hi nullum nomen illo coquendi modo dant, quem iamdudum fontes Arabici kabāb auctoresque medici Latini "chebeb, alchubebe" etc. nominaverant. Post centum annos nomen in litteras Europaeas introductum erit, primum fortasse ab Ioanne Fryer qui anno 1673 orthographia Anglica "cabob" scripsit "est caro assa in verubus, frustis rotundis ad latitudinem sestertii dissecta, inter quae gingiber et allium immittuntur". Modestiam hospitum Arabum laudavit, qui "e carne tantum hoc modo accommodata nutriuntur".[8] Eodem fere tempore Ioannes Ovington, qui sicut Fryer in Indiam septentrionalem morabat, stilo litterario praecepta plena praebuit:

Cabob, that is, bief or mutton cut into small pieces, sprinkled with salt and pepper, and dipt with oil and garlick, which have been mixt together in a dish, and then roasted on a spit, with sweet herbs put between every piece, and stuft in them, and basted with oil and garlick all the while, is another Indian savory dish ("Chebeb, videlicet bubula seu vervecina in ofellas dissecta, sale et piper inspersis, oleo allioque tincta, sartagine marinata, in veru assa, aromatibus dulcibus intermissis et infarctis atque continuo oleo allioque inspersis, est aliud ferculum Indorum sapidum").[9]

Quibus praeceptis adiicere oportet id quod Iosephus Pitts narravit, captivus servusque per omnes fere partes Africae septentrionales versatus, de ferculo quod cobbob appellavit: ofellas carnis tres quattuorve, singulo veru ferreo infixas, ad focum positas: tales ofellas apud tabernas popinariorum (at the cooks shops) non maiores fuisse quam puteolum calami fumatorii.[10] Pitts ergo primus fuit, qui chebeb in popinis venditatum rettulerit, primus etiam inter scriptores Europaeos qui chebeb sicut synonymum "carnis assae" acceperit; id quod tardius confirmant scriptores de habitudinibus familiarum Anglicarum in India Britannica habitantium.[11] Thomas Shaw, peregrinator liber per Africam borealem coniunctionem semanticam verbi chebab cum assatione satis pellucide evolvit, contextu cenatico allito:

Lactis patera crateque ficorum uvarum dactylorum fructuumve siccorum iam adventu nostro oblatis, dominus tabernaculi, ubi morabamus, secundum multitudinem advenarum e suo pecore haedum, capram, agnum, ovem prehendit, cuius dimidiam coniunx statim ferbuerit et e cuscus intulerit; reliquiae kab-ab factae ad ientaculum seu cenam diei insequentis servatae erunt.[12]
Döner kebap anno 1855 in Turcia ab Iacobo Robertson lucis ope pictum

Scriptores saeculi XIX has res variis verbis confirmant. Scotus Iacobus Forbes, artifex scriptorque iuxta Societatem Britannicam Indiarum Orientalium, praecepta chebeb sicut Ovington oblatus est:

Kabob, or kab-ab, which is meat cut into small pieces and placed on thin skewers, alternately between slices of onion and green ginger, seasoned with pepper, salt, and kian, fried in ghee, or clarified butter, to be ate with rice and dholl, a sort of split-pea, boiled with the rice ("Chebab, id est caro in ofellas dissecta, in verubus tenuibus posita inter frustulas cepae gingiberisque viridis, pipere saleque et quiya condita, in butyro fuso fricta ut cum oryza lenteque fracta simul elixis inferretur").[13]

Quibus praeceptis Arthurus de Gobineau mythistoricus variationem dubiam addit, de brochettes de kébab vel "veruculis chebab" loquens inter fragmenta adipis foliaque lauri coctis.[14] Sed miles Borussus Helmuthus de Moltke[de], de itinere suo in Turcia scribens, corroboravit simul verba Bertrandonis de la Broquière, qui chebab eodem loco ante quattuor saecula comederat, et Iosephi Pitts, qui saeculo XVII popinator pauper id ferculum gustaverat. Ita Moltke contubernalisque suus die 16 Iunii 1836 prandium modo Turcicissimo sub Olympo Mysio apud Kiebabtschi (kabābjī, "carnis veru assae venditor") pretio 120 para avido appetitu sumpserunt, videlicet chebab agninum, oliva sale condita, chaloe, sorbet cum glacie.[15]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. "Chebeb": Iamboninus Cremonensis, Liber de ferculis et condimentis no. 81 (vide imaginem nostram)
  2. "Alchiebabat seu alchubebe sunt carnes assatae super prunas:" Andreas Alpagus Bellunensis, Interpretatio Arabicorum nominum (1544) (p. 4 apud Google Books)
  3. Charles Perry, "The Horseback Kitchen of Central Asia" in Harlan Walker, ed., Food on the Move: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery, 1996 (Totnes: Prospect Books, 1997) (p. 244 apud Google Books).
  4. Aglaia Kremezi, Anissa Helou, "What's in the Name of a Dish? The words mean what the people of the Mediterranean want them to mean" in Richard Hosking, ed., Food and Language: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cooking 2009 (Totnes: Prospect Books, 2010) (pp. 203-205 apud Google Books).
  5. Antonia-Leda Matalas, Mary Yannakoulia, "Greek Street Food Vending" in Artemis P. Simopoulos, Ramesh Venkataramana Bhat, edd., Street Foods (Basileae: Kärger, 2000) (pp. 8-9 apud Google Books).
  6. Nous trouvasmes aussy audit villaige [Aqsu under Mt Olympus, 1 stage from Bursa] de la crayme de buffle qui est tresbonne et doulce qu'ilz appelent Kaymac et en mengay tant que je cuiday crever, car depuis Cotthay je n'avoie guieres mengié. Et me firent les Turcs mengier char rostie, ce soir, qui n'estoit point cuitte à moittié à beaucop, et la trenchions en rostissant en la broche (Ch. Schefer, ed., Le voyage d'outremer de Bertrandon de la Broquière [Lutetiae, 1892] p. 130.
  7. #Alpinus, ed. Veslingius (1735) p. 229
  8. Cabob is rostmeat on skewers, cut in little round pieces no bigger than a sixpence, and ginger and garlick put between each. Thus sparingly do they feed on flesh alone, ordered after this manner: John Fryer, A New Account of East-India and Persia in Eight Letters (Londinii: Chiswell, 1698) p. 404.
  9. #Ovington (1696).
  10. As for rost meat, they cut the flesh into small pieces, stick three or four of them upon an iron skewer, and so set them before the fire; at the cooks shops the pieces are no bigger than the bowl of a pipe. This is called cobbob: Joseph Pitts, A faithful account of the religion and manners of the Mahometans (4a ed. Londinii: Longman, 1738) (pp. 23-24 apud Google Books).
  11. Cabob ... This word is used in Anglo-Indian households generally for roast meat. It usually follows the name of the dish, e.g. murghī kabāb "roast fowl": #Yule et Burnell (1903); ubi murghī "pullina" est verbum Urdu origine Persicum.
  12. Besides a bowl of milk and a basket of figs, raisins, dates or other dryed fruit which were presented to us upon our arrival, the master of the tent where we lodged fetcht us from his flock (according to the number of our company) a kid, or a goat, or a lamb, or a sheep, half of which was immediately seethed by his wife and served up with cuscasowe; the rest was usually made kab-ab and reserved for our breakfast or dinner the next day: Thomas Shaw, Travels, or observations relating to several parts of Barbary and the Levant (Oxoniae, 1738) p. v; cf. Voyages de Monsr. Shaw, M. D. dans plusieurs provinces de la Barbarie et du Levant (2 voll. Hagae Comitum: Neaulme, 1743) vol. 1 p. xi.
  13. #Forbes (1813).
  14. des brochettes de kébab ou filet de mouton rôti entre des fragments de graisse et des feuilles de laurier. Auctor hic kébab sicut synonymum "frustae vervecinae assatae" apprehendit: Arthur de Gobineau, Nouvelles asiatiques (1876) p. 168.
  15. Unser Mittagsmahl nahmen wir ganz türkisch beim Kiebabtschi ein; nachdem wir die Hände gewaschen, setzten wir uns nicht an, sondern auf den Tisch, wobei mir meine Beine schrecklich im Wege waren. Dann erschien auf einer hölzernen Scheibe der Kiebab oder kleine Stückchen Hammelfleisch am Spieß gebraten und in Brotteig eingewickelt, ein sehr gutes schmackhaftes Gericht; darauf eine Schüssel mit gesalzenen Oliven, die ganz vortrefflich sind, der Helwa, oder die beliebte süße Schüssel, und eine Schaale mit Scherbett (ein Aufguß von Wasser auf Trauben mit einem Stückchen Eis darin), zusammen ein Diner, welches für zwei herzhafte Esser 120 Para oder 5 Silbergroschen kostete: Helmuth, Graf von Moltke[de], Briefe über Zustände und Begebenheiten in der Türkei aus den Jahren 1835 bis 1839 (ed. secunda, Berolini: Mittler, 1876) (p. 66 apud Google Books) recensio interretialis.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Etymologica et historica
Praecepta
  • saec. XIII exeunte : Iamboninus Cremonensis, Liber de ferculis et condimentis no. 81 ("chebeb")
  • c. 1590 : Abū al-Faḍl al-Mubārak, Āīn-i-Akbarī (H. Blochmann, H. S. Jarrett, interprr., The Aín i Akbari by Abul Fazl Allámi [Calcuttae: Asiatic Society, 1873-1894] vol. 1 p. 60)
  • 1696 : J. Ovington, A Voyage to Suratt in the Year 1689 (Londinii: Tonson, 1696) p. 397; p. 231 editionis 1929
  • 1813 : James Forbes, Oriental Memoirs (4 voll. Londinii, 1813) vol. 1 pp. 480-481
  • 1831 : Sandford Arnot, interpr., "Indian Cookery, as practised and described by the natives of the East" in Miscellaneous Translations from Oriental Languages vol. 1 (Londinii) pp. 22-24 ("Kabáb-i khatáe")
  • 1852 : Robert F. Riddell, Indian domestic economy and receipt book (3a ed. Bombayae: Bombay Gazette Press) pp. 355-378 passim ("khubabs")
  • 1888 : W. H. Dawe, The Wife's Help to Indian Cookery (Londinii: Elliot Stock, 1888) pp. 70-73 ("Hindústání kabáb")
  • 1891 : Grace Johnson, Anglo-Indian And Oriental Cookery (Londinii: Allen) p. 66 ("mutton kabob for pillaus")
  • 1894 : Spons' Household Manual: a treasury of domestic receipts and guide for home management (Londinii: Spon) p. 500 ("Khabobs; Khabob hoossainee")
  • 1900 : P. O. P., The Nabob's Cookery Book: a manual of East and West Indian recipes (Londinii: Warne) no. 8 ("kebobbed currie")
  • 1904 : Mrs. Beeton's Book of Household Management (Londinii: Ward, Lock) p. 1608 ("kubab fowl")
  • 1911 : Robert H. Christie, Banquets of the Nations: eighty-six dinners characteristic and typical each of its own country (Edinburgi: Gray) pp. 120, 256-257, 310, 464, 479, 645-647 ("Egypt: Kabobs; Bombay [Mussulman]: Seik kawab; Madras [Mussulman]: Khabobs; Morocco: Kabab; Palestine [Arab]: Kabobs; Turkestan: Takhoo kabab, Kublar kabab")
  • 1980 : Meera Taneja, Indian Regional Cookery (Londinii: Mills and Boon) pp. 82-85 et alibi ("kabab")
  • 2002 : William Rubel, The Magic of Fire (Berkeleiae: Ten Speed Press) pp. 112-113 ("lamb kebab")

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]