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Bubalus bubalis

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Two water buffaloes bathing at sunset.jpg
Duo Bubali bubales in Laotia

Classis : Mammalia 
Ordo : Artiodactyla 
Familia : Bovidae 
Subfamilia : Bovinae 
Genus : Bubalus 
C.H. Smith, 1827
Species : Bubalus bubalis 
(Linnaeus, 1758)
   
Synonyma
Bos bubalis Linnaeus, 1758
Territorium

Bubalus bubalis est species permagnorum mammalium subfamiliae Bovinarum familiae Bovidarum, quae in subcontinente Indica et Sinis orta sunt. Hodie invenitur in Europa, Australia, America Septentrionali, America Australi, compluribusque civitatibus Africanis.[1] Bubalus arnee, animal ferum, quod in Asia Meridiana et Meridio-Orientali habitat, alia species habetur, sed ut videtur progeniem Bubali bubalis domesticati repraesentat.[2]

Calvaria bubali bubalis.
Bubali bubales aqua fruuntur.
Bubalus bubalis in luto volutat.
Bubalus bubalis iuvenis in India.

Duo Bubali bubalis typi exstantes secundum indicia morphologica et ethologica agnoscuntur: bubalus fluviatilis subcontinentis Indicae et ad occidentem usque ad Balcania, Aegyptum, et Italiam, ac bubalus palustris, ab Asama in occidente per Asiam Meridio-Orientalem usque ad vallem fluminis Caerulei Sinarum in oriente.[3][1]

Origines bubali bubalis disputantur, sed exitus cuiusdam investigationis phylogeneticae dicunt typum palustrem in Sinis ortum esse et abhinc annorum 4000 fere domitum esse, typum autem fluviatilem in India ortum esse et abhinc annorum 5000 fere domitum esse.[4] Post bubalum bubalem in Asia Meridio-Orientali domitum, bubalus palustris usque ad vallem fluminis Caerulei abhinc annorum a 3000 ad 7000 diffugiebat.[5] Bubali bubales a Civilizatione Vallis Indi ad Mesopotamiam in Iraquia hodierna annos 2500 a.C.n. a Meluhhis mercabantur.[6] Sigillum cuiusdam scribae a rege Accadico conducti sacrificium bubalorum bubalium monstrat.[7]

Saltem 130 milliones bubalorum bubalium in vita sunt, et plures homines in eis quam in alio animale domestico nituntur.[8] Aratione agrorum oryzae praecipue apti sunt, et eorum lac lacti vaccarum lactariarum plus pinguis et proteini suppeditat. Permulta animalia se in Australia septentrionali saeculo undevicensimo exeunte confirmaverunt, et adsunt minores greges feri in Papua Nova Guinea, Tunisia, et Argentina septentrionali et orientali.[1] Greges feri obtinent in Nova Britannia, Nova Hibernia, Papua Occidentali, Columbia, Guyana, Surinamia, Brasilia, et Uraquaria.[9]

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Cockrill 1977.
  2. Lau et al. 1998.
  3. Cockrill 1974.
  4. Yang et al. 2008.
  5. Zhang, Colli, et Barker 2002.
  6. McIntosh 2008.
  7. Khan et al. 2011.
  8. Scherf 2000.
  9. Long 2003.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Clutton-Brock, J. 1999. A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63495-4.
  • Cockrill, W. R. 1974. The husbandry and health of the domestic buffalo. Romae: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  • Cockrill, W. R. 1977. The water buffalo. Animal Production and Health Series, 4. Romae: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. PDF.
  • Lau, C. H. R. D. Drinkwater, K. Yusoff, S. G. Tan, D. J. S. Hetzel, et J. S. F. Barker. 1998. "Genetic diversity of Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): mitochondrial DNA D-loop and cytochrome b sequence variation." Animal Genetics 29: 253–64. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2052.1998.00309.x. PMID 9745663. Epitome.
  • Fahimuddin, M. 1989. Domestic Water Buffalo. Janpath Dellii: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-204-0402-5.
  • Guinness Book of Records. 2005.
  • Khan, G., S. K. Church, R. Harding, P. Lunde, J. McIntosh, et C. Stone. 2011. The First Civilizations in Contact: Mesopotamia and the Indus. Civilizations in Contact Project, Faculty of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, University of Cambridge. Editio interretialis.
  • Long, J. L. 2003. Introduced Mammals of the World: Their History, Distribution and Influence. Collingwood Australiae: Csiro Publishing. ISBN 9780643099166.
  • McIntosh, J. 2008. The Ancient Indus Valley: New Perspectives. Sanctae Barbarae Californiae: ABC-CLIO. Google Books.
  • Nowak, R. M., et J. L. Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimorae Terrae Mariae: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-2525-3.
  • Roth, J., et P. Myers. 2009. "Bubalis Bubalis." University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Animal Diversity Web. Accessus 15 Januarii 2009.
  • Ruangprim, T., et al. 2007. "Rumen microbes and ecology of male dairy, beef cattle and buffaloes." Proceedings Animal Science Annual Meeting, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailandiae.
  • Scherf, B. D. 2000. World watch list for domestic animal diversity. Ed, tertia. Romae: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  • Thu, Nguyen Van, et T. R. Preston. 1999. "Rumen environment and feed degradability in swamp buffaloes fed different supplements." Livestock Research for Rural Development 11 (3).
  • Voelker, W. 1986. The Natural History of Living Mammals. Medfordiae Novae Caesareae: Plexus Publishing. ISBN 0-937548-08-1.
  • Wanapat, M. 2000. "Rumen manipulation to increase the efficient use of local feed resources and productivity of ruminants in the tropics." Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science 13(Suppl.): 59–67.
  • Wanapat, M., et P. Rowlinson. 2007. "Nutrition and feeding of swamp buffalo: Feed resources and rumen approach." Paper to be presented at the VIII World Buffalo Congress, 19–22 October 2007, Caserta, Italy, organized by The International Buffalo Federation.
  • The Water Buffalo: New Prospects for an Underutilized Animal. 1981. Vasingtoniae: National Academy Press. ISBN 978-0-309-04159-1.
  • Wilson, D. E., et D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Ed. secunda. Vasingtoniae: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Yang, D. Y., L. Liu, X. Chen, et C. F. Speller. 2008. "Wild or domesticated: DNA analysis of ancient water buffalo remains from north China." Journal of Archaeological Science 35 (10): 2778–85. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2008.05.010. PDF.
  • Zhang, Y., L. Colli, et J. S. F. Barker. 2020. "Asian water buffalo: domestication, history and genetics." Animal Genetics. doi:10.1111/age.12911. PMID 31967365.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Bubalum bubalem spectant.
Wikispecies-logo.svg Vide "Bubalum bubalem" apud Vicispecies.
Wikidata-logo.svg Situs scientifici:  • ITIS • NCBI • Encyclopedia of Life • Fossilworks • INPN France