Beat Generation

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Beat Generation ('Aetas Prostrata') fuit grex scriptorum Americanorum qui, sub bellum mundiale secundum orientes, inter 1950 et 1959 prominentes facti sunt, cum rebus culturae quas ei inspiraverunt et rettulerunt. Rudimenta culturae prostratae fuerunt normae acceptae reiectae, scribendi genera novata, usus medicamentorum contra leges, sexualitates alternae, religio explorata, materialismus reiectus, et apertae condicionis humanae depictiones.[1]

Poema Howl Allen Ginsberg (1956) ac mythistoriae Naked Lunch Gulielmi S. Burroughs (1959) et On the Road Iacobi Kerouac (1957) sunt inter notissima litterarum prostratarum exempla.[2] Howl et Naked Lunch iudicia de obscenitate subierunt quae postremo ad publicationem in Civitatibus Foederatis liberatam adiuverunt.[3][4] Participes Aetatis Prostratae novo bohemianismo hedonistico innotuerunt, convenientiam evadentes ingenioque subitario faventes.

Primi scriptores Aetatis Prostratae Novi Eboraci coire solebant, sed circa 1955, personae maximi momenti (Burroughs excepto) una Franciscopoli fortuito habitabant, ubi in amicitiam receperunt artifices cum Renascentia Franciscopolis consociatos. Tum annis inter 1960 et 1969, proprietates motus prostrati extendentis ad motus hippie et contraculturae adiectae sunt.

Origo nominis[recensere | fontem recensere]

Iacobus Kerouac anno 1956. Imago a Thoma Palumbo facta.

Iacobus Kerouac locutionem Beat Generation introduxit anno 1948 ut perceptam culturam subterraneam describeret, quendam motum iuvenum contra conventiam, Novi Eboraci natum.[5] Cuius nomen ortum est cum Kerouac sermones cum scriptore Ioanne Clellon Holmes conferret. Licet autem per Kerouac Herbertum Huncke, hominem strenuum viarium, primum vocabulo beat ('prostratus') usum esse antea, dum colloquebantur. Nomen adiectivum beat vulgo intra Afroamericanos illius temporis 'defessus' vel etiam 'demolitus' significare poterat, et ex imagine beat to his socks ('demolitus ad pedalia') deductum erat,[6][7][8] sed Kerouac, imaginem vindicans, significationem mutavit ut connotationes upbeat ('surgentem'), beatific ('beatificam'), et on the beat ('in ictu') in musica comprehenderet.[9]

Loci magni momenti[recensere | fontem recensere]

Universitas Columbiae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Origines Aetatis Prostratae deduci possunt ab Universitate Columbiae et conventus Iacobi Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, Luciani Carr, Hal Chase, et aliorum. Kerouac Columbiam stipendio pediludii frequentavit.[10] Quamquam prostrati usitate habentur antiacademicos,[11][12][13] multae ex eorum notionibus professoribus sicut Lionel Trilling et Marcus Van Doren respondebant. Carr et Ginsberg, socii eiusdem classis academicae, de necessitate disputaverunt Novi Visus (vocabulum quod ei ex Arthuro Rimbaud mutuati sunt), ad pugnandum quod eis apparuerunt conservativa et formalistica litteraria eorum magistrorum exemplaria.

Terra subterranea Quadrati Times[recensere | fontem recensere]

Burroughs, moribus scelestis studens, res surreptas et narcotica venumdare solebat. Se opiatibus mox tradidit. Suus dux inhonestorum (praecipue in Quadrato Times Novi Eboraci conditorum) fuit Herbertus Huncke, sons minor et medicamentis deditus. Prostrati ad Huncke attracti sunt, qui ipse ad ultimum scribere coepit, plenus persuasionis se vitalem mundi scientiam habere quibus ei, ob eorum educationes plerumque ex classi media, carebant.

Ginsberg tandem anno 1949 in custodiam datus est. Vigiles Ginsberg eum prehendere conati sunt cum autocinetum cum Huncke gubernaret, vehiculo rebus surreptis pleno quas Huncke vendere in animo habebat. Ginsberg effugiens concursum autocinetorum effecit et pede effugiebant, sed libellos criminantes in vehiculo reliquit. Ei data est optio causae insanitatis pro tribunali agendae, ne in carcerem coniceretur, et nonaginta dies in Bellevue Hospital coniectus est, ubi in Carolum Solomon incidit.[14]

Carolus Solomon fortasse fuit abnormis potius psychoticus. Fautor Antonini Artaud, moribus dementibus indulgebat, sicut acetaria pomorum terrestrium collegiato de Dadaismo lectori iacta. Solomon therapiam electroconvilsivam in Bellevue accepit; quod materia poematis "Howl" factum est, ei dicati. Solomon deinde nexus editorius factus est qui Junky, primam mythistoriam Burroughsianam anno 1953 edere instituit.[15]

Greenwich Village[recensere | fontem recensere]

Scriptores et artifices prostrati ad Greenwich Village Novi Eboraci annis 1950 exeuntibus propter mercedem vilem et vicana scaenae elementa migrabant. Carmina vulgaria, lectores, et acroases in Washington Square Park saepe fiebantur.[16] Allen Ginsberg magnas scaenae partes in Village egit, ut egit Burroughs, in 69 via Bedford habitans.[17] Burroughs, Ginsberg, Kerouac, et alii poetae multos oecos potorios frequentabant, inter quos erant San Remo Cafe (in 93 via MacDougal), Chumley's, et Minetta Tavern.[17] Jackson Pollock, Gulielmus de Kooning, Franciscus Kline, et alii expressionistae abstracti hospites et collaboratores prostratorum saepe erant.[18] Iudices culturae scripserunt de transitione culturae beatnik in vico in culturam hippie bohemianam annos 1960.[19]

Franciscopolis et recitatio Pinacothecae Six[recensere | fontem recensere]

Laurentius Ferlinghetti.

Allen Ginsberg et Neal et Carolyn Cassady Iosephopoli Californiae anno 1954 visitaverunt, et Augusto Franciscopolim migraverunt. Ginsberg Petrum Orlovsky anno 1954 exeunte adamavit et Howl scribere coepit. Laurentius Ferlinghetti, qui City Lights Bookstore curavit, seriem City Lights Pocket Poets anno 1955 edere coepit.

Diaeta Kennethi Rexroth noctibus diei Veneris salon litterarium facta est, cui Gulielmus Carolus Williams, consultor Ginsbergianus et amicus Rexrothianus litteras miserat, Ginsberg commendans. Ginsberg, a Gualterio Hedrick ad ordinandam recitationem in Pinacotheca Sex rogatus,[20] voluit Rexroth esse magistrum caerimoniarum, ut pontem aetatibus quasi imponeret.

Philippus Lamantia, Michael McClure, Philippus Whalen, Allen Ginsberg, et Gary Snyder die 7 Octobris 1955 poemata legerunt prae centum auditores (inter quos fuerunt Kerouac, a Mexicopoli adveniens). Lamantia poemata legit sui Ioannis Hoffman, nuper mortui. Ginsberg, in sua prima lectione, partem poematis Howl egit quam tunc maxime finiverat. Spectatoribus gratissima fuit, et hic vesper multas lectiones alias a poetis Pinacothecae Six habitas antecedit, nunc in urbe famosis. Haec acroasis fuit initium motus prostrati, quia prolatio "Howl" anno 1956 (City Lights Pocket Poets, no. 4) et iudicio obscenitatis anno 1957 ubique in Civitatibus Foederatis innotuit.[21][22]

Lectione Pinacothecae Six capitulum secundum nititur The Dharma Bums, mythistoriae Kerouacanae (1958), cuius protagonista est Japhy Ryder, persona qui Gary Snyder commemorat. Kerouac, a Snyder magnopere impressus, nonnullos annos cum Snyder intimus erat; vere quidem anni 1955, in casa Snyderana in Mill Valley una habitabant. Plurimi prostrati fuerunt urbani, quibus Snyder videbatur paene mirificus, ob eius priorem aetatem rusticam et experientiam desertorum, atque ob eius eruditionem in anthropologia culturali et linguis Orientalibus. Laurentius Ferlinghetti eum Thoreau Aetatis Prostratae appellavit.[23] Snyder, ut in fine in The Dharma Bums describitur, ad Iaponiam anno 1955 migraverat, plerumque ut Zen penitus exerceret et investigaret; ubi proximos decem annos degebat. Buddhismus est una ex praecipuis rebus The Dharma Bums, et liber Buddhismum in Occidentali revera iuvit, unusque ex latissime lectis libris Kerouacianis hodie manet.[24]

Boreoccidentalis Pacificus[recensere | fontem recensere]

Prostrati etiam in regione boreoseptentrionali Orae Occidentalis degebant, praecipue Vasingtonia et Oregonia. Kerouac iter in montibus North Cascades Vasingtoniae in The Dharma Bums et On the Road descripsit.[25] Collegium Reed, Portlandiae Oregoniae situm, fuit locus nonnullorum poetarum prostratarum. Gary Snyder anthropologiae ibi studuerat, cum Philippus Whalen Reed frequentaret, atque Allen Ginsberg acroases in campo annis 1955 et 1956 habuit.[26] Gary Snyder et Philippus Whalen discipuli fuerunt in collegii classi calligraphica, a Lloyd J. Reynolds oblata.[27]

Personae magni momenti[recensere | fontem recensere]

Ad gregem allatus est Burroughs a Davide Kammerer, eo tempore Lucianum Carr amante. Carr, amicus Allen Ginsbergi nuper factus, eum ad Kammerer et Burroughs tradidit. Carr praeterea Editham Parker novit, amasiam Kerouacianam, per quam Burroughs Kerouac anno 1944 obviam ivit.

Die 13 Augusti 1944, Carr in Riverside Park Kammerer cultro puerorum exploratorum necavit, se (ut vindicavit) defendens.[28] Carr, cadavere in Hudson Flumen iacto, Burroughs consuluit, qui suasit ut Carr se vigilibus dederet. Kerouac cultrum tollere adiuvit. Carr se vigilibus mane tradidit et deinde pro tribunali homicidium confessus est. Kerouac conscius argutus est, et Burroughs contestatus est, sed iudices neutrum prosecuti sunt. Kerouac de hoc casu bis in litteris scripsit: primum in The Town and the City ('Oppidum et Urbs'), sua prima mythistoria, et iterum in Vanity of Duluoz, una ex ultimis. Una cum Burroughs de hac caede scripsit And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks, mythistoriam collaborativam. . . .

Pelliculae de Aetate Prostrata[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Jack Kerouac (wrote), Robert Frank, et Alfred Leslie (moderata) Pull My Daisy (1958)
  • The Beat Generation (1959), pellicula
  • A Bucket of Blood (1959), Roger Corman Production
  • The Subterraneans (1960), pellicula
  • Greenwich Village Story (1961)
  • Next Stop, Greenwich Village (1976)
  • Heart Beat (1980), pellicula
  • What Happened to Kerouac? (1986), documentarium
  • Naked Lunch (1991), pellicula
  • Life and Times of Allen Ginsberg (1993), documentarium
  • Allen Ginsberg Live in London (1995), documentarium
  • The Last Time I Committed Suicide (1997)
  • The Source (1999), documentarium
  • Beat (2000), pellicula
  • American Saint (2001), pellicula dramatica
  • Words of Advice: William S. Burroughs on the Road (2007)
  • Neal Cassady (2007)
  • Crazy Wisdom: The Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics (2008), documentarium
  • Howl (2010), pellicula
  • William S. Burroughs: A Man Within (2010), documentarium
  • Magic Trip (2011), documentarium
  • Big Sur (2012), pellicula
  • Corso: The Last Beat (2012), documentarium
  • On the Road (2012), pellicula
  • The Beat Hotel (2012), documentarium
  • Kill Your Darlings (2013)

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. The Beat Generation—Literature Periods & Movements, www.online-literature.com (The Literature Network).
  2. Charters (1992), The Portable Beat Reader.
  3. Ann Charters, "Introduction," in Beat Down to Your Soul, (Penguin Books, 2001, ISBN 978-0-14-100151-7), xix: "the conclusion of the obscenity trial in San Francisco against Lawrence Ferlinghetti for publishing Ginsberg's Howl and Other Poems . . . in which Judge Clayton W. Horn concluded for the defendant that 'Howl' had what he called 'redeeming social content'"; xxxiii: "After the successful Howl trial, outspoken and subversive literary magazines sprung up like wild mushrooms throughout the United States."
  4. Ted Morgan, Literary Outlaw (Novi Eboraci: Avon, 1988, ISBN 0-380-70882-5), 347: "The ruling on Naked Lunch in effect marked the end of literary censorship in the United States."
  5. Beat movement (American literary and social movement), Encyclopedia Britannica (www.britannica.com).
  6. "Beat to his socks, which was once the black's most total and despairing image of poverty, was transformed into a thing called the Beat Generation": Iacobus Baldwin, "If Black English Isn't a Language, Then Tell Me, What Is It?" The New York Times, 29 Iulii 1979.
  7. "The word 'beat' was primarily in use after World War II by jazz musicians and hustlers as a slang term meaning down and out, or poor and exhausted. The jazz musician Mezz Mezzrow combined it with other words, like 'dead beat'": Ann Charters, The Portable Beat reader (1992, ISBN 0-670-83885-3, ISBN 978-0-670-83885-1).
  8. "Hebert Huncke picked up the word [beat] from his show business friends on the Near North Side of Chicago, and in the fall of 1945 he introduced the word to William Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg, and Jack Kerouac": Steve Watson, The Birth of the Beat Generation (1995, ISBN 0-375-70153-2), 3.
  9. Redundantia est multo maior in libro On the Road divulgato quam in manuscripto (forma voluminis facto). Ait Luc Sante: "In the scroll the use of the word holy must be 80 percent less than in the novel, and psalmodic references to the author’s unique generation are down by at least two-thirds; uses of the word beat, for that matter, clearly favor the exhausted over the beatific"; New York Times Book Review, 19 Augusti 2007, [1].
  10. Rick Beard et Leslie Berlowitz, Greenwich Village: Culture and Counterculture (Novi Brunsvici Novae Caesareae: Rutgers University Press pro Museum of the City of New York, 1993), 167.
  11. "In this essay 'Beat' includes those American poets considered avant-garde or anti-academic from c. 1955–1965": Lee Hudson, "Poetics in Performance: The Beat Generation" in Studies in interpretation, vol. 2, ed. Esther M. Doyle et Virginia Hastings Floyd (Rodopi, 1977, ISBN 90-6203-070-X, 9789062030705), 59
  12. "Resistance is bound to occur in bringing into the academy such anti-academic writers as the Beats": Nancy McCampbell Grace et Ronna Johnson, Breaking the Rule of Cool: Interviewing and Reading Women Beat Writers (University Press of Mississippi, 2004, ISBN 1-57806-654-9, ISBN 978-1-57806-654-4), x.
  13. "The Black Mountain school originated at the sometime Black Mountain College of Asheville, North Carolina, in the 1950s and gave rise to an anti-academic academy that was the center of attraction for many of the disaffiliated writers of the period, including many who were known in other contexts as the Beats or the Beat generation and the San Francisco school": Steven R. Serafin et Alfred Bendixen, The Continuum Encyclopedia of American Literature (Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005, ISBN 0-8264-1777-9, ISBN 978-0-8264-1777-0), 901.
  14. Morgan 1988:163–164.
  15. Morgan 1988:205–206.
  16. Fred W. McDarrah et Gloria S. McDarrah, Beat Generation: Glory Days in Greenwich Village (Novi Eboraci: Schirmer Books, 1996).
  17. 17.0 17.1 Rick Beard et Leslie Berlowitz, Greenwich Village: Culture and Counterculture (Novi Brunsvici Novi Eboraci: Rutgers University Press pro Museum of the City of New York, 1993), 165–198.
  18. Beard et Berlowitz 1998:170.
  19. Beard et Berlowitz 1993:178.
  20. Jonah Raskin, American Scream: Allen Ginsberg's "Howl" and the Making of the Beat Generation: "Wally Hedrick, pictor et veteranus Belli Coreani, Ginsberg aestate 1955 appropinquavit et petivit eum ordinare recitationem poematum in Pinacotheca Sex. . . . Ginsberg primum recusavit, sed simul ac exemplar "Howl" scripserat, suam "mentem futuentem," mutavit, ut dicere solebat." Anglice: "Wally Hedrick, a painter and veteran of the Korean War, approached Ginsberg in the summer of 1955 and asked him to organize a poetry reading at the Six Gallery. . . . At first, Ginsberg refused. But once he’d written a rough draft of Howl, he changed his "fucking mind," as he put it."
  21. Allen Ginsberg, Howl, editio critica, ed. Barry Miles, Original Draft Facsimile, Transcript & Variant Versions, Fully Annotated by Author, with Contemporaneous Correspondence, Account of First Public Reading, Legal Skirmishes, Precursor Texts & Bibliography (1986, ISBN 0-06-092611-2).
  22. Michael McClure, Scratching the Beat Surface: Essays on New Vision from Blake to Kerouac (Penguin, 1994, ISBN 0-14-023252-4).
  23. Anglice: "the Thoreau of the Beat Generation."
  24. Bradley J. Stiles, Emerson's contemporaries and Kerouac's crowd: a problem of self-location Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, 2003 ISBN 0-8386-3960-7, ISBN 978-0-8386-3960-3), 87: "Although Kerouac did not introduce Eastern religion into American culture, his writings were instrumental in popularizing Buddhism among mainstream intellectuals."
  25. "Pacific Northwest Seasons: Ross Lake: Paddling in the Path of Beat Poets". pacificnwseasons.blogspot.com .
  26. John Suiter, "When the Beats Came Back: How a 1956 road trip by Allen Ginsburg and Gary Snyder '51 helped shape 'Howl,' and left Reed with the earliest-known recording of the legendary poem," Reed Magazine (hieme, 2008).
  27. "Reed Digital Collections: Search Results". cdm.reed.edu 
  28. Brenda Knight, Women of the Beat Generation: The Writers, Artists and Muses at the Heart of a Revolution (Conari Press, 1998, ISBN 978-1-57324-138-0).

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Bibliographia addita[recensere | fontem recensere]

Libri[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Beard, Rick, et Leslie Berlowitz. 1993. Greenwich Village: Culture and Counterculture. Novi Brunsvici Novae Caesareae: Rutgers University Press pro Museum of the City of New York.
  • Campbell, James. 2001. This Is the Beat Generation: New York–San Francisco-Paris. Angelopoli: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23033-7.
  • Collins, Ronald, et David Skover. 2013. Mania: The Story of the Outraged & Outrageous Lives that Launched a Cultural Revolution. Top-Five Books.
  • Cook, Bruce. 1971. The Beat Generation: The Tumultuous '50s Movement and Its Impact on Today. Novi Eboraci: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-12371-1.
  • Espartaco, Carlos. 1989. Eduardo Sanguinetti: The Experience of Limits. Buenos Aires: Ediciones de Arte Gaglianone. ISBN 950-9004-98-7.
  • Gifford, Barry, et Lawrence Lee. 1978. Jack's Book: An Oral Biography Of Jack Kerouac. Novi Eboraci: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-43942-3.
  • Gorski, Hedwig. 2008. Transcriptum: Robert Creeley 1982 TV Interview with Hedwig Gorski. Journal of American Studies of Turkey 27. Fasciculus praecipuus de Roberto Creeley.
  • Grace, Nancy. 2007. Jack Kerouac and the Literary Imagination. Novi Eboraci: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6850-0.
  • Hemmer, Kurt, ed. 2006. Encyclopedia of Beat Literature. Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-4297-7.
  • Hrebeniak, Michael. 2006. Action Writing: Jack Kerouac's Wild Form. Carbondale Illinoesiae: Southern Illinois University Press.
  • Johnson, Ronna C., et Nancy Grace. 2002. Girls Who Wore Black: Women Writing the Beat Generation. Rutgers. ISBN 0-8135-3064-4.
  • McDarrah, Fred W., et Gloria S. McDarrah. 1996. Beat Generation: Glory Days in Greenwich Village. Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-8256-7160-4.
  • McNally, Dennis. 2003. Desolate Angel: Jack Kerouac, the Beat Generation, and America. Novi Eboraci: DeCapo. ISBN 0-306-81222-3.
  • Miles, Barry. 2001. The Beat Hotel: Ginsberg, Burroughs & Corso in Paris, 1957–1963. Novi Eboraci: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3817-9.
  • Peabody, Richard. 1997. A Different Beat: Writing by Women of the Beat Generation. Serpent's Tail. ISBN 1-85242-431-1 / ISBN 978-1-85242-431-2.
  • Sargeant, Jack. 2009. Naked Lens: Beat Cinema. Ed. 3a. Novi Eboraci: Soft Skull.
  • Sanguinetti, Eduardo. 1986. Alter Ego. Edimburgi: Pentland. ISBN 0-946270-17-1, 9780946270170.
  • Sanders, ed., 1990. Tales of Beatnik Glory. Ed. 2a. ISBN 0-8065-1172-9.
  • Theado, Matt, ed. 2002. The Beats: A Literary Reference. Novi Eboraci: Carrol & Graff. ISBN 0-7867-1099-3.
  • Watson, Steven. 1998. The Birth of the Beat Generation: Visionaries, Rebels, and Hipsters, 1944–1960. Novi Eboraci: Pantheon. ISBN 0-375-70153-2.

Fontes tabularii[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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