Bellum Indosinense II

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Bellum Indosinense II
Part of Belli Frigidi et Bellorum Indosinensium
UH-1D helicopterum a Maj. Bruce P. Crandall conductum  per missionem quaerendi et destruendi ascendit.
UH-1D helicopterum a Maj. Bruce P. Crandall conductum per missionem quaerendi et destruendi ascendit.
Dies 1 Novembris 1955 (1955-11-01)[A 1] – 30 Aprilis 1975 (1975-04-30) (Formula:Age in years and days)
Locus Vietnamia Meridiana, Vietnamia Septentrionalis, Cambodia, Laotia
Exitus Victoria Vietnamiae Septentrionalis et Viet Cong
Mutationes
territorii
Unificatio Vietnamiarum Septentrionalis et Meridianae in Socialisticam Vietnamiae Rem Publicam.
Belligerentes
Vires Anticommunisticae:

Vietnamia Meridiana
Civitates Foederatae Americae Civitates Foederatae

Corea
Australia
Philippinae
Nova Zelandia
Thailandia
Respublica Khmer
Regnum Laotiae

Sustentae a:
Vexillum Hispaniae Hispania[1]

Vires communisticae:

Formula:Vexillum data Vietnamia Septentrionalis
Formula:Vexillum data Respublica Vietnamiae Meridianae Viet Cong
Formula:Vexillum data Cambodia Khmer Rouge
Formula:Vexillum data Laotia Pathet Lao
Formula:Vexillum data Corea Septentrionalis

Sustentae a:
Formula:Vexillum data Sinae Republica Populari Sinarum
Formula:Vexillum data Unio Sovietica
Formula:Vexillum data Cuba

Imperatores et duces
Formula:Vexillum data South Vietnam Ngô Ðình Di?m
Formula:Vexillum data South Vietnam Nguy?n Van Thi?u
Formula:Vexillum data South Vietnam Nguy?n Cao K?
Formula:Vexillum data South Vietnam Cao Van Viên
Civitates Foederatae Americae Lyndon B. Johnson
Civitates Foederatae Americae Ricardus Nixon
Civitates Foederatae Americae Gulielmus Westmoreland
Civitates Foederatae Americae Creighton Abrams
Formula:Vexillum data Corea Meridiana Park Chung-hee[2]
Formula:Vexillum data South Korea Chae Myung Shin[2]
Formula:Vexillum data Cambodia Lon Nol
Formula:Vexillum data Cambodia Sosthene Fernandez
...et alii
Formula:Vexillum data Vietnamia Septentrionalis H? Chí Minh
Formula:Vexillum data North Vietnam Lê Du?n
Formula:Vexillum data Vietnamia Septentrionalis Võ Nguyên Giáp
Formula:Vexillum data Respublica Vietnamiae Meridianae Hoàng Van Thái
Formula:Vexillum data Vietnamia Septentrionalis Van Ti?n Dung
Formula:Vexillum data Respublica Vietnamiae Meridianae Tr?n Van Trà
Formula:Vexillum data Respublica Vietnamiae Meridianae Nguy?n Van Linh
Formula:Vexillum data Respublica Vietnamiae Meridianae Nguy?n H?u Th?
...et alii
Vires
~1 830 000 (1968)

Vietnamia Meridiana: 850 000
Civitates Foederatae: 536 100
Vires Militares Mundi Liberi: 65 000[3]
Res Publica Coreae: 50 000[4]
Australia: 7672
Thailandia, Philippinae: 10 450
Nova Zelandia: 552

~461 000

Vietnamia Septentrionalis: 287 465 (Jan 1968)[5]
PRC: 170 000 (1969)
Unio Sovietica: 3000
DPR Corea: 300–600

Casus
Formula:Vexillum data Vietnamia Meridiana Vietnamia Meridiana
220,357 (humilissma aestimatio)[6]–316 000 dead (altissima aestimatio);[7] 1 170 000 vulnerati

Formula:Vexillum data Civitates Foederatae Civitates Foederatae
58 220 mortui;[A 2] 1,687 missing;[12] 303,635 wounded[A 2]
Formula:Vexillum data Corea Meridiana Respublica Coreae
5,099 mortui; 10,962 vulnerati; 4 ignoti
Formula:Vexillum data Australia Australia
521 mortui; 3,000 vulnerati
Formula:Vexillum data Nova Zelandia Nova Zelandia
37 mortui; 187 vulnerati
Formula:Vexillum data Thailandia Thailandia
1,351 mortui[6]
Formula:Vexillum data Laotia Regnum Laotiense
30,000 interfecti, vulnerati ignoti[13]

Summa mortuorum: 315 384 – 412 000
Summa vulneratorum: ~1 490 000+

Formula:Vexillum data Vietnamia SeptentrionalisFormula:Vexillum data Respublica Vietnamiae Meridianae Vietnamia Septentrionalis et NLF
1 176 000 mortui vel desiderati (altissima aestimatio);[6] 600 000+ wounded<ref=John Soames, A History of the World (Routledge, 2005).</ref>

Formula:Vexillum data Sinae Respublica Popularis Sinarum
1446 mortui; 4200 vulnerati
Formula:Vexillum data Unio Sovietica Unio Sovietica
16 mortui[14]

Summa mortuorum: ~1 177 462 (altissima aestimatio)
Summa vulneratorum: ~604 200+

Civiliani Vietnamienses mortui: ~200 000–2 000 000[15]
Civiliani Cambodienses mortui: 200 000–300 000*[16][17][18]
Civiliani Laotiani mortui: ~20 000–200 000*
Summa civilianorum mortuorum: ~420 000–2 500 000
Summa mortuorum: ~1 912 846–3 992 846

* indicat approximationes; vide Casualties infar.

Bellum Vietnamiense, etiam Bellum Indosinense II et Certamen Vietnamiense appellatum, et nunc in ipsa regione pertinente Bellum Americanum et Bella contra Americanos ad conservandam civitatem,[19] fuit certamen militare aevi Belli Frigidi quod in Paeninsula Indosinensi, praecipue Vietnamia, Laotia, et Cambodia, a 1 Novembris 1955 ad casum Saigoniae (hodie Hochiminhopolis) die 30 Aprilis 1975 pugnatum est. Hoc certamen Bellum Indosinense I secutum est, pugnatum inter Vietnamiam Septentrionalem, a suis sociis communisticis, et gubernationem Vietnamiae Meridianae, a Civitatibus Foederatis et aliis civitatibus anticommunisticis sustentam.[20] Viet Cong, organizatio Frons Liberationis Reipublicae quoque appellata, frons communis Vietnamiensis Meridiana leviter armata et a communistis coacta, bellum plerumque irregulare contra vires anticommunisticas in regione gessit. Praeterea, Exercitus Populorum Vietnamiensis bellum plerumque translaticium ausus est, aliquando cum multis copiis proelia iusta committens. Vires Civitatum Foederatarum et Vietnamiae Meridianae dominationi aeriae et obruentibus armis igniferis ad administrandas effectiones quaerendi et destruendi confisae sunt, inter quas vires terrestriales, bombardamenta, et ictus ex aëre.

Gubernatio Civitatum Foederatarum, pro parte latioris artis inclusionis, Vietnamiam Meridianam adiuvabat, ne communistae victoriam reportarent; gubernatio autem Vietnamiae Septentrionalis et Viet Cong certamen habebantur bellum colonicum, primum contra Franciam gestum, a Civitatibus Foederatis sustentum, et deinde contra Vietnamiam Meridianam, quam civitatem pupalem exsistimabant.[21] Suasores militares Americani in civitatem quae tum erat Indosina Francica anno 1950 advenerunt. Implicatio Civitatum Foederatarum decennio 197 ineunte crescebat, numeris copiarum anno 1961 triplicatis, atque iterum triplicatis anno 1962.[22] Americanae unitates bellandi anno 1965 committi coeperunt. Rationes fines inter civitates transgressae sunt, Laotia et Cambodia magnopere bombardatis. Implicatio Americana apicem anno 1968, tempore Concursus Tet, attigit. Quo facto, terrestres Civitatum Foederatarum copiae secundum consilia Vietnamizatio appellata gradatim revocabantur, sed contra Conventa Pacificatoria Lutetiae, ab omnibus partibus Ianuario 1973 consignata, certamen persistebat.

Finivit militaris Civitatum Foederatarum implicatio die 15 Augusti 1973 propter Emendationem Case–Church, partem rogationis a Congressu Civitatum Foederatarum sanctam.[23] Comprehensio Saigoniae ab Exercitu Populi Vietnamiensi Aprile 1975 finem belli significavit, atque insequente anno Vietnamia Septentrionalis et Meridiana in unam dicionem rite redactae sunt. Bellum permultas effecit neces humanas (vide Casus Belli Vietnamiensis). Iudicia numerorum militum Vietnamiensium et civilianorum? interfectorum inter minus quam una milliona[24] et plus quam tres millionae variantur.[25] Fere 200 000–300 000 Cambodiani,[16][17][18] 20 000–200 000 Laotiani,[26][27][28][29][30][31] et 58 220 bellatores Civitatum Foederatarum in certamine mortui sunt.

Nomina belli[recensere | fontem recensere]

Varia nomina ad certamen adhibita sunt. Bellum Vietnamiense (Anglice Vietnam War) est usitata notio in Civitatibus Foederatis; certamen etiam Bellum Indosinense Alterum, Certamen Vietnamiense, et Certamen in Vietnamia appellatur.

Quia sunt multa certamina militaria in regione Indosinensi, hoc certamen saepe ex nomine principalis adversarii appellatur ut ab aliis distinguatur.[32] Ergo, bellum Vietnamice Chiến tranh Việt Nam (Bellum Vietnamiense) atque Kháng chiến chống Mỹ (Bellum Americae Resistendae, sensu lato Bellum Americanum) appellatur.[33]

Principales organizationes militares quae bellum gerebant in alio latere Exercitus Respublicae Vietnamiae et militares Civitatum Foederatarum vires, et in alio latere Exercitus Populorum Vietnamiae (etiam Exercitus Vietnamiensis Septentrionalis appellatus), et Viet Cong, rite Frons Nationalis pro Vietnamia Meridiana Liberata, communisticae Vietnamiae Meridianae vires tumultuariae erant.

Scaena usque ad 1949[recensere | fontem recensere]

Francia Indosinam decennio 186 exeunte vincere coepit, et pacificationem ante 1893 confecit.[34][35][36] Pactio Huế, anno 1884 facta, decennia septem fuit fundamenta dominationis Francicae. Contra homines qui resistebant, notissime Can Vuong ex Phan Dinh Phung, regio hodiernarum civitatum Cambodiae et Vietnamiae ante 1888 facta est colonia Indosina Francica (Laotia deinde addita).[37] Varii motus Vietnamienses qui dominatui Francico repugnabant illo tempore exsistebant, sicut Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang, qui seditionem Yen Bai conatum improsperum anno 1930 concitaverunt, sed nulli fuerunt tam felices quam frons communis Viet Minh appellatus, anno 1941 conditus, a Factione Communista Indosinensi temperatus, atque a Civitatibus Foederatis et Factione Nationalista Sinensi subsidiis pecuniae fultus in contentionibus cum imperio Iaponiensi.[38]

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Annotationes[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named start_date
  2. 2.0 2.1 Numeri 58 220 et 303 644 mortuorum vulneratorumque Americanorum ex Department of Defense Statistical Information Analysis Division (SIAD), Defense Manpower Data Center, veniunt, etiam ex documentum a Department of Veterans Maio 2010 vulgatum[8] the CRS (Congressional Research Service) Report for Congress, American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics, dated February 26, 2010,[9] and the book Crucible Vietnam: Memoir of an Infantry Lieutenant.[10] Alii fontes numeros alios dant (e.g., Heart of Darkness: The Vietnam War Chronicles 1945–1975, documentarium annorum 2005 et 2006, alibi in hoc commentario citatum, numerum 58,159 mortuorum CFA dat,[6] The 2007 book Vietnam Sons: For Some, the War Never Ended gives a figure of 58,226.[11])

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. "ALLIES OF THE REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM" 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "The Cold Warrior". Newsweek. 10 Aprilis 2000 .
  3. "Facts about the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Collection". nps.gov  De primis copiis terrestribus pugnantibus Americanis in Vietnamiam Septentrionalem per Martium 1965 expositis, diserte Regimento Tertio Classiariorum CFA, Divisionis Tertiae Classiariorum, ad Vietnamiam ab Okinawa ad defendendum aeroportum apud Da Nang Vietnamiae missis.
  4. Vietnam Marines 1965–73. Books.google.co.uk. 1965-03-08 
  5. Vietnam War After Action Reports, BACM Research, 2009, p. 430.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Aaron Ulrich (editor); Edward FeuerHerd (producer and director) (2005 & 2006) (Box set, Color, Dolby, DVD-Video, Full Screen, NTSC, Dolby, Vision Software). Heart of Darkness: The Vietnam War Chronicles 1945–1975 (Documentary). Koch Vision. Event occurs at 321 minutes. ISBN 1-4172-2920-9 
  7. Rummel, R. J (1997), "Table 6.1A. Vietnam Democide : Estimates, Sources, and Calculations," (GIF), Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War, University of Hawaii System 
  8. Formula:Cite report
  9. Formula:Cite report
  10. Lawrence 2009, pp. 65, 107, 154, 217
  11. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Kueter2007
  12. 535 Army, 367 Navy, 212 Marine Corps, 541 Air Force, 32 civilians Formula:As of, per Vietnam-Era Statistical Support.
  13. "Vietnam War Casualties". Vietnamgear.com. 3 Aprilis 1995 
  14. James Dunnigan et Albert Nofi, Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War: Military Information You're Not Supposed to Know (St. Martin's Press, 2000), p. 284. ISBN 0-312-25282-X.
  15. Shenon, Philip (23 Aprilis 1995). "20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate" 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Patrick Heuveline (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality in Cambodia," in Forced Migration and Mortality, ed. Holly E. Reed et Charles B. Keely (Vasingtoniae: National Academy Press, 2001).
  17. 17.0 17.1 Marek Sliwinski, Le Génocide Khmer Rouge: Une Analyse Démographique (Lutetiae: L’Harmattan, 1995).
  18. 18.0 18.1 Judith Banister et Paige Johnson (1993). "After the Nightmare: The Population of Cambodia," in Genocide and Democracy in Cambodia: The Khmer Rouge, the United Nations and the International Community, ed. Ben Kiernan (Portu Novo: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies, 1993).
  19. "Official news source use of the name," apud situm vietnamnews.vnagency.com.cn (29 Octobris 2009).
  20. "Vietnam War". Encyclopædia Britannica 
  21. Digital History, Steven Mintz. "The Vietnam War". Digitalhistory.uh.edu 
  22. Vietnam War Statistics and Facts, 1, apud situm 25th Aviation Batallion.
  23. Gabriel Kolko, Anatomy of War, pp. 457, 461 ff.; ISBN 1-898876-67-3.
  24. Charles Hirschman et al., "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate," Population and Development Review, Decembre 1995.
  25. Associated Press, 3 Aprilis 1995, "Vietnam Says 1.1 Million Died Fighting For North."
  26. Roger Warner, Shooting at the Moon (1996), p. 366, 30,000 Hmong aestimat.
  27. Obermeyer, "Fifty years of violent war deaths from Vietnam to Bosnia", British Medical Journal (2008), 60 000 in summa aestimat.
  28. T. Lomperis, From People's War to People's Rule, (1996), 35 000 in summa aestimat.
  29. Melvin Small et Joel David Singer, Resort to Arms: International and Civil Wars 1816-1980 (1982), 20 000 in summa aestimant.
  30. Charles Lewis Taylor, The World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators, 20 000 in summa aestimat.
  31. Martin Stuart-Fox, A History of Laos, 200 000 ante 1973 aestimat.
  32. Harold G. Moore et Joseph L. Galloway, We Are Soldiers Still: A Journey Back to the Battlefields of Vietnam (p. 57).
  33. "Asian-Nation: Asian American History, Demographics, & Issues:: The American / Viet Nam War" .
  34. Keat Gin Ooi, Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO; 2004. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2, p. 520.
  35. Lajpat Rai, Social Science. FK Publications; ISBN 978-81-89611-12-5, p. 22.
  36. Arthur J. Dommen, The Indochinese experience of the French and the Americans: nationalism and communism in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001), ISBN 978-0-253-33854-9, p. 4–19.
  37. Jonathan Neale, The American War, p. 3, ISBN 1-898876-67-3.
  38. Jonathan Neale, The American War, p. 17, ISBN 1-898876-67-3.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Tabula Vietnamiae Meridianae

Fontes secundarii[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Anderson, David L. 2004. Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War.
  • Baker, Kevin. 2006. "Stabbed in the Back! The past and future of a right-wing myth", Harper's Magazine (Iunio) "Stabbed in the back! The past and future of a right-wing myth (Harper's Magazine)" 
  • Angio, Joe. 2007. Nixon a Presidency Revealed. The History Channel television documentary.
  • Berman, Larry. 1991. Lyndon Johnson's War: The Road to Stalemate.
  • Blaufarb, Douglas. 1977. The Counterinsurgency Era.
  • Brigham, Robert K. Battlefield Vietnam: A Brief History. Situs interretialis PBS.
  • Brocheux, Pierre. 2007. Ho Chi Minh: A Biography. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-85062-9.Google.
  • Buckley, Kevin. 1972 "Pacification’s Deadly Price", Newsweek, 19 Iuni.
  • Buzzanco, Bob. 2000. "25 Years After End of Vietnam War: Myths Keep Us From Coming To Terms With Vietnam." The Baltimore Sun (17 Aprilis) "25 Years After End Of Vietnam War Myths Keep Us From Coming To Terms With Vietnam" 
  • Church, Peter, ed. 2006. A Short History of South-East Asia.
  • Cooper, Chester L. 1970. The Lost Crusade: America in Vietnam.
  • Courtwright, David T. 2005. Sky as Frontier: Adventure, Aviation, and Empire. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 1-58544-419-7.
  • Demma, Vincent H. 1989. "The U.S. Army in Vietnam." American Military History.
  • Dennis, Peter, et al. 2008. The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History. Ed. 2a. Melbourni: Oxford University Press Australia & New Zealand. ISBN 978-0-19-551784-2.
  • DoD (6 November 1998). "Name of Technical Sergeant Richard B. Fitzgibbon to be added to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial". Department of Defense (DoD) 
  • Duiker, William J. 1996. The Communist Road to Power in Vietnam.
  • Duncanson, Dennis J. 1968. Government and Revolution in Vietnam.
  • Fincher, Ernest Barksdale. 1980. The Vietnam War.
  • Ford, Harold P. 1998. CIA and the Vietnam Policymakers: Three Episodes, 1962–1968.
  • Gerdes, Louise I. ed. 2005. Examining Issues Through Political Cartoons: The Vietnam War.
  • Gettleman, Marvin E., Jane Franklin, Marilyn Young. 1995. Vietnam and America: A Documented History.
  • Hammond, William. 1987. Public Affairs: The Military and the Media, 1962–1968. + 1995. Public Affairs: The Military and the Media, 1068–1973.
  • Herring, George C. 2001. America's Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950–1975. Ed. 4a.
  • Hitchens, Christopher. The Vietnam Syndrome.
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  • Kutler, Stanley ed. 1996. Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War.
  • Lawrence, A. T. 2009. Crucible Vietnam: Memoir of an Infantry Lieutenant. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-4517-3.
  • Leepson, Marc ed. 1999. Dictionary of the Vietnam War. Novi Eboraci:: Webster's New World.
  • Lewy, Guenter. 1978. America in Vietnam.
  • Logevall, Fredrik. 2001. The Origins of the Vietnam War. Seminar Studies in History. Longman.
  • McMahon, Robert J. 1995. Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War: Documents and Essays.
  • McNamara, Robert, James Blight, Robert Brigham, Thomas Biersteker, Herbert Schandler. 1999. Argument Without End: In Search of Answers to the Vietnam Tragedy. Public Affairs.
  • McGibbon, Ian. 2000. The Oxford Companion to New Zealand Military History. Aucopolis: Oxford University Press ISBN 01955837600
  • McNeill, Ian. 1993. To Long Tan: The Australian Army and the Vietnam War 1950–1966. St Leonards: Allen & Unwin ISBN 1-86373-282-9.
  • Milne, David. 2008. America's Rasputin: Walt Rostow and the Vietnam War. Hill & Wang.
  • Moise, Edwin E. 2002. Historical Dictionary of the Vietnam War.
  • Moïse,Edwin E. 1996. Tonkin Gulf and the escalation of the Vietnam War. UNC Press. ISBN 0-8078-2300-7.
  • Moss, George D. 2002. Vietnam. Ed. 4a.
  • Moyar, Mark. 2006. Triumph Forsaken: The Vietnam War, 1954–1965. Cambridge University Press
  • Major General Spurgeon Neel. 1991. Medical Support of the U.S. Army in Vietnam 1965–1970. Department of the Army.
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  • Osborn, Terry A. 2002. The Future of Foreign Language Education in the United States. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-89789-719-8.
  • Palmer, Bruce, Jr. 1984. The Twenty-Five Year War.
  • Schell, Jonathan. 1976. The Time of Illusion.
  • Schulzinger, Robert D. 1997. A Time for War: The United States and Vietnam, 1941–1975.
  • Sorley, Lewis. 1999. A Better War: The Unexamined Victories and Final Tragedy of America's Last Years in Vietnam. ISBN 0-15-601309-6.
  • Spector, Ronald. 1992. After Tet: The Bloodiest Year in Vietnam.
  • Stanton, Shelby L. 2003. Vietnam Order of Battle. Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-0071-2.
  • Summers, Harry G. 1982. On Strategy: A Critical Analysis of the Vietnam War. Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-563-7.
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. 1998. Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War. 3 vol.
  • Willbanks, James H. 2009. Vietnam War Almanac. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8160-7102-9
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  • Xiaoming, Zhang. 2005. "China's 1979 War With Vietnam: A Reassessment." China Quarterly 184(Decembris).

Fontes primarii[recensere | fontem recensere]

Historiographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Hall, Simon. 2009. "Scholarly Battles over the Vietnam War." Historical Journal 52 (Sept.): 813–829.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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