Nucleus basalis telencephali

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Nucleus basalis telencephali
MEYNERT
Cognitores
TA: 14.1.09.418
Substantia innominata
IRM planitie coronali capitis cum substantia innominata,
quo nucleus basalis invenitur.
Histologia nuclei basalis
Histologia nuclei basalis.

Nucleus basalis telencephali vel saepius nucleus basalis MEYNERT (nbM) vel nucleus basalis magnocellularis est grex neuronorum imprimis in substantia innominata partis basalis telencephali locatus[1]. Est pars systematis cholinergici, quod ad amygdalam, hippocampum et corticem cerebri spectat.

Nucleus in gubernatione somni et vigilantia animi coniungitur. Malum nuclei basalis cum vitio functionum animi vel cerebri nexum est.

Contextus anatomicus et physiologicus[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nucleus basalis intra partem basalem telencephali[recensere | fontem recensere]

Telencephali pars basalis, extra thalamum, commutatorem ventralem a trunco cerebri ad corticem constituit[2]. Quamquam neurotransmissorem principalem acetylcholinum esse videtur, alii, ut GABA quoque momentum habent.

Nucleo basali plurimi nexus inter ceteros nucleos magnocellulares partis basalis, nuclei septalis medialis enim et nuclei striae diagonalis, sunt[3]. Sub microscopio magna ex parte cellulae neuronales nuclei magnocellulares et multipolares, quaedam cum granulis acidophilicis intracytoplasmicis, quae in parte intra mitochondriis locatae videtur: anteromedialiter cellularum 36% typi magnocellularis, posterolateraliter 54%. Cetera neurona parviora sunt, de forma fusiformi.

Systema excitans reticulare ascendens et nucleus basalis[recensere | fontem recensere]

Crystal 128 up.png Commentatio principalis: Systema excitans reticulare ascendens

Nucleus in gubernatione somni et vigilantia animi coniungitur[4].

Partes principales systematis excitantis reticularis ascendentis
Systema Neuro
transmissor
Correspondentes nuclei
animum excitationem mediantes
Fontes
dopaminergicum dopaminum [5]
noradrenergicum noradrenalinum
serotonergicum serotoninum
histaminergicum histaminum
cholinergicum acetylcholinum
glutamatergicum glutamatum
Nuclei thalami

Natura nuclei basalis[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nucleus ex grege neuronorum cholinergicorum constitutus est, et simul est pars systematis cholinergici, quod fibrae nervales cum synapsibus cholinergicis (i.e. cum neurotransmissore acetylcholinie ACh) in cerebrum mittit. Nuclei neuronorum cum fibris cholinergicis nuclei basalis etiam abbreviantur Ch4[6] Hodie Ch4 rursum in hominibus subdividitur inter:

  • Ch4a (pars anterior)
  • Ch4al (pars anterolateralis)
  • Ch4ai (pars anterointermedia)
  • Ch4i (pars intermedia)
  • Ch4iv (pars intermedioventralis)
  • Ch4p (pars posterior)

Significatio clinica[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nucleus basalis et morbus Alzheimerianus[recensere | fontem recensere]

Crystal 128 up.png Commentatio principalis: Morbus Alzheimerianus

In morbo Alzheimeriano numerus neuronorum reductus aestimatus est[7], itaque paralleliter ruina cognitiva[8].

Nucleus basalis et morbus Parkinson[recensere | fontem recensere]

Crystal 128 up.png Commentatio principalis: Morbus Parkinson

In morbi Parkinson cursu aegroti symptomata quoque contrahant, quae, in parte, detrimento nucleorum basalium explicari possunt. Exempla talorum signorum morbi Parkinson progredientis sunt[8]:

  • Dysfunctio executiva (pars anterior nbM)
  • Mutationes personalitatis (pars anterior nbM)
  • Allucinationes opticae (pars intermedia nbM)
  • Dysfunctiones visuospatiales (pars intermedia nbM)
  • Inopia memoriae (pars posterior nbM)

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Hedreen J. C., Struble R. G., Whitehouse P. J., Price D. L. (Ian 1984). "Topography of the magnocellular basal forebrain system in human brain". Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology 43 (1): 1-21 
  2. Jones B. E. (2004). "Activity, modulation and role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons innervating the cerebral cortex". Progress in brain research 145: 157-69 
  3. Ulfig N., Braak E., Braak H. (1989). "Changes within the basal nucleus in Parkinson's disease". Progress in clinical and biological research 317: 493-500 
  4. Szymusiak R. (Iul 1985). "Magnocellular nuclei of the basal forebrain: substrates of sleep and arousal regulation". Sleep 18 (6): 478-500 
  5. Iwańczuk W., Guźniczak P. (2015). "Neurophysiological foundations of sleep, arousal, awareness and consciousness phenomena. Part 1". Anaesthesiology intensive therapy 47 (2): 162-7 
  6. Ch1: Nucleus septalis medialis, Ch2: Nucleus diagonalis, membrum verticale, Ch3: Nucleus diagonalis, membrum horizontale.
  7. Arendt T., Bigl V., Arendt A., Tennstedt A. (1983). "Loss of neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert in Alzheimer's disease, paralysis agitans and Korsakoff's Disease". Acta neuropathologica 61 (2): 101-8 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Liu A. K., Chang R. C., Pearce R. K., Gentleman S. M. (Apr 2015). "Nucleus basalis of Meynert revisited: anatomy, history and differential involvement in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease". Acta neuropathologica 129 (4): 527-40 

Nexus interni