Roman numeral 10000 CC DD.svg

Pseudoscorpiones

E Vicipaedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Pseudoscorpion - Soil Fauna Diversity.jpeg

Subphylum : Chelicerata 
Classis : Arachnida 
Ordo : Pseudoscorpiones 
Haeckel, 1866

Pseudoscorpiones[1] sunt ordo arthropodum classis Arachnidorum.[2] Homines magnopere adiuvant, quia larvas Tineolae bisselliellae et dermestidarum, psocoptera, formicidas, acaros, et parva diptera praedantur. Minuti sunt, et raro videntur propter eorum magnitudinem, quamquam in multis circumiectis abundant. Cum homines eos videantur, praecipue intus, saepe ixodida parvaeque araneae false putantur. Pseudoscorpiones phoresiam saepe faciunt, genus commensalismi, cum unus organismus alio ad se transvehendum utatur.

Proprietates[recensere | fontem recensere]

Pseudoscorpiones sunt parva arachnida, corpore complanato et pyriformi, pedipalpisque qui pedipalporum scorpionum similes sunt. A duobus ad octo millimetra longi plerumque sunt.[3] Maxima species descripta est Garypus titanius Insulae Ascensionis[4] usque ad 12 mm longi.[5][6] Magnitudo media est 3 fere millimetra.[7]

Pseudoscorpionis sunt octo crura, quoque in quinis ad septenis segmentis consistens; numero segmentorum fusorum familiae et genera distinguuntur. Eis sunt bini pedipalpi longissimi, chelis palpalibus (forcipibus) praediti, qui forficum scorpionis admodum similes sunt.

Pseudoscorpio in Civitatibus Foederatis.
Pseudoscorpio phoreticus super dipterum in Germania.
Chelifer cancroides ("scorpio librorum") super librum apertum.
Coloratae pseudoscorpionis adumbrationes.

Pedipalpi plerumque in manibus immobilibus digitisque mobilibus consistunt, quorum hic a musculo adductionis continetur. Glandula ductusque veneni plerumque in digito mobili inveniuntur, unde veneno praedam immobilem faciunt. Per digestionem super praedam fluidum aliquantulum corrosivum exudant, tum liquefacta corporis reliquia ingerunt.

Abdomen, opisthosoma rite in zoologia appellatum, in duodecim segmentis consistit, quorum quodque a lamina sclerotizata (tergites supra, sternites infra appellata) protegitur. Abdomen est breve et in parte posteriori rotundum, potius quam in caudam segmentatam et aculeum extendens, ut in scorpionibus veris. Color corporis ab adusto flavo tincto ad atrofuscum est, unguibus autem saepe aliter coloratis. Eis sunt bini, quattuor, aut nulli oculi.[6]

Pseudoscorpions sericum ex glandula inter maxillas emittunt ad globulos disciformes faciendos ut coeant, cutem novam ponant, caeloque frigido resistant. Eis autem non sunt pulmones biblioformes et tetrapulmonata scorpionum verorum; potius, solum per tracheas spirant, quae lateraliter per bina spiracularum paria in posterioribus marginibus sternitum segmentorum abdominalium tertii et quartii aperiunt.[8]

Distributio geographica[recensere | fontem recensere]

Plus quam 3300 specierum pseudoscorpionum in plus quam 430 genera digeruntur, et exempla nova saepe inveniuntur. Omnem per orbem terrarum extenduntur, etiam in regionibus a temperatis ad frigidas sicut Ontario septentrionalis, et super lineam materiae in Montibus Saxosis Vyominae in Civitatibus Foederatis et Cavernis Jenolan Australiae, sed multitudines densissimae et pervariae in regionibus tropicis et subtropicis habitant, ubi etiam ad insulas sicut Canarias Insulas extenduntur, ubi circiter viginti quinque species endemicae inveniuntur.[9] Etiam in insulis Melitensibus sunt duae species endemicae.[10] Species sub cortice arborum, in detritu foliorum et pinorum, in solo, in foraminibus in arboribus, sub lapidibus, in cavernis sicut Caverna Movile, ad litus in zona interaestuaria, intra saxa fissa inveniuntur.[3][11]

Commemorationes historicae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Pseudoscorpiones primum ab Aristotele descripti sunt, qui eos fortasse inter volumina in bibliotheca invenit, ubi psocopteris vescissentur. Robertus Hooke hoc animal Land-Crab ('brachyurum terrestre') in libro Micrographia (1665) appellavit. Annis 1780, Georgius Adams "insectum-nephropidum, quod nonnulli operarii, cerevisiam bibentes, conspecti sunt, et quod ab ingenioso viro honesto ad meum hospitium tulit"[12] commemoravit.[13]

Classificatio[recensere | fontem recensere]

Numeri taxorum anno 2012 exeunte aestimabantur.[14]

  • Ordo Pseudoscorpiones de Geer, 1778 (2 subordines)
  • Familia Feaellidae Ellingsen, 1906 (1 genus, 12 species)
  • Familia Pseudogarypidae Chamberlin, 1923 (2 genera, 7 species [5 species fossiles])
  • Familia Bochicidae Chamberlin, 1930 (12 genera, 42 species)
  • Familia Gymnobisiidae Beier, 1947 (4 genera, 11 species)
  • Familia Hyidae Chamberlin, 1930 (2 genera, 14 species)
  • Familia Ideoroncidae Chamberlin, 1930 (11 genera, 59 species)
  • FamiliaNeobisiidae Chamberlin, 1930 (33 genera, 595 species [4 species fossiles])
  • Familia Parahyidae Harvey, 1992 (1 genus, 1 species)
  • Familia Syarinidae Chamberlin, 1930 (18 genera, 111 species)
  • Familia Garypidae Simon, 1879 (10 genera, 80 species)
  • Familia Garypinidae Daday, 1888 (21 genera, 76 species [2 species fossiles])
  • Familia Geogarypidae Chamberlin, 1930 (3 genera, 60 species [3 species fossiles])
  • Familia Larcidae Harvey, 1992 (2 genera, 15 species)
  • Familia Menthidae Chamberlin, 1930 (5 genera, 12 species)
  • Familia Olpiidae Banks, 1895 (36 genera, 268 species)
  • Familia Cheiridiidae Hansen, 1894 (7 genera, 73 species [1 genus fossile, 3 species fossiles])
  • Familia Pseudochiridiidae Chamberlin, 1923 (2 genera, 12 species [1 species fossilis])
  • Familia Atemnidae Kishida, 1929 (21 genera, 178 species [1 genus fossile, 1 species fossilis])
  • Familia Cheliferidae Risso, 1827 (58 genera, 273 species [5 genus fossile, 12 species fossiles])
  • Familia Chernetidae Menge, 1855 (117 genera, 663 species [1 genus fossile, 3 species fossiles])
  • Familia Withiidae Chamberlin, 1931 (36 genera, 158 species [1 genus fossile, 1 species fossilis])

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Etiam Chelonethida appellati.
  2. Schembri et Baldacchino 2011: 66.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Pennsylvania State University: "Entomological Notes: Pseudoscorpion Fact Sheet."
  4. M. Beier (1961). "Pseudoscorpione von der Insel Ascension" (Theodisce). Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 13a 3 (34): 593–98 
  5. "Endemic invertebrates". Ascension Island Conservation Centre .
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Pseudoscorpions". Agricultural Research Council (Africa Australis) .
  7. Schembri et Baldacchino 2011: 66.
  8. "Discontinuous gas exchange in a tracheate arthropod, the pseudoscorpion Garypus californicus: occurrence, characteristics and temperature dependence."
  9. Volker Mahnert (2011). "A nature's treasury: pseudoscorpion diversity of the Canary Islands, with the description of nine new species (Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae, Cheiridiidae) and new records". Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 19: 27–45 .
  10. Schembri, Patrick J.; Baldacchino, Alfred E. (2011). Ilma, Blat u Hajja: Is-Sisien tal-Ambjent Naturali Malti. p. 66. ISBN 978-99909-44-48-8 .
  11. "Movile Cave - An Oddity Of Romania" .
  12. Anglice "a lobster-insect, spied by some labouring men who were drinking their porter, and borne away by an ingenious gentleman, who brought it to my lodging."
  13. Adams 1787.
  14. Harvey 2013.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Adams, George. 1787. Essays on the Microscope. Londinii: Robert Hindmarsh.
  • Beier, Max. 1951. "Der Bücherskorpion, ein willkommener Gast der Bienenvölker." Österr. Imker 1: 209–211.
  • Beier, Max. 1967. "Pseudoscorpione vom kontinentalen Südost-Asien." Pacific Insects 9 (2): 341–69. PDF.
  • Blick, Theo, Christoph Muster, et al. 2003. "Rote Liste gefährdeter Pseudoskorpione (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones) Bayerns, BayLfU/166/2003. PDF.
  • Chamberlin, Joseph C. 1931. "The Arachnid Order Chelonethida." Stanford University Publications in Biological Science 7 (1): 1–284.
  • Coddington, J. A., S. F. Larcher, et J. C. Cokendolpher. 1990. The Systematic Status of Arachnida, Exclusive of Acari, in North America North of Mexico. In "Systematics of the North American Insects and Arachnids: Status and Needs. National Biological Survey, 3. Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
  • Drogla, Reiner, et Klaus Lippold. 2004. Zur Kenntnis der Pseudoskorpion-Fauna von Ostdeutschland (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones). Arachnol. Mitt. 27/28 (November): 1–54 PDF.
  • Dunlop et Penney. 2012 Fossil Arachnids. Mancuniae. ISBN 978-0-9567795-4-0.
  • Gabbutt, P. D. 1970. "Validity of Life History Analyses of Pseudoscorpions." Journal of Natural History 4: 1–15.
  • Gröhn, C. 2015. Einschlüsse im Baltischen Bernstein. Kieliae et Hamburgi. ISBN 978-3-529-05457-0.
  • Harvey, Mark S. 1991. Catalogue of the Pseudoscorpionida, ed. V . Mahnert. Mancuniae: Manchester University Press.
  • Harvey, Mark. 2011. "Pseudoscorpions of the World."
  • Harvey, Mark S. 2013. "Order Pseudoscorpiones." In Zootaxa: Animal Biodiversity: An Outline of Higher-level Classification and Survey of Taxonomic Richness (Addenda 2013), ed. Z.-Q. Zhang.
  • Hoff, C. Clayton. 1947. The species of the pseudoscorpion genus Chelanops described by Banks. Cantabrigiae Massachusettae: The Museum.
  • Hoff, Clarence Clayton. 1958. "List of the Pseudoscorpions of North America North of Mexico." American Museum Novitates 1875. PDF.
  • Muchmore, W. B. 1982. "Pseudoscorpionida." "Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms," vol. 2. S. P. Parker.
  • Schawaller, Wolfgang, William A. Shear, et Patricia M. Bonamo. 1991. "The first Paleozoic pseudoscorpions (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpionida)." American Museum Novitates 3009. HDL 2246/5041.
  • Schembri, Patrick J., et ALfred E. Baldacchino. 2011. Ilma, Blat u Hajja: Is-Sisien tal-Ambjent Naturali Malti. ISBN 978-99909-44-48-8.
  • Shear, William A., Wolfgang Schawaller, et Patricia M. Bonamo. 1989. "Record of Palaeozoic pseudoscorpions." Nature 342 (6242): 527–29. doi:10.1038/341527a0. Bibcode 1989Natur.341..527S.
  • Weygoldt, Peter. 1969. The biology of pseudoscorpions. Cantabrigiae Massachusettae: Harard University Press. ISBN 0674074254, ISBN 9780674074255.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Pseudoscorpiones spectant.
Wikispecies-logo.svg Vide "Pseudoscorpiones" apud Vicispecies.
Wikidata-logo.svg Situs scientifici:  • ITIS • NCBI • Biodiversity • Encyclopedia of Life • WoRMS: Marine Species • Fossilworks