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Libido

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Lectulus Sigismundi Freud, Londinii conservatus.

Libido est tota hominis vis vel appetentia gnavitatis sexualis, quae rebus biologicis, psychologicis, socialibus movetur. Hormonta sexualia et neurotransmissores consociati qui nucleum accumbentem (plerumque testosteronum et dopaminum) libidinem in hominibus biologice afficiunt et moderantur.[1] Res sociales, sicut labor et familia, ac res psychologicae internae, sicut personalitas et perceptio tensionis libidinem afficere possunt. Libido etiam condiciones medicae, modus vivendi, et exemplaria coniunctionum, et aetas (fortasse praecipue pubertas) etiam libidinem affici possunt. Homo qui has extremely frequent or a suddenly increased sex drive may be experiencing hypersexualitas, cum status oppositus sit hyposexualitas.

Homo appetitum sexualem sentire cum occasio agendi caret, aut personalitatis, morum, ethicae, religionisve causá, impulso non indulgere potest. Impulsus sexualis reprimi vel sublimari potest. Homo autem agitationem suscipere potest sine desiderio. Multae res humanum appetitum sexualem afficiunt, inter quas tensio, aegritudo, graviditas. Recognitio anno 2001 invenit viros sexum plus quam mulieres desiderare.[2]

Appetitús sexuales saepe sunt res magni momenti in coniunctionibus intimis in hominibus formandis et tenendis. Inopia vel amissio desiderii sexualis coniunctiones male afficere potest. Mutationes desideriorum sexualium utrius socii in coniunctione sexuali, si continuae et incertae manent, difficultates in coniunctione efficere possunt. Infidelitas unius socii significare potest mutantia illius socii desideria sexualia intra coniunctionem praesentem non diutius satisfieri posse. Difficultates a discrepantia desideriorum sexualium inter socios sexuales, aut a communicatione impari de necessitatibus et favoribus inter socios, oriri possunt.[3]

Psychoanalysis[recensere | fontem recensere]

Sigismundus Freud, neurologus Austriacus et psychoanalysis conditor, qui hodiernam vocabuli significationem excogitare habetur,[4] verbum libidinem definivit "energia, magnitudo quantitativa habita, . . . naturarum quae ad omnia quae nomine amoris subsunt pertinent."[5][6] Libido est vis instincta, in re quae Freud id appellabat contenta, psychae structurá omni sensu omnino carens. Freud libidinem fami, voluntati potestatis, aliisque rebus similem esse habebat,[7] certum esse sibi dicens libidinem esse naturam fundamentalem in omnibus hominibus innatam.[8]

Carolus Gustavus Jung, psychiater Helveticus, arguebat libidinem omnes vires psychicas esse, non solum appetitum sexualem.[9][10] Apud Jung in The Concept of Libido,[11] legimus libidinem significare "desiderium vel impulsus ab auctoritate, morali aut aliter, infrene. Libido appetitus in statu naturali est, quod indicio genetico est necessaria corporea, sicut fames, sitis, somnus, et sexus, ac statús animi motuum vel affectús, qui essentiam libidinis una sunt."[12] Dualitas (oppositio) vires (vel libidinem) psychae generat, quae Jung affirmat se solum per symbolos exprimere: libido "est vires quae sese pateficiunt in ratione vitali et proprie percipitur nisus et desiderium."[13] Qui symboli in ratione psychoanalyticá videri possunt imagines phantasticas, quae res in libidine contentas effingunt, quae formá definitá aliter carent.[14] Desiderium, cupiditas psychica generatim motus, amotio, et structura conceptum, se formis definabilibus manifestat quae per analysin apprehenduntur.

Antonymum libidinis est vis exitii, quam Ericus Berne, psychologus Americanus, Latinitate inusitatissimá appellabat mortidinem[15] et destrudinem.[16][17]

Nexus interni

Motae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Fisher, Aron, et Brown 2006.
  2. Roy F. Baumeister, Kathleen R. Catanese, and Kathleen D. Vohs. "Is There a Gender Difference in Strength of Sex Drive? Theoretical Views, Conceptual Distinctions, and a Review of Relevant Evidence". Department of Psychology Case Western Reserve University. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. 
  3. Mayo Clinic, "Low sex drive in women."
  4. Crowe, Felicity; Hill, Emily; Hollingum, Ben (2010). Sex and Society. Novi Eboraci: Marshall Cavendish. pp. 462. ISBN 9780761479055 .
  5. Anglice "the energy, regarded as a quantitative magnitude . . . of those instincts which have to do with all that +may be comprised under the word 'love.'"
  6. Sigismundi Freud, Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego, 1959.
  7. Malabou, Catherine (2012). The New Wounded: From Neurosis to Brain Damage. New York: Fordham University Press. pp. 103. ISBN 9780823239672 .
  8. Klages, Mary (2017). Literary Theory: The Complete Guide. Londinii: Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 245. ISBN 9781472592767 .
  9. P. Gay, Freud (1989) p. 397.
  10. Sharp, Daryl. "Libido" .
  11. The Concept of Libido, Collected Works Vol. 5, par. 194.
  12. Anglice "[libido] denotes a desire or impulse which is unchecked by any kind of authority, moral or otherwise. Libido is appetite in its natural state. From the genetic point of view it is bodily needs like hunger, thirst, sleep, and sex, and emotional states or affects, which constitute the essence of libido."
  13. Anglice "It is the energy that manifests itself in the life process and is perceived subjectively as striving and desire" (Ellenberger, 697).
  14. “The Technique of Differentiation,” Collected Works, 7, par. 345.
  15. Nominativus mortido.
  16. Nominativus destrudo.
  17. Eric Berne, A Layman's Guide to Psychiatry and Psychoanalysis (1976), 69 et 101.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Dolto, Françoise. 1982. Sexualité féminine: libido, érotisme, frigidité. Lutetiae: Scarabée: A. M. Métailié. ISBN 2867220009.
  • Dyhr, Ute. 1999. Theorien der Libido: Studien zum Verständnis der Libido bei Freud, Jung, und Reich. Berolini: Weissensee. ISBN 3934479014.
  • Ellenberger, Henri. 1970. The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry. Novi Eboraci: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-01672-3, ISBN 0-465-01672-3.
  • Fisher, H. E., A. Aron, et L. L. Brown. 2006. "Romantic love: a mammalian brain system for mate choice." Philos: Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biol. Sci. 361 (1476): 2173–86. doi:10.1098/rstb.2006.1938. PMC 1764845. PMID 17118931.
  • Froböse, Gabriele, Rolf Froböse, et Michael Gross, conv. Lust and Love: Is it more than Chemistry? Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 0-85404-867-7.
  • Giles, James. 2008. The Nature of Sexual Desire. Lanhamiae Terrae Mariae: University Press of America.
  • Guilhot, Jean. 1980. Le concept de libido: analyse des expériences qualitatives rationnelles: de l'amour-passion aux sentiments communautaires. Lutetiae: Presses universitaires de France.
  • Jung, Carl Gustav. 1916. Psychology of the unconscious: a study of the transformations and symbolisms of the libido: a contribution to the history of the evolution of thought. Conversus e Theodisco Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido a Beatrice M. Hinkle. Novi Eboraci: Moffat, Yard and Co.
  • Mora Mérida, Juan Antonio. 1979. Freud, de la libido al eros: la coherencia del discurso freudiano. Malaga: Universidad de Malaga. ISBN 8474960177.
  • Nagera, Humberto, S. Baker, et alii. 1969. Basic psychoanalytic concepts on the libido theory. Londinii: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 004150027X.
  • Sterba, Richard F. 1978. Introduction to the psychoanalytic theory of the libido. Ed. 3a. Novi Eboraci: R. Brunner.