Apoda

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Dermophis mexicanus.jpg

Classis : Amphibia 
Ordo : Apoda 
Oppel, 1811
   
Palaeontologia
100–0 m.a.Cretaceum superius > Recens[1]
Territorium
Distribution.gymnophiona.2.png
Hodierna apodorum distributio (viride)

Apoda sunt grex amphibiorum serpentinorum sive vermiformium membris carentium. Plerumque in humo et in substratis fluminum latent, ut ignotissimus amphibiorum ordo sint. Omnes caeciliani exstantes et eorum proxima fossilia cognata unus cladus habentur, intra Gymnophiona, maiorem gregem, quae etiam priora amphibia caeciliformia exstincta comprehendunt.[1] Apoda plerumque in regionibus tropicis Americae Mediae Australisque, Africae, et Asiae meridianae distribuuntur. Megadrilaceis parvisque animalibus subterraneanis vescuntur.

Taxinomia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Recentissima apodorum classificatio caecilianos in novem familias digessit, quibus sunt paene ducentae species.[2] Ex quo tempore, Chikildae, decima familia, inventa est.[3][4] Haec classificatio in perfectam indiciorum monophyliae molecularisque definitionem condita est,[5][6][7][8] et vetustissimas paraphyliae Caeciliidarum in prioribus classificationibus quaestiones solvit, sine propria fudicia in synonymia.[9][10]

Ordo 256 species in 56 generibus comprehendit.

Recentissima caecilianorum phylogenia in indiciis molecularibus et mitogenomicis a San Mauro et aliis (2014) investigatis condita est.[11][12]

Gymnophiona
Eocaeciliidae

Eocaecilia micropodia




Rubricacaecilia monbaroni


Apoda
Rhinatrematidae

Rhinatrema



Epicrionops



Stegokrotaphia
Ichthyophiidae

Uraeotyphlus



Ichthyophis



Teresomata
Scolecomorphidae

Crotaphatrema



Scolecomorphus



Caecilioidei

Chikilidae

Chikila


Herpelidae

Herpele



Boulengerula




Hedraeoglossi
Caeciliidae

?Atretochoana



?Nectocaecilia



?Potomotyphlus



Chthonerpeton




Typhlonectes




Oscaecilia



Caecilia





Siphonopidei
Indotyphlidae

?Idiocranium



?Indotyphlus



?Sylvacaecilia



Gegeneophis




Hypogeophis




Praslinia



Grandisonia






Dermophiidae

Geotrypetes




Schistometopum




Gymnopis



Dermophis





Siphonopidae

?Brasilotyphlus



?Microcaecilia



?Mimosiphonops



Luetkenotyphlus



Siphonops












Nitae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Evans, Susan E.; Sigogneau-Russell, Denise (2001). "A stem-group caecilian (Lissamphibia: Gymnophiona) from the Lower Cretaceous of North Africa". Palaeontology 44 (2): 259–273 
  2. Wilkinson et al. 2011.
  3. Kamei, R.G.; San Mauro, D.; Gower, D. J.; Van Bocxlaer, I.; Sherratt, E.; Thomas, A.; Babu, S.; Bossuyt, F. et al (2012). "Discovery of a new family of amphibians from Northeast India with ancient links to Africa". Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279 (1737): 2396–401 .
  4. "New amphibian family found in India". Associated Press. CBC News. 21 Februarii 2012 .
  5. San Mauro, D.; Gower, D. J.; Oommen, O. V.; Wilkinson, M.; Zardoya, R. (2004). "Phylogeny of caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona) based on complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear RAG1". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 33 (2): 413–427 .
  6. San Mauro, D.; Gower, D. J.; Massingham, T.; Wilkinson, M.; Zardoya, R.; Cotton, J. A. (2009). "Experimental design in caecilian systematics: phylogenetic information of mitochondrial genomes and nuclear rag1". Systematic Biology 58 (4): 425–438 .
  7. Zhang, P.; Wake, M. H. (2009). "A mitogenomic perspective on the phylogeny and biogeography of living caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53 (2): 479–491 .
  8. San Mauro, D.; Gower, D. J.; Cotton, J. A.; Zardoya, R.; Wilkinson, M.; Massingham, T. (2012). "Experimental design in phylogenetics: testing predictions from expected information". Systematic Biology 61 (4): 661–674 .
  9. Wilkinson et al. 2011.
  10. Frost, Darrel R.; Grant, Taran; Faivovich, Julián; Bain, Raoul H.; Haas, Alexander; Haddad, Célio F.B.; De Sá, Rafael O.; Channing, Alan et al (2006). "The Amphibian Tree of Life". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1–370, appendices 
  11. Pyron, R. A.; Wiens, J. J. (2011). "A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61 (2): 543–583 
  12. San Mauro et al. 2014.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Eocaecilia, primus caecilianus notus.
Cura materna in Ichthyophis.
  • San Mauro, D., D. J. Gower, H. Müller, S. P. Loader, R. Zardoya, R. A. Nussbaum, et M. Wilkinson. 2014. Life-history evolution and mitogenomic phylogeny of caecilian amphibians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 73: 177–89. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.01.009. PMID 24480323. HDL 10261/123960.
  • Wilkinson, M., D. San Mauro, E. Sherratt, et D. J. Gower. 2011. A nine-family classification of caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Zootaxa 2874: 41–64. PDF.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Wikispecies-logo.svg Vide Gymnophiona apud Vicispecies.
Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Gymphiona spectant.