The Song of Hiawatha

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"Amici Hiavathae." Inlustratio poematis Friderici Remington, 1889.

The Song of Hiawatha ('Carmen Hiavathae') est poema epicum tetrametro trochaico conceptum ab Henrico Wadsworth Longfellow anno 1855 prolatum, heroem Indicum vehementius dicens. Fontes legendorum et ethnographiae in poemate inventae fuerunt Kahge-ga-gah-bowh princeps Ojibwe, qui Longfellow domi visitavit; Black Hawk et alii Indi Sac et Fox, in quos Longfellow apud Boston Commons incidit; Algic Researches (1839) et alia scripta Henrici Rowe Schoolcraft, ethnographi et procuratoris Indici Civitatum Foederatarum; et Heckewelder's Narratives.[1] Sensu, campo, tota notione, multisque singulis, poema Longfellowanum manifeste est opus romanticarum Americae litterarum, non vera traditionis oralis ingenarum repraesentatio. Longfellow confirmavit: "Horum legendorum capitulum et versum citare possum. Eorum aestimatio principalis est quod legenda Indorum sunt."[2][3]

Longfellow primum in animo habuit, Schoolcraft sequens, heroem appellare Manabozho, nomen in usu eo temporis inter Ojibwe in meridiano Lacus Superiorris litore pro fraudatore-commutatore, persona eorum eruditionis vulgaris, sed in ephemeride die 28 Iunii 1854, scripsit: "Laboro de 'Manabozho;' aut, ut credo me id appellare, 'Hiawatha'—quod est aliud nomen eiusdem personae" (Williams 1956:314). Hiawatha non fuit "aliud nomen eiusdem personae" , sed probabiliter persona historica cum Foedere Iroquesiorum condito consociata, Quinque Nationibus tum in hodierno Novo Eboraco et Pennsylvania constituto (Thompson 1922:129). Poematis autem causa, Hiavatha became facta est nomen oppidorum, scholarum, hamaxostichorum, et societatis telephonicae in regione occidentalium Magnorum Lacuum effectum habentis, ubi nullae nationes Irocoisianae in historia habitavit (Singer 1987).

Textus[recensere | fontem recensere]

Locus versuum 94 fuit et saepe in anthologiis iam invenitur nomine Hiawatha's Childhood ('Pueritia Hiavathae'), qui etiam est nomen partis 234 versuum ex qua locus deducitur. Hic locus brevis, familiarissima poematis pars, his versibus notissimis incipit:

Verba Anglica Verba Latine libere reddita

By the shores of Gitche Gumee,
By the shining Big-Sea-Water,
Stood the wigwam of Nokomis,
Daughter of the Moon, Nokomis.
Dark behind it rose the forest,
Rose the black and gloomy pine-trees,
Rose the firs with cones upon them;
Bright before it beat the water,
Beat the clear and sunny water,
Beat the shining Big-Sea-Water.

Prope litus Gitche Gumee
prope nitens Mare Magnum,
stabat domus hic Nokomis,
lunae filia haec Nokomis.
Post, obscura orta silva,
ortae atrae pini tristes,
ortae abietes conosae;
prae fulgebat mare clarum,
fulsit clarum mare apricum,
fulsit nitens Mare Magnum.

Adnotationes[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, The Song of Hiawatha (Novi Eboraci: Hurst and Company, 1898), v.
  2. Anglice: "I can give chapter and verse for these legends. Their chief value is that they are Indian legends."
  3. Williams 1956:316.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Calhoun, Charles C. 2004. Longfellow: A Rediscovered Life. Bostoniae: Beacon Press.
  • Clements, William M. 1990. Schoolcraft as Textmaker. Journal of American Folklore 103:177–190.
  • Coen, Rena N. 1982. "Longfellow, Hiawatha and Some 19th Century Painters." Papers Presented at the Longfellow Commemorative Conference, 1–3 Aprilis.
  • Irmscher, Christoph. 2006. Longfellow Redux. University of Illinois.
  • Longfellow, Samuel, ed. 1886. Life of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow; With Extracts from His Journals and Correspondence. Vol. II. Bostoniae: Ticknor and Company.
  • Moyne, Ernest John. 1963. Hiawatha and Kalevala: A Study of the Relationship between Longfellow's "Indian Edda" and the Finnish Epic. Folklore Fellows Communications, 192. Helsinki: Suomen Tiedeakatemia.
  • Nelson, Randy F. 1981. The Almanac of American Letters. Los Altos Californiae: William Kaufmann, Inc.
  • New York Times. 1855. "Longfellow's Poem": The Song of Hiawatha, Anonymous review, 28 Decembris.
  • Osborn, Chase S., et Stellanova Osborn. 1942. Schoolcraft—Longfellow—Hiawatha. Lancaster Pennsylvaniae: The Jaques Cattell Press.
  • Pearce, Roy Harvey. 1965. The Savages of America: The Study of the Indian and the Idea of Civilization. Baltimorae: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Pisani, Michael V. 1998. Hiawatha: Longfellow, Robert Stoepel, and an Early Musical Setting of Hiawatha (1859). American Music 16(1):45–85.
  • Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe. 1851. Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian Tribes on the American Frontiers. Philadelphiae: Lippincott, Grambo and Co.
  • Schramm, Wilbur. 1932. Hiawatha and Its Predecessors. Philological Quarterly 11:321–343.
  • Singer, Eliot A. C., Kurt Dewhurst, et Yvonne Lockwood. 1988. "Paul Bunyan and Hiawatha." In Michigan Folklife Reader. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.
  • Steil, Mark (2005). Pipestone stages Longfellow's "Hiawatha". Minnesota Public Radio, 2005 July 22.
  • Thompson, Stith. 1922. The Indian Legend of Hiawatha. PMLA 37:128–140.
  • Thompson, Stith. 1929, 1966. Tales of the North American Indians. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Williams, Mentor L. 1956, 1991. Schoolcraft's Indian Legends. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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