Platynereis dumerilii

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PlatynereisDumeriliiAtoke.tif

Classis : Polychaeta 
Ordo : Phyllodocida 
Familia : Nereididae 
Genus : Platynereis 
Species : P. dumerilii 
Platynereis dumerilii 
(Audouin & Milne-Edwards, 1834[1])  

Platynereis dumerilii ad Annelida attinet.[2] Primum in genere Nereis posita[1] et postea in Platynereis reposita erat.[3] Platynereis dumerilii in maritimis aquis a zona temperata ad tropicae vivit. Potest inveniri ad Azores, in Mediterraneum, Mare Germanicum, Mare Britannicum, et Atlanticum; ac ad Promunturium Bonae Spei, in Mare Nigrum, Mare Rubrum, Sinum persicum, Mare Iaponicum, Pacifici, ad Kerguelen Insulis.[3] Platynereis dumerilii hodie est animal grave laboratorii,[4] acque quam vivum fossile consideratur[5][6][7], et in multis studiis phylogeneticae quam instar animantem usa est. Platynereis dumerilii 3 ad 18 mensis vetus fit.[4] Mares 2 ad 3 cm longi fiunt, dum feminae 3 ad 4 cm longae fiunt.[8]

Reproductio et Desveloppamentum[recensere | fontem recensere]

Platynereis dumerilii est dioeciosus, id est duabus sexu habeat:[9] Inter coniugium, mas circa feminam natat, et femina in circis parvis natat. Utrique ova et sperma in aquam dimittunt. Hoc a pheromona sexualia inducitur. Ova ergo in aqua extra corpus fertilizatur.[10] Platynereis dumerilii, sicut aliae Nereididae, segmentariam gonades non habet, ova libere natantes in cavitate corporis (coelom) maturat.[9]

Platynereis dumerilii inter individua stereotypice desveloppat, et ideo gradus larvae Platynereidis dumerilii a tempore determinari potest. Autem, temperatura celeritatem valde determinat.[11] Ergo haec tempora desveloppamenti ad temperaturam 18 °C referuntur:

Ad 24 horas post fertilizationem, ovum fit larva trochophora. Ad 48 horas, trochophora fit metatrochophora.[11] Utraeque trochophora et metatrochophora cum anulo ciliorum in aqua natant, et positive phototacticae sunt.[12] Una die postea, ad 72 horas post fertilizationem, metatrochophora fit larva nectochaeta. Ea iam tria segmenta habet, quidque cum pare parapodiorum qua ferrunt chaetas, quae pro motui serviunt.[11] Nectochaeta a photoaxe positiva ad negativam mutare potest.[13] Post quinque ad septem dies, larvae pascere initiant et sua celeritate desveloppant, prout copia cibi permittet. Post tres ad quatuor septimanas, sex segmentis formatis caput formatur.[11]

Cellulis Photoreceptores[recensere | fontem recensere]

Larvae Platynereidis dumerilii duo genera cellularum photoreceptorum habent: Cellulae photoreceptorum rhabdomericae et ciliares.

Cellulae photoreceptorum ciliares in cerebro alto larvae sunt. A pigmento non umbrantur et ergo lucem undique percipiunt. Cellulae photoreceptorum ciliares similem sunt moleculariter et morphologicaliter virgis et conis oculi humani. Praeteria opsinum exprimunt quod magis similem est opsinis ciliaribus visualis vertebratorum, quam illis opsinis rhabdomeris invertebratorum. Igitur cogitatur, ut urbilaterium, proavus communis ultimus molluscorum, arthropodorum, et vertebratorum, iam cellulas photoreceptorum ciliares habuerint.[14]

Cellula photoreceptorum rhabdomerica cum cellula pigmentorum format oculum simplicem. Par horum oculorum phototaxim in larva trochophora matura Platynereidis dumerilii mediant.[12] In larva nectochaeta postera, phototaxis a oculis definitis complexioribus mediantur.[13] Oculi definiti exprimunt saltem tria opsina: Duo opsina rhabdomerica et unum Go-opsinum.[15][16] Illa tria opsina omnia ibi phototaxim eodem modo depolarizatione mediant,[16] etsi Go-opsinum concae hyperpolarizare notum est.[17][18]

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Audouin, Jean Victoire; Milne-Edwards, Henri (1834). "Néréide de Dumeril. Nereis Dumerilii". Recherches pour servir a l'histoire naturelle du littoral de la France, ou, Recueil de mémoires sur l'anatomie, la physiologie, la classification et les moeurs des animaux des nos côtes : ouvrage accompagné de planches faites d'après nature 2: 196–199 
  2. Read, G.. "Platynereis dumerilii (Audouin & Milne Edwards, 1834). In: Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2015)" 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Fauvel, Pierre (1914). "Annélides polychètes non-pélagiques provenant des campagnes de l'Hirondelle et de la Princesse-Alice (1885-1910)". Résultats des campagnes scientifiques accompliés par le Prince Albert I 46: 1–432 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Fischer, Albrecht; Dorresteijn, Adriaan (March 2004). "The polychaete Platynereis dumerilii (Annelida): a laboratory animal with spiralian cleavage, lifelong segment proliferation and a mixed benthic/pelagic life cycle". BioEssays 26 (3): 314–325 
  5. "Introduction - Encyclopedia of Life" (en) 
  6. "Living Fossil Platynereis dumerilii: Unraveling the first steps of eye evolution". 3 December 2008 
  7. "Arendt Group - Evolution of the nervous system in bilateria - EMBL" (en) 
  8. Jha, A. N.; Hutchinson, T. H.; Mackay, J. M.; Elliott, B. M.; Pascoe, P. L.; Dixon, D. R. (1995). "The chromosomes Of Platynereis dumerilii (Polychaeta: Nereidae)". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 75 (03): 551 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Fischer, Albrecht (1999). "Reproductive and developmental phenomena in annelids: a source of exemplary research problems". Hydrobiologia 402: 1–20 
  10. Zeeck, Erich; Harder, Tilman; Beckmann, Manfred (1998). "Uric acid: the sperm-release pheromone of the marine polychaete Platynereis dumerilii". Journal of Chemical Ecology 24 (1): 13–22 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Fischer, Antje HL; Henrich, Thorsten; Arendt, Detlev (2010). "The normal development of Platynereis dumerilii (Nereididae, Annelida)". Frontiers in Zoology 7 (1): 31 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Jékely, Gáspár; Colombelli, Julien; Hausen, Harald; Guy, Keren; Stelzer, Ernst; Nédélec, François; Arendt, Detlev (20 November 2008). "Mechanism of phototaxis in marine zooplankton". Nature 456 (7220): 395–399 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Randel, Nadine; Asadulina, Albina; Bezares-Calderón, Luis A; Verasztó, Csaba; Williams, Elizabeth A; Conzelmann, Markus; Shahidi, Réza; Jékely, Gáspár (27 May 2014). "Neuronal connectome of a sensory-motor circuit for visual navigation". eLife 3 
  14. Arendt, D.; Tessmar-Raible, K.; Snyman, H.; Dorresteijn, A.W.; Wittbrodt, J. (29 October 2004). "Ciliary Photoreceptors with a Vertebrate-Type Opsin in an Invertebrate Brain". Science 306 (5697): 869–871 
  15. Randel, N.; Bezares-Calderon, L. A.; Gühmann, M.; Shahidi, R.; Jekely, G. (10 May 2013). "Expression Dynamics and Protein Localization of Rhabdomeric Opsins in Platynereis Larvae". Integrative and Comparative Biology 53 (1): 7–16 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Gühmann, Martin; Jia, Huiyong; Randel, Nadine; Verasztó, Csaba; Bezares-Calderón, Luis A.; Michiels, Nico K.; Yokoyama, Shozo; Jékely, Gáspár (August 2015). "Spectral Tuning of Phototaxis by a Go-Opsin in the Rhabdomeric Eyes of Platynereis". Current Biology 25 (17): 2265–2271 
  17. Kojima, Daisuke; Terakita, Akihisa; Ishikawa, Toru; Tsukahara, Yasuo; Maeda, Akio; Shichida, Yoshinori (12 September 1997). "A Novel Go-mediated Phototransduction Cascade in Scallop Visual Cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 272 (37): 22979–82 
  18. Gomez, MP; Nasi, E (15 July 2000). "Light transduction in invertebrate hyperpolarizing photoreceptors: possible involvement of a Go-regulated guanylate cyclase.". The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 20 (14): 5254–63