Linguae Algicae

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Tabula distributionis linguarum Algicarum ante contactum Europaeum. Nota linguas Wiyot et Yurok, remote in perparvis Californiae regionibus sitas.

Linguae Algicae, etiam Algonquian–Wiyot–Yurok et Algonquian–Ritwan appellatae, sunt familia vernacularum Americae Septentrionalis linguarum. Plurimae linguae Algicae ad familiam linguarum Algonquianarum pertinent, trans regionem latam a Montibus Saxosis ad Canadam Atlanticam dispersae. Aliae linguae Algicae sunt Yurok et Wiyot Californiae boreoccidentalis, quae, contra propinquitatem geographicam, arte cognatae non sunt. Hae linguae omnes a Protoalgica deduci putantur, protolingua alterius ordinis, per Protoalgonquianam reconstitutam cum Wiyot et Yurok linguis attestatis reconstituta.

Historia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nomen Algic ab Henrico Rowe Schoolcraft in Algic Researches (1839) factum est. Schoolcraft nomen "ab Alleghany et Atlantic deduci" dixit, verba Anglica, quae "ad genus Indorum antiquitus in hac regione geographica conlocatum spectat."[1] Nomen autem Schoolcraftianum non retentum est, quoniam populi quos Algicos appellavit ad postremum inter locutores linguarum Algonquianarum positi sunt. Eduardus Sapir, cum bene institutam familiam Algonquaianam genetice cognatam esse cum linguis Wiyot et Yurok Californiae septentrionalis proponeret, nomen Algicum huic familiae maiori adhibuit. Prisca patria Algica in Boreoccidente Americano conlocata fuisse putatur, alicubi inter opinabilem rami Algonquiani patriam (ad occidentem Lacus Superioris iacentem, apud Goddard[2]) et primum Wiyot et Yurok situm notum (secundum medium Flumen Columbianum, apud Whistler[3]).

Classificatio Algicae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Plurimae linguae Algicae iam in usu commune sunt periclitatae. Inter exstinctas linguas Algicas sunt Wiyot, Miami-Illinoesia, Etchemin, Loup A, Loup B, Mahican, Massachusett, Mohegan-Pequot, Nanticoke, Narragansett, Pamlico, dialectos Penobscot linguae Abnaki, Powhatan, Quiripi-Naugatuck, Unami, Unquachog, et Shinnecock. Nonnullae ex linguis exstinctis, sicut Yurok, Miami-Illinoesia, et Massachusett, variis prosperitatis gradibus revirescuntur.[4][5][6]

Intra subfamiliam Algonquianam est minor linguarum Algonquianarum Orientalium grex. Aliae (non Orientales) linguae Algonquianae aliquando in duos greges minores digestae sunt: Algonquiana Media et Algonquiana Planitierum; hi autem subgreges coniunctionibus geneticis non innituntur, sed potius sunt greges geographiá vel regione definiti. (Vide Linguae Algonquianae.)

Genetica Wiyot et Yurok coniunctio cum Algonquiana, primum ab Eduardo Sapir (1913, 1915, 1923) proposita, ab Algonquianista Truman Michelson disputata est (1914, 1915, 1935). Coniunctio autem "postea voluptati omnium confirmata est."[7][8] Haec controversia in prima linguarum Americae Septentrionalis classificatione controversia Ritwan appellabatur quia Wiyot et Yurok in gregem geneticum Ritwan appellatum tum digerebantur. Plurimi eruditi nunc gravitatem nodi genetici Ritwan repudiant.[9] Berman (1982) subiecit Wiyot et Yurok inter se mutationes sonorum partire quibus aliae linguae carent; Proulx autem (2004) notionem communium sonorum mutationum reiecit.

Adnotationes[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Schoolcraft 1839:12.
  2. Goddard 1994:207.
  3. Moratto 1984:540, 546, 564.
  4. Lee Romney "Revival of nearly extinct Yurok language is a success story," The Los Angeles Times, 6 Februarii 2013.
  5. Wesley Y. Leonard, "When is an 'Extinct Language' not Extinct? Miami, a Formerly Sleeping Language," in Sustaining Linguistic Diversity: Endangered and Minority Languages and Language Varieties, edd. Kendall A. King, Natalie Schilling-Estes, Lyn Fogle, Jia Jackie Lou, et Barbara Soukup (Vasingtoniae: Georgetown University Press, 2008), 23–33.
  6. Saskia De Melker, "'We Still Live Here' Traces Comeback of Wampanoag Indian Language", PBS Newshour, 10 Novembris 2011.
  7. Anglice: "has subsequently been demonstrated to the satisfaction of all."
  8. Campbell 1997:152, qui citat Haas 1958.
  9. Campbell 1997:152; Mithun 1999:337.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Diagrammata arborealia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Periodica et libri[recensere | fontem recensere]

AA = American Anthropologist ; IJAL = International Journal of American Linguistics

  • Berman, Howard. 1982. Two Phonological Innovations in Ritwan. IJAL 48:412–420.
  • Campbell, Lyle. 1997. American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195094271.
  • Goddard, Ives. 1994. The West-to-East Cline in Algonquian Dialectology. Actes du vingt-cinquième congrès des algonquinistes, ed. William Cowan. Ottavae: Carleton University.
  • Goddard, Ives, ed. 1996. Languages, vol. 17, Handbook of North American Indians, ed. W. C. Sturtevant. Vasingtoniae: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0160487749.
  • Haas, Mary R. 1958. Algonkian–Ritwan: The End of a Controversy. IJAL 24:159–173.
  • Haas, Mary R. 1966. Wiyot–Yurok–Algonquian and Problems of Comparative Algonquian. IJAL 32:101–107
  • Michelson, Truman. 1914. Two Alleged Algonquian Llanguages of California. AA, n.s. 16:361–367.
  • Michelson, Truman. 1915. Rejoinder. AA, n.s. 17:194–198.
  • Michelson, Truman. 1935. Phonetic Shifts in Algonquian Languages. IJAL 8:131–171
  • Mithun, Marianne. 1999. The Languages of Native North America. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521232287, ISBN 052129875X.
  • Moratto, Michael J. 1984. California Archaeology. Academic Press.
  • Proulx, Paul. 1982. Yurok Retroflection and Sound Symbolism in Proto-Algic. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics 7:119–123.
  • Proulx, Paul. 1984. Proto-Algic I: Phonological sketch. IJAL 50:165–207.
  • Proulx, Paul. 1985. Proto-Algic II: Verbs. IJAL 51:59–94.
  • Proulx, Paul. 1991. Proto-Algic III: Pronouns. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics 16:129–170.
  • Proulx, Paul. 1992. Proto-Algic IV: Nouns. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, 17:11–57.
  • Proulx, Paul. 1994. Proto-Algic V: Doublets and Their Implications. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics 19(2):115–182.
  • Proulx, Paul. 2004. Proto-Algic VI: Conditioned Yurok Reflexes of Proto-Algic Vowels. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics 27:124–138.
  • Sturtevant, William C., ed. 1978–praesens. Handbook of North American Indians, voll. 1–20. Vasingtoniae: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Sapir, Edward. 1913. Wiyot and Yurok, Algonkin Languages of California. AA, n.s. 15:617–646.
  • Sapir, Edward. 1915. Algonkin Languages of California: A Reply. AA, n.s. 17:188–194.
  • Sapir, Edward. 1923. The Algonkin Affinity of Yurok and Wiyot Kinship Terms, Journal de la Société des Américanistes de Paris 15:37–74
  • Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe. 1839. Algic Researches, Comprising Inquiries Respecting the Mental Characteristics of the North American Indians. Prima series: Indian tales and legends. Novi Eboraci: Harper & Brothers. vol. 1. New York:39.
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