Lingua Wiyot

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Lingua Wiyot, etiam Wishosk appellata, est lingua Algica exstincta,[1] olim in usu inter populum Wiyot, qui circum Sinum Humbodtensem Californiae habitabant. Della Prince, ultima loquens indigena, anno 1962 mortua est; nonnulli autem Wiyot linguam redintegrare conantur.[2][3]

Usus et familia linguarum[recensere | fontem recensere]

Lyle Campbell, ad etymologiam linguae Wiyot spectans, scribit: "Wiyot est ex wíyat, nomine vernaculo deltae Fluminis Anguillarum, nomine quod etiam ad unam ex tribus principalibus gregibus Wiyotensibus spectavit" (Elsasser 1978:162).[4] Campbell addit:

Coniunctio Wiyot et Yurok in California septentrionali (quae olim Ritwan appellatae sunt, postquam Dixon et Kroeber [1913] eas conligaverant ut una ex remotioribus stirpibus Californianis) cum linguis Algonquiania ab Eduardo Sapir anno 1913 proposita est, et illo tempore fuit controversissimus (Michelson 1914, 1915; Sapir 1915a, 1915b), sed haec coniunctio nunc ex sententia demonstrata est (Goddard 1975, 1979, 1990; Haas 1958; Teeter 1964a). Yurok ante 1850 secundum Flumen Klamath inferius habitabant. Wiyot (Wishosk prius appellati) in regione Sinus Humboldtensis habitabant, in zona sequoioidearum; ultimus omnino locutor profluens fuit mulier anno 1962 mortua (Teeter 1964b). Multi eruditi dixerunt Wiyot et Yurok, quamquam vicini in California septentrionali sunt, videri coniunctionem artiorem inter se non habere quam alterutra cum Algonquiana habet.[1][5]

Phonologia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Consonantes Wiyotenses in Conathan Practical Orthography dati:

Bilabialis Alveolaris Postalveolaris
vel palatalis
Velaris Glottalis
Medius Lateralis Planus Labializatus
Stop Sine voce p t k kw
Aspiratus ph th kh khw
Affricatus Sine voce c č
Aspiratus ch čh
Fricativus Sine voce s ł š h
Cum voce b g
Nasalis m n
Rhoticus r
Approximans l y w

Adnotationes[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Campbell 1997:152.
  2. "Wiyot," www.native-Languages.org
  3. "Language," www.wiyot.us (Tribus Wiyot).
  4. Campbell 1997:401.
  5. Anglice: "The connection of Wiyot and Yurok in northern California (which together were formerly called 'Ritwan, after Dixon and Kroeber's [1913] grouping of the two as one of their more remote Californian stocks) with Algonquian was first proposed by Sapir (1913) and was quite controversial at that time (see Michelson 1914, 1915; Sapir 1915a, 1915b; see also Chapter 2), but the relationship has subsequently been demonstrated to the satisfaction of all (see Haas 1958; Teeter 1964a; Goddard 1975, 1979, 1990). Before 1850 the Yurok lived on the lower Klamath River. The Wiyot (earlier called Wishosk) lived in the Humboldt Bay area, in the redwood belt; the last fully fluent speaker died in 1962 (Teeter 1964b). Many scholars have commented that although Wiyot and Yurok are neighbors in northern California, they seem not to have a closer relationship with each other than either has with Algonquian."

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Campbell, Lyle. 1997. American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press.
  • Dixon, Roland B., et Alfred L. Kroeber. 1913. New Linguistic Families in California. American Anthropologist 5:1–26.
  • Elsasser, Albert B. 1978. Wiyot. In California, ed. R. F. Heizer, 153-163. Handbook of North American Indians, 8, ed. W. C. Sturtevant. Vasingtoniae: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Goddard, Ives. 1975. Algonquian, Wiyot, and Yurok: Proving a Distant Genetic Relationship. In Linguistics and Anthropology in Honor of C. F. Voegelin, ed. M. D. Kinkade, K. L. Hale, et O. Werner, 249–262. Lisse: Peter de Ridder Press.
  • Goddard, Ives. 1979. Comparative Algonquian. In The Languages of Native America: Historical and Comparative Assessment, ed. L. Campbell et M. Mithun, 70–132. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Goddard, Ives. 1990. Algonquian Linguistic Change and Reconstruction. In Linguistic Change and Reconstruction Methodology, ed. P. Baldi, 99–114. Berolini: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Golla, Victor. 2011. California Indian Languages. Berkeleiae: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520266674.
  • Haas, Mary R. 1958. Algonkian-Ritwan: The End of a Controversy. International Journal of American Linguistics 24:159–173.
  • Kroeber, Alfred L. Wiyot Languages North of San Francisco. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethology.
  • Michelson, Truman. 1914. Two Alleged Algonquian Languages of California. American Anthropologist 16:361–367.
  • Michelson, Truman. 1915. Rejoinder [to Edward Sapir]. American Anthropologist 17:4–8.
  • Mithun, Marianne. 1999. The Languages of Native North America. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521232287, ISBN 052129875X.
  • Sapir, Edward. 1913. Wiyot and Yurok, Algonkin Languages of California. American Anthropologist 15: 617–646.
  • Sapir, Edward. 1915a. Algonkin Languages of California: A Reply. American Anthropologist 17:188–194.
  • Sapir, Edward. 1915b. Epilogue. American Anthropologist 17:198.
  • Teeter, Karl V. 1964a. Algonquian Languages and Genetic Relationship. In Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Linguists, 1026–1033). Hagae: Mouton.
  • Teeter, Karl V. 1964b. The Wiyot language. University of California Publications in Linguistics. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]