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Scientia (ratio)

E Vicipaedia
(Redirectum de Homo scientiae)
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Vide etiam paginam discretivam: Scientia

Timeline of the Universe from Big Bang to present
Chronologia universi secundum theoriam immanis diruptionis, exitus scientiae et cognitionis acquisitae.

Scientia (-ae, f.), sive plenius scientia rationalis, est inceptum systematicum, quod cognitionem aedificat et ordinat, explanationes quae temptari possunt et praedictiones de universo offerens.[1][2]

Schola Atheniensis (partim) a Raphaele anno 1509 picta, Platonem (ad sinistram) et Aristotelem (ad dextram) monstrat.
Adumbratio anni 1888 astronomicum? adspicientem? per caeli firmamentum ad universum externum monstrat.

Primus progressus in historia scientiae Aegypto antiquae Mesopotamiaeque annos ab 3000 ad 1200 a.C.n. attribui potest,[3][4] quarum inventiones traditionesque mathematicae, astronomiae, et medicinae Graecam antiquitatis classicae philosophiam naturalem intraverunt et formaverunt, unde homines periti eventus in mundo corporeo in causis naturalibus fundatos explicare rite conabantur.[3][4] Post Imperium Romanum Occidentalium casum, scientia Graecarum orbis terrarum notionum in Europa Occidentali primis medii aevi saeculis (ab anno 400 ad annum 1000) corrumpebatur,[5] sed in mundo Islamico aetate aurea Islamica conservabatur.[6]

Generalia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Corpus scientiae hodie in provincias distinctas dividitur, inter quas philosophia, mathematica, physica, psychologia, historia. Qui scientiam rationalem navent scientifici appellantur.

Philosophia compluresque scientiae diu seiungi non poterant. Saeculo undevicensimo tanti viri tantas theorias dubiosas provulgabant ut lectoribus res veras a falsas cernere difficillimum fuerit. Philosophi qui de physica et mathematica ignorabant, theorias physicas pessimas anfractuosasque divulgabant. Similiter, physici qui subtilitates philosophicas ignorabant dubiosas philosophias provulgabant. Eo tempore igitur disciplinae scientificae formaliter divisae sunt in scientias hodiernas, ubi physica a philosophia abiuncta est, et cetera.

Scientiae philosophi deinde etiam conantur melius definire quod est scientia et quod non. Ut melius theoriae rudes et theoriae validae distinguantur, consensus apud multos fuit definire scientias disciplinas et gnaritates quae rationem scientificam sequuntur, ubi homines per logicam, observationes, et experimenta res—praesertim res naturales, sed etiam res humanas et divinas—scrutantur ad theorias validas creandas et leges universas discernendas.

Sicut docuit Renatus Cartesius,[7] fundamenta scientiae sunt logica et experientia coniuncta: coniecturae contra res experimentales verificandae sunt. Hoc sensu igitur omnes conclusiones scientificae ab omnibus ubique verificari possunt. Et, hoc sensu, scientia permaxime distincta est a religione, quod religio requirit nos conclusiones quae in experimentis non possumus confirmare comprobare.

Disciplinae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Scientiae empiricae rerum naturalium[recensere | fontem recensere]

Scientiae axiomaticae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Scientiae rerum humanarum[recensere | fontem recensere]

Scientiae arcanorum[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Wilson, E. O. (1999). "The natural sciences". Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (Reprint ed.). Novi Eboraci: Vintage. pp. 49–71. ISBN 978-0-679-76867-8 
  2.  Heilbron, J. L. (2003). "Preface". The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science. Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press. pp. vii–x. ISBN 978-0-19-511229-0 .
  3. 3.0 3.1 "The historian . . . requires a very broad definition of "science"—one that . . . will help us to understand the modern scientific enterprise. We need to be broad and inclusive, rather than narrow and exclusive . . . and we should expect that the farther back we go [in time] the broader we will need to be." p. 3—Lindberg, David C. (2007). "Science before the Greeks". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (secunda ed.). Sicagi: University of Chicago Press. pp. 1–20. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7 .
  4. 4.0 4.1 Grant, Edward (2007). "Ancient Egypt to Plato". A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century (Prima ed.). Novi Eboraci: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–26. ISBN 978-0-521-68957-1 .
  5. Lindberg, David C. (2007). "The revival of learning in the West". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (secunda ed.). Sicagi: University of Chicago Press. pp. 193–224. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7 .
  6. Lindberg, David C. (2007). "Islamic science". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (secunda ed.). Sicagi: University of Chicago Press. pp. 163–92. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7 .
  7. "Omnis scientia est cognitio certa et evidens."—Renatus Cartesius, Dissertatio de Methodo, Regulae II,1.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Crease, Robert P. 2009. The Great Equations. Novi Eboraci: W. W. Norton. ISBN 978039306204.
  • Crease, Robert P. 2011. World in the Balance: The Historic Quest for an Absolute System of Measurement. Novi Eboraci: W. W. Norton. ISBN 9780393072983.
  • di Francia, Giuliano Toraldo. 1976. The Investigation of the Physical World. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052129925X.
  • Fara, Patricia. 2009. ''Science: A Four-Thousand-Year History. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199226894.
  • Feyerabend, Paul. 1993. Against Method. Ed. 3a. Londinii: Verso. ISBN 0860916464.
  • Feyerabend, Paul 2005. Science, history of the philosophy.
  • Feynman, Richard. P. 1999 The Pleasure of Finding Things Out: The Best Short Works of Richard P. Feynman. Perseus Books Group. ISBN 0465023959. OCLC 181597764.
  • Godfrey-Smith, Peter. 2003. Theory and Reality. Sicagi: University of Chicago. ISBN 0226300625.
  • Needham, Joseph. 1954. Science and Civilisation in China: Introductory Orientations. Vol. 1. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press.
  • Nola, Robert, et Gürol Irzik. 2005. Philosophy, Science, Education, and Culture. Science & technology education library, 28. Springer. ISBN 1402037694.
  • Papineau, David. 2005. Problems of the Philosophy of Science.
  • Parkin, D. 1991. Simultaneity and Sequencing in the Oracular Speech of Kenyan Diviners. In African Divination Systems: Ways of Knowing, ed. Philip M. Peek. In Indianapoli: Indiana University Press.
  • Polanyi, Michael. 1958. Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy. Sicagi: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226672883.
  • Popper, Karl Raimund. 1984, 1996. In Search of a Better World: Lectures and Essays from Thirty Years. Novi Eboraci: Routledge. ISBN 0415135486.
  • Popper, Karl R. 1959, 2002. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Novi Eboraci: Routledge Classics. ISBN 0415278449. OCLC 59377149.
  • Stanovich, Keith E. 2007. How to Think Straight About Psychology. Bostoniae: Pearson Education. ISBN 9780205685905.
  • Ziman, John. 1978. Reliable knowledge: An Exploration of the Grounds for Belief in Science. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521220874.

Bibliographia addita[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Augros, Robert M., Stanciu, George N. 1984. The New Story of Science: mind and the universe. Lake Bluff, Illinoesiae: Regnery Gateway. ISBN 0895268337.
  • Becker, Ernest. 1968. The Structure of Evil: An Essay on the Unification of the Science of Man. Novi Eboraci: G. Braziller.
  • Cole, K. C. 1986. Things Your Teacher Never Told You about Science: Nine Shocking Revelations. Newsday (Insula Longa Novi Eboraci), 23 Martii, p. 21+.
  • Feynman, Richard. "Cargo Cult Science."
  • Gaukroger, Stephen. 2006. The Emergence of a Scientific Culture: Science and the Shaping of Modernity 1210–1685. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199296448.
  • Gopnik, Alison. 2004. "Finding Our Inner Scientist", Daedalus, Winter.
  • Krige, John, et Dominique Pestre, eds. 2003. Science in the Twentieth Century. Novi Eboraci: Routledge. ISBN 0415286069.
  • Kuhn, Thomas. 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.
  • Levin, Yuval. 2008. Imagining the Future: Science and American Democracy. Novi Eboraci: Encounter Books. ISBN 1594032092.
  • McComas, William F. 2002. "The principal elements of the nature of science: Dispelling the myths" Rossier School of Education, University of Southern California.
  • Obler, Paul C., et Herman A. Estrin. 1962. The New Scientist: Essays on the Methods and Values of Modern Science. Anchor Books, Doubleday.
  • Russell, Bertrand. 1952, 1985. The Impact of Science on Society. Londinii: Unwin. ISBN 0043000908.
  • Rutherford, F. James, et Andrew Ahlgren. 1990. Science for All Americans. Novi Eboraci: American Association for the Advancement of Science et Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195067711.
  • Thurs, Daniel Patrick. 2007. Science Talk: Changing Notions of Science in American Popular Culture. Novi Brunsvici: Rutgers University Press ISBN 9780813540733.
Scientiae naturales et artes mathematicae