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Herbertus Spencer

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Herbertus Spencer anno aetatis suae 73.
Caelatura Herberti Spencer.
Photographema Herberti Spencer.
Photographema Herberti Spencer.

Herbertus Spencer (Derbiae 27 Aprilis 1820Brightoniae Sussexiae 8 Decembris 1903) fuit philosophus, biologus, anthropologus, et sociologus Anglicus, ac prominens theorista politica liberalis classicus aevi Victoriani.

Spencer excogitavit amplissumam notionem evolutionis ut progressus mundi physici, organismorum biologicorum, mentis humanae, et culturae humanae, et societatum humanarum. Qui "evolutionem studiose exposuit," et etiam "de evolutione ante Darwin scripserat."[1] Polymathes permultas investigavit res, inter quas erant ethica, religio, anthropologia, oeconomica, ratio politica, philosophia, litterae, biologia, sociologia, et psychologia. Iam vivus auctoritatem miram habebat, praecipue in academia Anglicoloquente: "Solus philosophus Anglicus qui quasi talem popularitatem divulgatam habebat fuit Bertrandus Russell, et tum saeculo vicensimo."[2][3] Spencer "unice praeclarissimus Europaeus ultimis decennis saeculi undevicensimi intellegens" fuit,[4][5] sed eius gratia post 1900 acriter defecit: "Quis legit Spencer nunc?"[6] rogavit Talcott Parsons anno 1937.[7]

Innotuit Spencer locutione salus aptissimi,[8][9] quam excogitavit et primum divulgavit in libro Principles of Biology (1864), postquam Caroli Darwin commentarios On the Origin of Species legerat.[10][11] Hoc vocabulum selectionem naturalem valide significat, sed cum Spencer evolutionem in provincias sociologiae et ethicae extenderet, Lamarckismo etiam utebatur.[1]

Fontes primarii[recensere | fontem recensere]

Congeries commentariorum
  • Illustrations of Universal Progress: A Series of Discussions (1864, 1883)
  • The Man versus the State (1884)
  • Essays: Scientific, Political, and Speculative (1891), in tribus voluminibus:
    • Volumen I ("The Development Hypothesis," "Progress: Its Law and Cause," "The Factors of Organic Evolution," et alii commentarii)
    • Volumen II ("The Classification of the Sciences", "The Philosophy of Style" (1852), "The Origin and Function of Music," "The Physiology of Laughter," et alii commentarii)
    • Volumen III ("The Ethics of Kant," "State Tamperings With Money and Banks," "Specialized Administration," "From Freedom to Bondage," "The Americans," et alii commentarii)
  • Various Fragments (1897, amplificata 1900)
  • Facts and Comments (1902)

Iudicia philosophorum[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Riggenbach 2011.
  2. Anglice: "The only other English philosopher to have achieved anything like such widespread popularity was Bertrand Russell and that was in the 20th century."
  3. Richards 2010.
  4. Anglice: "the single most famous European intellectual in the closing decades of the nineteenth century" (Eriksen et Nielsen 2001:37).
  5. "Spencer became the most famous philosopher of his time" (Tischler 2010:12).
  6. Anglice: "Who now reads Spencer?"
  7. Parsons 1968:3; attingens C. Crane Brinton, English Political Thought in the Nineteenth Century (Londinii: Benn, 1933).
  8. Warning icon.svg Fons nominis Latini desideratus (addito fonte, hanc formulam remove)
  9. Anglice: "survival of the fittest."
  10. "Letter 5145 – Darwin, C. R. to Wallace, A. R., 5 July (1866)". Darwin Correspondence Project .
  11. Maurice E. Stucke. "Better Competition Advocacy" (PDF) 

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Pictura Herberti Spencer, a Ioanne McLure Hamilton facta, circa 1895.
Sepulcrum Herberti Spencer in Sepulcreto Highgate.
  • Carneiro, Robert L., et Perrin, Robert G. 2002. Herbert Spencer's Principles of Sociology: a Centennial Retrospective and Appraisal. Annals of Science 59(3):221–261.
  • Duncan, David. 1908. The Life and Letters of Herbert Spencer. Editio interretialis.
  • Elliot, Hugh. 1917. Herbert Spencer. Londinii: Constable and Company, Ltd.
  • Elwick, James. 2003. Herbert Spencer and the Disunity of the Social Organism. History of Science 41:35–72.
  • Elliott, Paul. 2003. Erasmus Darwin, Herbert Spencer and the Origins of the Evolutionary Worldview in British Provincial Scientific Culture. Isis 94:1–29.
  • Eriksen, Thomas, et Finn Nielsen. 2001. A history of anthropology.
  • Francis, Mark. 2007. Herbert Spencer and the Invention of Modern Life. Novi Castelli: Acumen Publishing. ISBN 0-8014-4590-6.
  • Harris, Jose. 2004. Spencer, Herbert (1820–1903). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
  • Hodgson, Geoffrey M. 2004. Social Darwinism in Anglophone Academic Journals: A Contribution to the History of the Term. Journal of Historical Sociology 17:428.
  • Hofstadter, Richard. 1944, 1992. Social Darwinism in American Thought. Bostoniae: Beacon Press.ISBN 0-8070-5503-4.
  • Kennedy, James Gettier. 1978. Herbert Spencer. Bostoniae: Twayne Publishers. ISBN 0-8057-6688-X.
  • Mandelbaum, Maurice. 1971. History, Man, and Reason: A Study in Nineteenth-century Thought. Baltimorae: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Offer, John, ed. 2000. Herbert Spencer: critical assessments. Londinii et Novi Eboraci: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18184-4 (vol. 1), 0415181852 (vol. 2), 0415181860 (vol. 3), 0415181879 (vol. 4), 0415181836 (omnia volumina in capsa)
  • Parsons, Talcott. 1937, 1968. The Structure of Social Action. Novi Eboraci: Free Press, 1968.
  • Perrin, Robert G. 1993. Herbert Spencer: a primary and secondary bibliography. Novi Eboraci: Garland Publishing. ISBN 0-8240-4597-1.
  • Rafferty, Edward C. The Right to the Use of the Earth: Herbert Spencer, the Washington Intellectual Community, and American Conservation in the Late Nineteenth Century. PDF.
  • Richards, Peter. 2010. Herbert Spencer: Social Darwinist or Libertarian Prophet? Mises Institute, 4 Novembris.
  • Richards, Robert J. 1987. Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Theories of Mind and Behavior. Sicagi: University of Chicago Press.
  • Riggenbach, Jeff. 2011. "The Real William Graham Sumner." Mises Institute.
  • Smith, George H. 2008. Spencer, Herbert (1820–1903). In The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, ed. Ronald Hamowy, 483–485. Thousand Oaks Californiae: SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. OCLC 750831024.
  • Stewart, Iain. 2011. Commandeering Time: The Ideological Status of Time in the Social Darwinism of Herbert Spencer. Australian Journal of Politics and History 57:389.
  • Taylor, Michael W. 1992. Men versus the State: Herbert Spencer and Late Victorian Individualism. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press.
  • Taylor, Michael W. 2007. The Philosophy of Herbert Spencer. Londinii: Continuum.
  • Tischler, Henry L. 2010. Introduction to Sociology.
  • Turner, Jonathan H. 1985. Herbert Spencer: A Renewed Appreciation. Sage Publications. ISBN 0-8039-2426-7.
  • Versen, Christopher R. 2006. Optimistic Liberals: Herbert Spencer, the Brooklyn Ethical Association, and the Integration of Moral Philosophy and Evolution in the Victorian Trans-Atlantic Community. Florida State University.

Opera Spenceriana[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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