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Ioga

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Statua Shivae meditationem iogicam in gestu padmasana (Anglice: lotus position) exercitantis.

Ioga,[1][2] vel yoga[3] (verbum Sanscriticum et Pali; scriptura Devanāgarī योग) est quaelibet multarum corporis mentisque disciplinarum in subcontinente Indico ortarum.[4] Verbum cum meditativis in Buddhismo, Hinduismo, Iainismoque exercitationibus consociatur (Carmody & Carmody 1996:68; Sarbacker 2005:1–2). [5] Intra Hinduismum, vox yogae ad unam ex sex orthodoxis (āstika) philosophiae Hinduisticae scholis spectat, et mentem ad quem illa schola suas exercitationes intendit.[6] In Jainismo, yoga est summa omnium actionum: mentis, verborum, corporum.

Homines yogam faciunt.

Maiores partes iogae sunt in philosophia Hinduica Raja Yoga, Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, et Hatha Yoga.[7] Raja Yoga, in Yoganis Patanjali Orsis composita, et simpliciter appellata yoga in philosophia Hinduica, est pars memoriae Samkhyae (Jacobsen 2005:4). Multi alii libri Hinduistici de Upanishad, Bhagavad Gita, Hatha Yoga Pradipika, Shiva Samhita, variis tantris, et aliis yogae rebus dissererunt.

Verbum Sanscriticum yoga multas significationes habet,[8] et de radice Sanscritica yuj 'moderari, coniungere, copulare' deducitur.[9] Communia verba conversa sunt 'iungere, copulare, unio, coniunctio', et 'via'.[10][11] Fortasse etiam, verbum yoga de yujir samadhau 'contemplatio, absorptio' deducitur.[12]

Extra Indiam, vocabulum yoga usitate cum Hatha Yoga et eius asanis (statibus) consociatur, vel speciem exercitationis significat. Qui yogam faciat vel philosophiam yogae ad altum artis gradum sequatur yogi aut yogini appellatur.[13]

Historia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Yogi shivaiticus sedet, corpore cineribus contecto, signis mortis et resuscitationis; eius insigne est trisula.
Searchtool.svg Si plus cognoscere vis, vide Historia yogae, Hinduismus, et Asana

Samhitae Vedicae mentionem faciunt asceticorum, dum exercitationes asceticae (tapae) in Brahmanis, primis commentariis de Vedis, annis 900 a.C.n. ad 500 a.C.n. scriptis, nominantur.[14] Aliquae signa ex locis Civilizationis Vallis Indicae (circa 3300 a.C.n.1700 a.C.n.) in Pakistania inventa homines in statibus depingunt qui communem yogae meditationisve statum monstrant, "genus disciplinae ad ritus pertinens, quod praecursorem yogae significat," secundum Gregorium Possehl archaeologistam.[15] Ignota coniunctio inter signa Vallis Indicae et yogae meditationisque exercitationes a multis eruditis accipitur, sed certa indicia non adsunt.[16]

Modi ad altos sensuum status in meditatione experiendos a memoriis shramanicis et Upanishadicis evoluti sunt.[17] Dum in primis scripturis Brahminicis absunt certa meditationis indicia, meditatio sine forma fortasse in memoria Brahminica orta est, secundum similitudines claras sententiarum Upanishadicarum de cosmologia et propositorum de meditatione duorum magistrorum Buddhae, ut in primis scripturis Buddhistis dictum est.[18] Licet etiam alia interpretationes.[19]

Calces iogae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Calces vel proposita vel fines yogae sunt variae et ab salutem emendatam ad Moksham perfectam transiunt.[20] Intra Iainismum et monistas Advaitae Vedantae Shavismique scholas, calx yogae videtur in Moksha, liberatione ex omni dolore quotidiano et circulo ortus mortisque (Samsara), cum sit cognitio eiusdem Supremi Brahmani. In Mahabharata, calx yogae varie descripta est: ut mundum Brahmae intrare, ut Brahman ipsum, vel ut Brahman Atmanve omnes res permanans percipere.[21] Intra bhakti Vaishnavismi scholas, bhakti 'ministerium ad Svayam bhagavan ipsum datum' fieri potest ultima rationis yoganae calx, ubi propositum est aeterná cum Vishnu coniunctione frui.[22]

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Ebbe Vilborg, Norstedts svensk-latinska ordbok, andra upplagan (Holmiae: Norstedts akademiska förlag, 2009).
  2. Davidis Morgan Lexicon Anglico-Latinum, nondum editum..
  3. "ars Indica quae yoga appellatur" (Helfer, in Morgan).
  4. De usibus verbi litteris Pāli, vide Thomas William, Rhys Davids, et William Stede, Pali-English dictionary (editio retractata a Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1993, p. 558), liber apud books.google.com.
  5. Tattvarthasutra [6.1]; vide librum conversum a Manu Doshi (Ahmedabad: Shrut Ratnakar, 2007), p. 102.
  6. "[Verbo] iogae sunt quinque significationes principales: 1) yoga as a disciplined method for attaining a goal; 2) yoga as techniques of controlling the body and the mind; 3) yoga as a name of one of the schools or systems of philosophy (darśana); 4) yoga in connection with other words, such as hatha-, mantra-, and laya-, referring to traditions specialising in particular techniques of yoga; 5) yoga as the goal of yoga practice" (Jacobsen 2005:4). Monier-Williams iogam comprehendit in "the second of the two Sāṃkhya systems," et "mental abstraction practised as a system (as taught by Patañjali and called the Yoga philosophy)" in suis yogae definitionibus.
  7. Pandit Usharbudh Arya, The Philosophy of Hatha Yoga (Himalayan Institute Press, 1985, 2nd ed.; Sri Swami Rama, The Royal Path: Practical Lessons on Yoga (Himalayan Institute Press, 2008, nova editio; Patanjali, How to know god: The yoga aphorisms of Patanjali, conversus a Swami Prabhavananda et Christopher Isherwood (Vedanta Press, 1996, nova editio.
  8. Pro indice 38 verbi significationum, vide Apte, p. 788.
  9. Hac pro deductione, vide Flood (1996), p. 94.
  10. Pro 'coniungere, copulare, unio, iunctio', vide Apte, p. 788.
  11. Pro 'modus, "modus, ratio, via', vide Apte, p. 788, definitionem 5.
  12. Pro yoga deductum ex radice yujir samadhau contra yujir yoge, vide Maehle, p. 141.
  13. "Yogi, One who practices yoga" (American Heritage Dictionary). "Yogi, A follower of the yoga philosophy; an ascetic" (Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary).
  14. Flood, p. 94.
  15. Possehl (2003), pp. 144–145.
  16. Vide:  .
    • Heinrich Zimmer unum signum describit "sicut yogi sessum." Zimmer, Heinrich (1972). Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization. Princeton University Press, ed. nova. p. 168. ISBN 978-0691017785
     
    • Thomas McEvilley scribit: "The six mysterious Indus Valley seal images...all without exception show figures in a position known in hatha yoga as mulabhandasana or possibly the closely related utkatasana or baddha konasana" McEvilley, Thomas (2002). The shape of ancient thought. Allworth Communications. pp. 219–220. ISBN 9781581152036
     
    • Dr. Farzand Masih, Caput Facultatis Archaeologiae Punjab Universitatis, signum nuper inventum describit ut "yogi" monatrans. Rare objects discovery points to ruins treasure.
    • Gavin Flood disputat unum ex signis, "signum Pashupati" appellatum. Flood, pp. 28–29.
    • Geoffrey Samuel, de signo Pashupati, putat nos "non revera scire quomodo figura explanetur, nec quod is aut ea significat." Samuel, Geoffrey (2008). The Origins of Yoga and Tantra. Cambridge University Press. p. 4. ISBN 9780521695343
     .
  17. Flood, pp. 94–95.
  18. Alexander Wynne, The Origin of Buddhist Meditation (Routledge, 2007), p. 51.
  19. Alexander Wynne, The Origin of Buddhist Meditation (Routledge, 2007), p. 56.
  20. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Jacobsen.2C_p._10
  21. Jacobsen, p. 9.
  22. "Characterized by an emphasis on bhakti, its goal is to escape from the cycle of birth and death in order to enjoy the presence of Vishnu." ("Vaishnavism," Britannica Concise).

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Statua yogani Hinduistici in Birla Mandir Dellii.
Tirthankara Parsva in statu Kayotsarga in meditatione yogica.
Kevala Jñāna Mahavirae in statu mulabandhasana.
  • Apte, Vaman Shivram. 1965. The Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. Editio quarta. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0567-4.
  • Carmody, Denise Lardner, et John Carmody. 1996. Serene Compassion. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press.
  • Chang, G. C. C. 1993. Tibetan Yoga. New Jersey: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8065-1453-1.
  • Chatterjee, Satischandra, et Dhirendramohan Datta. 1984. An Introduction to Indian Philosophy. Calcuttae: University of Calcutta
  • Donatelle, Rebecca J. 2005. Health: The Basics. Editio sexta. Franciscopole: Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Feuerstein, Georg. 1996. The Shambhala Guide to Yoga. Bostoniae, Londinii: Shambhala Publications.
  • Flood, Gavin. 1996. An Introduction to Hinduism. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43878-0.
  • Gambhirananda, Swami. 1998. Madhusudana Sarasvati Bhagavad_Gita: With the annotation Gūḍhārtha Dīpikā. Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama Publication Department. ISBN 81-7505-194-9.
  • Harinanda, Swami. Yoga and The Portal. Dee Marketing. ISBN 0-9781429-5-0.
  • Jacobsen, Knut A., ed. 2005. Theory and Practice of Yoga: Essays in Honour of Gerald James Larson. Studies in the History of Religions, 110. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-14757-8.
  • Keay, John. 2000. India: A History. Novi Eboraci: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0.
  • Marshall, John. 1931. Mohenjodaro and the Indus Civilization: Being an Official Account of Archaeological Excavations at Mohenjodaro Carried Out by the Government of India between the Years 1922–27. Dellii: Indological Book House.
  • Michaels, Axel. 2004. Hinduism: Past and Present. Princetoniae: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08953-1.
  • Mittra, Dharma Sri. 2003. Asanas: 608 Yoga Poses. California: New World Library.
  • Müller, Max. 1899. Six Systems of Indian Philosophy; Samkhya and Yoga, Naya and Vaiseshika. Calcuttae: Susil Gupta (India) Ltd. ISBN 0-7661-4296-5.
  • Patañjali, Patañjali. 2001. Yoga Sutras of Patañjali. Studio 34 Yoga Healing Arts. http://www.studio34yoga.com/yoga.php#reading.
  • Possehl, Gregory. 2003. The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective. AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0-7591-0172-2.
  • Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli, et C. A. Moore. 1967. A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy. Princetoniae: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01958-4.
  • Saraswati, Swami Satyananda. 2002. Asana Pranayama Mudra Bandha. Editio duodecima. ISBN 81-86336-14-1.
  • Sarbacker, Stuart Ray. 2005. Samadhi: The Numinous and Cessative in Indo-Tibetan Yoga. SUNY Press.
  • Taimni, I. K. 1961. The Science of Yoga. Adyar Indiae: The Theosophical Publishing House. ISBN 81-7059-212-7.
  • Usharabudh, Arya Pandit. 1977, 1985. Philosophy of Hatha Yoga. Editio altera. Pennsylvania: Himalayan Institute Press.
  • Vivekananda, Swami, 1994. Raja Yoga. Calcuttae: Advaita Ashrama Publication Department. ISBN 81-85301-16-6.
  • Zimmer, Heinrich. 1951. Philosophies of India. Bollingen Series, edited by Joseph Campbell, 26. Novi Eboraci: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01758-1.
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