Gautama Buddha

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Siddhartha Gautama Buddha
Siddhartha Gautama Buddha
Natus circa 563 a.C.n.
Lumbini (hodie in Nepalia)
Obiit circa 483 a.C.n. (anno aetatis suae 80) vel 411 et 400 a.C.n.
Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh (hodie in India)

Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha (Sanscritice सिद्धार्थ गौतम बुद्ध; Pali Siddhattha Gotama) fuit doctor spiritualis ex subcontinente Indico, in cuius doctrinis Buddhismus conditus est.[1] Vocabulum Buddha in quolibet aevo est nomen primi entitatis excitati. In plurimis memoriis Buddhisticis, Siddhārtha Gautama habetur supremus Buddha (Sanscritice samyaksaṃbuddha, Pali sammāsambuddha) aevi nostri, nomine Buddha 'qui vigilat' vel 'eruditus' significanti.[2] Siddhārtha Gautama etiam Gautama Buddha et Śākyamuni 'Sapiens Śākyarum' appellari potest. Ipse Viam Mediam invenit, quae extremam religionum Sramana asceticismum emendavit.[3]

Stupa in Sarnath ubi Siddhārtha primam acroasem habuit.

Tempora Gautamae ortus obitusque sunt incerta: plurimi historici saeculi vicensimi eius vitam a circa 563 a.C.n. ad circa 483 a.C.n. computaverunt,[4] sed recentior opinio eius obitum habet inter 486 et 483 a.C.n., vel, ut aiunt nonnulli, inter 411 et 400 a.C.n.[5][6] UNESCO Lumbini Nepaliae situm hereditatis mundi et locum ortus Gautamae Buddhae perscribit.[7][8] Sunt autem adfirmationes locum sui ortus esse Kapilavastu apud Piprahwa, Uttar Pradesh, vel Kapileswara, Orissae, hodernae Indiae.[9][10][11][12][13] Ipse deinde per regiones Indiae orientalis docebat, in Magadha, Kośala, aliisque locis.[14][15]

Gautama est prima in Buddhismo persona, et fabulae de eius vita, acroasibus, regulisque monasticis a Buddhistis creduntur congestas fuisse et a sectatoribus memoria custoditas. Variae doctrinarum congeries ei tributae, traditione orali transmissae, primum, circa quadringentos annos post, litteris mandatae sunt.

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Gautama Buddha
Locus natalis Gautamae Buddhae in Lumbini.[16][17]
Buddha meditans sedet, daemonibus Marae circumdatus. Manuscriptum Sanscriticum aetatis Pala. Nalanda, Bihar, India.
Buddha se in Templo Gemmato Shanghai in urbe reclinat.

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Boeree, George. "An Introduction to Buddhism". Shippensburg University 
  2. Turner, Sir Ralph Lilley (1962–1985). "buddha 9276". A comparative dictionary of the Indo-Aryan languages. Londinii: Oxford University Press. Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, University of Chicago. p. 525 
  3. Stephen Laumakis, An Introduction to Buddhist philosophy (2008), p. 4.
  4. L. S. Cousins (1996), "The dating of the historical Buddha: a review article", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (3)6(1): 57–63.
  5. Vide consensum in commentationibus a maioribus eruditis scriptis in The Date of the Historical Śākyamuni Buddha, ed. A. K. Narain (Novi Dellii: B. R. Publishing Corporation, 2003), ISBN 81-7646-353-1.
  6. "As is now almost universally accepted by informed Indological scholarship, a re-examination of early Buddhist historical material . . . necessitates a redating of the Buddha's death to between 411 and 400 BCE" —Paul Dundas, The Jains, ed. 2a., (Routledge, 2001), p. 24.
  7. "Lumbini, the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha". UNESCO 
  8. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/t/the-astamahapratiharya-buddhist-pilgrimage-sites/
  9. "Kapilavastu" 
  10. http://www.hindu.com/fline/fl2204/stories/20050225001008800.htm
  11. http://www.rediff.com/news/2002/sep/16spec.htm
  12. http://www.srilankaguardian.org/2008/03/buddha-born-in-orissa-scholars.html
  13. http://orissa.gov.in/e-magazine/Journal/jounalvol1/pdf/orhj-3.pdf
  14. A. K. Warder, Indian Buddhism (2000), p. 45.
  15. Andrew Skilton, A Concise History of Buddhism (2004), p. 41.
  16. Hoc est sacrarium etiam pro Hinduicis, qui credunt Buddham esse nonum ex decem Dashavataris Vishnus.
  17. Nagendra Kumar Singh (1997). "Buddha as depicted in the Pura?as". Encyclopaedia of Hinduism, Volume 7. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD.. pp. 260–275. ISBN 9788174881687 .

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Ambedkar, B.R. (1957). The Buddha and His Dhamma. Bombay: People's Education Society 
  • Armstrong, Karen (2001). Buddha. Novi Eboraci: Penguin Books 
  • Senzaki, Nyogen; McCandless, Ruth Strout (1953). Buddhism and Zen. Novi Eboraci: Philosophical Library 
  • Bechert, Heinz, ed. (1996). When Did the Buddha Live? The Controversy on the Dating of the Historical Buddha. Delhi: Sri Satguru 
  • Carrithers, Michael. 1996. Der Buddha: Eine Einführung. Ditzingen: Reclam. ISBN 315003941X.
  • Conze, Edward. 1995. Der Buddhismus: Wesen und Entwicklung. Ed. 10a. Kohlhammer-Taschenbücher, 5. Berolini: Kohlhammer. ISBN 3170135058.
  • Conze, Edward, conv. (1959). Buddhist Scriptures. Londinii: Penguin Books 
  • Ña?amoli, Bhikku (1992). The Life of the Buddha According to the Pali Canon (3rd ed.). Kandy, Taprobanes: Buddhist Publication Society 
  • Ortner, Jon (2003). Buddha. Novi Eboraci: Welcome Books 
  • Rahula, Walpola (1974). What the Buddha Taught (2nd ed.). Novi Eboraci: Grove Press 
  • Robinson, Richard H.; Johnson, Willard L.; Wawrytko, Sandra A.; DeGraff, Geoffrey (1996). The Buddhist Religion: A Historical Introduction. Belmont Californiae: Wadsworth Publishing Co. 
  • Sathe, Shriram. 1987. Dates of the Buddha. Hyderabad: Bharatiya Itihasa Sankalana Samiti.
  • Schneider, Ulrich. 1997. Der Buddhismus: Eine Einführung. Ed. 4a. Darmstadt: Primus Verlag. ISBN 389678501X.
  • Schumann, Hans Wolfgang. 2004. Der historische Buddha: Leben und Lehre des Gotama. Monaci: Hugendubel. ISBN 3896314394.
  • Thích Nhất Hạnh. 2006. Nimm das Leben in deine Arme: Die Lehre des Buddha über die Liebe. Monaci: Dtv ISBN 9783423342810.
  • Reps, Paul, et Nyogen Senzaki. 1957. Zen Flesh, Zen Bones: A Collection of Zen and Pre-Zen Writings. Novi Eboraci: Doubleday.
  • Zotz, Volker. 2001. Buddha mit Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten. Ed. 6a. Reinbek: Rowohlt. ISBN 3499504774.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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