Pulvis cayennae

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Pulvis cayennae (piment de Cayenne) in Francia venditatus

Pulvis cayennae,[1] vel pulvis quiya,[2] est tritura de capsicorum varietatibus calidioribus.

De nomine[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nomen Latinum "quiya" e nuncupationibus in lingua Tupi capsicorum in Brasilia saeculo XVII cognitorum, sit quiyaqui, quiya-apua, quiya-cumati, quiya-carapo apud Bontium;[2] quiya-apua, quiya-cumeri, quiya-uca;[3] kyynha, varietates kyynhavi, kyynhai;[4] quiya, quiynhá.[5] Unde Anglice a principio kian, chian, chyan, kayan, cayan-butter, cayan-pepper appellabatur, denuo ab anno 1783 cayenne pepper.[6]

Synonymia horum nominum satis monstratur in praecepto testudinis "modo Indiarum Occidentalium" paratae quem ex opere 1755 aucto Annae Glasse ("adding a little Cayan pepper") anno 1792 Franciscus Collingwood et Ioannes Woollams mutationibus paucis deprehenserunt, "season it with chyan pepper and salt pretty high" imperantibus, quibus interpres Theodiscus Fridericus Gotthelf Baumgärtner anno 1794 "würzet es stark mit Cayenne-Pfeffer" respondit.[7] Recentius ergo cum nomine urbis capitalis Guianae Francicae Caienna, saepe cum varietatibus Capsici annui, quibus appellatio "Cayenne[en]" datur, in rumoribus coniungitur: interdum pulverem ex urbe Caienna sive e Guiana Francica ortum, saepe e "varietate Cayenne" confectum esse dicitur. Primae citationes Theodiscae et Francogallicae (Cayennepfeffer; piment de Cayenne) e saeculo XVIII exeunte referuntur.[8]

De origine et confectione[recensere | fontem recensere]

"Quiya seu piper Brasiliense": delineatio varietatum capsicorum ab Iacobo Bontio descriptorum, a Gulielmo Piso anno 1658 edita[9]

Pulverem e varietatibus capsicorum Brasiliensibus, generaliter quiya nuncupatis, siccatis, contusis, sale mixtis, primus Iacobus Bontius saeculo XVII medio descripsit:

Indigenae, Lusitani, et nostrati, haec piperis genera omnia orientali piperi longe praeferre solent, eaque, tum recentia tum exsiccata concisa, cibo, imprimis piscibus, optimum saporem conciliant et sanitati conducunt ... Pulvis [huius piperis] apostemata frigida resolvit ... iucundius haec praestat si rite praeparatum ciborum obsonia ingrediatur, quod sit aceto, cui integrum piper immersum fuerit, tum quoque si in pulverem redigatur cum modico salis Brasiliensis.[10]

Cuius pulveris parationem usumque culinarium saeculo XVIII ineunte Henricus Barham evolvit: "Alii capsici maturi, sole siccati, cum sale et pipere contusi, in ampullam inclusi, optimum pulmentum ad piscem carnemve condiendum sunt", appellatione Anglica kyan butter addito (i.e. butyrum vel tinctus quiya).[11] Quem secutus Hans Sloane in sua generis capsicorum descriptione huic pulveri allusit: "cum sale contusus parvo spatio constituit condituram omni fere ferculo omnique gustui idoneam quando in iure sive aceto commiscatur ... Sale contuso conficitur illud condimentum Indiarum Occidentalium universale, a quibusdam cayenbutter nominatum".[12] ... [13]

Sed anno 1756 Patricius Browne eodem pulvere nomen cayan pepper primus omnium rettulit.[14]

Anno circiter 1819 constitutio pulveris cayennae, sicut in Britanniam importabatur, a chemico Friderico Accum[en] pharmacologoque Andrea Duncan necnon coquo Gulielmo Kitchiner investigata est: pulverem e pluribus varietatibus Capsici generis provenisse, sed praecipue e varietate C. frutescentis omnium calidissima; cum sale interdumque plumbo adulterari; e fructibus nonnumquam putrescentibus productum esse.[15][16][17] Nostro tempore venditores pulverem cayennae non iam e C. frutescente producto, neque sale neque Bixa orellana neque plumbo additis, sed e fructibus varietatis Cayenne speciei C. annui tantum provenire dicunt.

De fama Europaea[recensere | fontem recensere]

Pulvis, qui ita ab auctoribus itinerum descripta erat, in Anglia et Nova Anglia circa annum 1800 iam propter facultatem calidam celebrabatur, sicut e similitudinibus metaphorisque litterariis constat. Georgius Colman auctor scaenicus Londiniensis ad adventum saporum exoticorum in Angliam anno 1782 allusit:

Her Indian host, or guest, of this night's feast,
Is just imported, neat as from the East;
His temper hot as Kayan, taste uncouth,
But full of Honour, Honesty, and Truth!

("Hospes eius sive advena cenae nocturnae repente ab Oriente ingressus est, humore ut cayenna calido, gustu inculto, at honestate candiditate veritate plenus").[18] Tali modo Georgius dominus de Byron ad humores ope cayennae calefactos allusit:

Now there is nothing gives a man such spirits,
Leavening his blood as cayenne doth a curry,
As going at full speed — no matter where its
Direction be, so 't is but in a hurry

("Nihil viro animum tantum confert sanguinemque temperat (quomodo cayenna carilem) nisi ad equitatum rapidissimum quaqualibet directione urgeatur").[19] Haud alia sententia historicus popularis Washington Irving effectum calamitatum criminumque in narratione "sicut cayenna in arte coquinaria" incitationem lectorum esse praedixit.[20]

De usu coquinario[recensere | fontem recensere]

Usus coquinarius pulveris cayennae in insulis Caribaeis, praecipue Iamaicae, a saeculo XVIII in fontibus pluribus relatus est, quorum aliqui iam supra citantur. Anglice de gastronomia Bryan Edwards eiusdem insulae colonus anno 1793, enumeratione holerum praeposita, "mixtura harum" ait "cum pisce salso seu carne salsa cuisque speciei, fortiter e pulvere cayenna temperata, dilectissimum potagium est inter nigricolores".[21][8]

Eodem aevo exploratores usum huius pulveris inter populos Africae occidentalis aut reppererunt aut e relationibus aliorum recitaverunt. J. P. Schotte de quodam regno Senegaliae orientalis hodiernae verbis censoriis "mihi refertur" ait "principes Galam[fr] victualia immoderatissime e pulvere cayenna temperata sumere; insuper scio opulentiores Mandingorum eundem abusum factitare, propter facultatem forsan excitantem", quam facultatem curiose descripsit.[22]

Apud coquos Britannos saeculo XVIII chyan, kayan, cayenne, i.e. pulvis cayennae, praecipue ad fercula exotica paranda adhibitum est sicut caril iuxta gastronomiam Indicam, iusculum testudinum modo Indiarum Occidentalium. Eundem usum ab annis fere 1790 in Francia et Germania observare possumus. Insuper loco piperis nigri et inter condimenta cottidiana apud plures acceptum est; Maria Eaton libro coquinario suo anno 1822 edito locis fere septuaginta usum cayennae mandavit.[23]

Apud medicos Europaeos eodem fere aevo "tinctura piperis cayennae" sicut "tinctura capsici annui" usitabatur.[1] Praecepta talium confectionum ad usum popularem tam gastronomicum quam medicum divulgabantur, videlicet essentia vel tinctura cayennae,[24] vinum cayennae,[25] sal cayennae,[26] acetum cayennae.[27]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Eine Zusammensetzung aus gleichen Theilen der Tinctura piperis Cayennae und Tinct. capsici annui": Journal der Chirurgie und Augen-heilkunde vol. 1 (1820) (p. 42 apud Google Books); "Eine Gemenge von der Tinctura capsici annui und piperis cayennae": Christoph-Bonifacius Zang, Darstellung blutiger heilkünstlerischer Operationen (1824) (p. 531 apud Google Books)
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Quiya seu piper Brasiliensis ... pulvis eius ...": #Bontius ed. Piso (1658)
  3. Ioannes Ray, Historia plantarum generalis (1693) (vol. 1 pp. 678-679 apud Google Books)
  4. Christoph Gottlieb von Murr, Reisen einiger Missionarien der Gesellschaft Jesu in Amerika. Norimbergae, 1785 (p. 519 apud Google Books)
  5. Theodoro J. H. Langgaard, Novo formulario medico e pharmaceutico (1868) (p. 537 apud Google Books)
  6. "cayan-butter", "cayan-pepper" in F. G. Cassidy, R. B. Le Page, Dictionary of Jamaican English (Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press, 1967) p. 97; "cayenne" in The Oxford English Dictionary (Oxonii: Clarendon Press, 1989. 20 voll.)
  7. To dress a turtle the West-India way: Hannah Glasse, The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy (5a ed. Londinii, 1755) p. 331; Francis Collingwood, John Woollams, The Universal Cook (Londinii, 1792) p. 179; Schildkröte auf die Westindianische Art zuzubereitet: Fridericus Gotthelf Baumgärtner, interpr., Neues Londner Kochbuch (Lipsiae, 1794) (p. 220 apud Google Books)
  8. 8.0 8.1 Theodisce Cayennepfeffer: Matthias Christian Sprengel, interpres, Auswahl der besten ausländischen geographischen und statistischen Nachrichten vol. 1 (Halis: Renger, 1794) (p. 60)
  9. #Bontius ed. Piso (1658) pars 1 p. 225
  10. #Bontius ed. Piso (1658) p. 226
  11. other small red peppers, when ripe, taken and dried in the sun, and then ground with salt and pepper, close stopped in a bottle, are an excellent relisher to sauce for fish or flesh, and commonly called kyan butter: Henry Barham, Hortus Americanus (Kingston Iamaicae, 1794) p. 30
  12. Powdered with salt, 'tis a portable sauce in little room, and agreeing almost to every dish and pallat, being mix'd with gravy or vinegar: #Sloane (1707-1725) vol. 1 p. 240; Salt ground with it makes the universal Indian sauce, call'd by some Cayenbutter: vol. 2 p. 378
  13. Voici la manière dont les Indiens préparent ces fruits [scil. poivre d'oiseau] pour leur usage, et qu'ils nomment "beurre de cayan" ou "pots de poivre". D'abord ils le font sécher à lombre, puis à un feu lent, avec de la farine ... ensuite ils les coupent bien menus ... et sur chaque once de fruit ... ils ajoutent une livre de la plus fine farine ... avec du levain ... La masse étant bien levée, ils la mettent au four ... puis ils la font cuire de nouveau comme du biscuit; enfin ils la réduisent en une poudre fine ... Cette poudre est admirable, selon eux, pour assaisonner toutes sortes de viandes: #Descourtilz (1828)
  14. Bird pepper ... The pods ... dried and pounded with a sufficient quantity of salt is the cayan pepper or butter of the West-Indians: #Browne (1756)
  15. Cayenne pepper is an indiscriminate mixture of the powder of the dried pods of many species of capsicum, but especially of the capsicum frutescens, or bird pepper, which is the hottest of all. Cayenne pepper, as it comes to us from the West Indies, changes infusion of turnsole to a beautiful green, probably owing to the muriate of soda, which is always added to it, and to red oxide of lead: #Duncan (1819)
  16. It is sometimes adulterated with red lead, to prevent its becoming bleached on exposure to light. This fraud may be readily detected by shaking up part of it in a stopped vial containing water impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen gas, which will cause it speedily to assume a dark muddy black colour: #Accum (1820)
  17. The [West] Indian Cayenne is prepared in a very careless manner, and often looks as if the pods had lain till they were decayed, before they were dried; this accounts for the dirty brown appearance it commonly has ... some [annatto] or other vegetable red colouring matter is pounded with it: #Kitchiner (1822)
  18. George Colman, "Prologue to the new comedy of the East-Indian" in The Lady's Magazine vol. 13, 1782 (p. 383 apud Google Books); George Colman, Prose upon Several Occasions vol. 3 (1787) p. 235
  19. Byron, Don Juan 10.72 anno circiter 1823 scriptum
  20. conflagrations, murders, and all the other catalogue of hideous crimes, that like Cayenne in cookery, do give a pungency and flavour, to the dull detail of history: Washington Irving, A history of New York ... by Diedrich Knickerbocker, 1809 (p. 90 editionis 1833 apud Google Books)
  21. A mixture of these [esculent vegetables], stewed with salted fish or salted meat of any kind, and highly seasoned with Cayenne-pepper, is a favourite olio among the negroes: Bryan Edwards, The history, civil and commercial, of the British colonies in the West Indies (Londinii: Stockdale, 1793) vol. 1 p. 255
  22. I have been told that the Batcherees of Galam have their victuals most immoderately seasoned with Cayenne pepper, and I know myself that the opulent people of the Mandinga nation make the same abuse of it. This may, perhaps, be done with a view to its operating as a provocative: for it has a peculiar effect on the seminal vessels, and will produce erections, attended with a dull pain and turgescency in the testicles: J. P. Schotte, "A Description of a Species of Sarcocele ... in a Black Man in the Island of Senegal" in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society vol. 73 (1783) p. 93
  23. #Eaton (1822)
  24. #Kitchiner (1817); #Eaton (1822) 119; #Beeton (1861)
  25. #Kitchiner (1827)
  26. #Steel et Gardiner (1893)
  27. #Acton (1845); #Beeton (1861); #Nabob's Cookery Book (1900)

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Fontes antiquiores
Lexicographica
Praecepta
  • 1768 : Philip Miller, The Gardener's Dictionary. 8a ed. Londinii s.v. "Capsicum" ad finem ("Cayan butter, or what the inhabitants of America call Pepper-pots")
  • 1817 : William Kitchiner, Apicius Redivivus, or The Cook's Oracle (Londinii: Bagster, 1817) no. 405 (praeceptum "Essence of cayenne")
  • 1822 : "Cayenne", "Chili vinegar", "Essence of cayenne" in Mary Eaton, The cook and housekeeper's complete and universal dictionary (Bungay, 1822) pp. 71-72, 79, 119 et passim
  • 1822 : William Kitchiner, The Cook's Oracle. 4a ed. pp. 355-357 ("Cayenne pepper, Essence of cayenne, Chili vinegar, Chili or cayenne wine")
  • 1845 : Eliza Acton, Modern cookery in all its branches (Londinii: Longmans, 1845) p. 166 (praeceptum "Cayenne vinegar")
  • 1861 : Isabella Beeton, Beeton's Book of Household Management (Londinii, 1861) pp. 179, 188 ("Cayenne"; praecepta "Cayenne vinegar, Essence of cayenne")
  • 1893 : Flora Annie Steel, Grace Gardiner, The complete Indian housekeeper and cook (3a ed. Edinburgi: Edinburgh Press, 1893) p. 397 (praeceptum "Cayenne salt")
  • 1900 : P. O. P., The Nabob's Cookery Book: a manual of East and West Indian recipes (Londinii: Warne, 1900) no. 36 (praeceptum "Cayenne vinegar")

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]