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Laniidae

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Classis : Aves 
Psittacopasserae 
Ordo : Passeriformes 
Superfamilia : Corvoidea 
Familia : Laniidae 
Rafinesque, 1815
   

Laniidae (a lanio[1]) sunt familia avium carnivorarum ordinis Passeriformium, cui sunt triginta tres species in quattuor genera digestae.

Distributio geographica, migratio, habitatio[recensere | fontem recensere]

Plurimae laniidarum species in Eurasia et Africa distribuuntur, solum duabus (Lanio ludoviciano, Lanio excubitore) in America Septentrionali ova parientibus. Species huius familiae neque in America Australi neque in Australia fiunt, sed una species Novam Guineam attingit. Geographica laniidarum spatia magnopere variant, certis speciebus (sicut Lanio excubitore) per omne hemisphaerium septentrionale inventis, cum una, Lanius newtoni, solum in insula Sancti Thomae in Insulis Sancti Thomae et Principis ante litus Africanum endemica esset.[2]

Habitationes apertas petunt, praecipue steppas et savannas. Aliquot autem species sunt silvicolae, quae raro in agris apertis videntur; aliquot quoque ova in latitudinibus septentrionalibus aestate pariunt, tum ad climata calidiora migrant, ubi hiemant.

Descriptio[recensere | fontem recensere]

Laniidae sunt aves magnitudinis mediae, pinnis canis, fuscis, nigris, albis coloratis. Multae species inter 16 et 25 centimetra longae sunt; genus autem Corvinella, cui sunt pinnae caudales multo praelongae, usque ad 50 centimetra longa crescere potest. Rostra hamata sunt, sicut rostra avium praedatoriarum, earum ingenii praedatorii causa, atque earum vocationes sunt acres.

Mores[recensere | fontem recensere]

Laniidae corpora insectorum parvorumque vertebratorum in spinis naturalibus, ferreis saepium filis, vel ulla re acutissima insigniter transfigere solent. Quod eas adiuvat ut carnem in fragmenta minora et commodiora scindant, et ad cache prodest, ut avis ad partes non consumptas postea redire possit.[3] Idem mores etiam sunt adaptatio ad Romaleam guttatam, caeliferum venenosam, comedendam: avis ab uno ad duo dies exspectat, donec toxina intra caeliferum evanescant.[4]

Species ordine taxinomico digestae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Apis ut videtur capta et in spina ab una ex lanidiis transfixa.

Familia Laniidarum nomine Lanidia a Constantino Samuele Rafinesque, polymathe Francico, anno 1815 proposita est.[5][6]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Jobling 2010: 219.
  2. Yosef 2008.
  3. Clancey, P. A. (1991). Forshaw, Joseph. ed. Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. Londinii: Merehurst Press. p. 180. ISBN 1-85391-186-0 .
  4. Yosef, Reuven; Whitman, Douglas W. (1992). "Predator exaptations and defensive adaptations in evolutionary balance: No defence is perfect". Evolutionary Ecology 6 (6): 527–536 .
  5. Rafinesque, Constantine Samuel (1815) (Francice). Analyse de la nature ou, Tableau de l'univers et des corps organisés. Palermo: Self-published. p. 67 .
  6. Bock, Walter J. (1994). History and Nomenclature of Avian Family-Group Names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Number 222. New York: American Museum of Natural History. pp. 150, 252 .
  7. Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2019). "Shrikes, vireos & shrike-babblers". World Bird List Version 9.2. International Ornithologists' Union .

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Fuchs, J., P. Alström, Reuven Yosef, et U. Olsson. 2019. "Miocene diversification of an open‐habitat predatorial passerine radiation, the shrikes (Aves: Passeriformes: Laniidae)." Zoologica Scripta 1–18. doi:10.1111/zsc.12363.
  • Harris, Tony. 2000. Shrikes and Bush-Shrikes: including wood-shrikes, helmet-shrikes, flycatcher-shrikes, philentomas, batises, and wattle-eyes. Illust. Kim Fraaklin. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07036-9.
  • Jobling, James A. 2010. The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. Londinii: Christopher Helm. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4. Praeconium interretiale.
  • Lefranc, Norbert. 1997. Shrikes: A Guide to the Shrikes of the World. Portu Novo: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07336-4.
  • Yosef, Reuven. 2008. "Family Laniidae (Shrikes)." Handbook of the Birds of the World, volume 13: Penduline-tits to Shrikes, ed. Josep del Hoyo, Andrew Elliott, et David Christie, 732–73. Barcinonae: Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-84-96553-45-3.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Laniidas spectant.