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Audacia

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Anxietas et audacia pro officina medici Flensburgi commemorantur.
Audacia Generalis Rajewski in proelio. Tabula a Nicolao Samokish anno 1912 facta.

Audacia, et fortasse saepissime fortitudo,[1] est electio et voluntas ad angorem, dolorem, cruciatum, periculum, incertitudinem, vel minas tolerandas, eis enim opponens. Audacia corporea est fortitudo erga dolorem corporeum, laborem, mortem, vel minas mortales, atque audacia moralis est facultas iuste agendi erga impedimenta populorum,[2] pudorem, opprobrium, animi infractionem, vel damnum personale. Fortitudo, una ex virtutibus classicis etiam audacia dicitur, sed praeterea notiones perseverantiae et patientiae comprehendit.[3] Symbolus audaciae saepe est leo.[4]

In traditionibus Occidentalibus, cogitationes notabiles de audacia posuerunt Socrates, Plato, Aristoteles, Thomas Aquinas, Severinus Kierkegaard, aliique philosophi, ac fides et scripta Iudaica et Christiana.

In traditionibus Hinduicis, mythologia multa fortitudinis audaciaeque exempla praebet. Potissimum carmina Ramayana et Mahabharata multa audaciae corporeae moralisque exempla praebent.

In traditionibus Orientalibus, cogitationes de audacia in Tao Te Ching, textu classico Sinico, praebentur, qui liber contendit audaciam ex amore deduci.

Audacia nuper a psychologi investigatur.

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Etiam animositas, animus, constantia, virtus, et Medio Aevo vulgo *coraticum. In Imperio Romano, audacia vel fortitudo fuit pars aestimationis universalis virtutis (McDonnell 2006: 31).
  2. Pianalto 2012.
  3. Rickaby, John (1909). The Catholic Encyclopedia. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company .
  4. Miller 2000: 101–102.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

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  • Aultman, Julie. 2008. "Moral Courage Through a Collective Voice." The Journal of Positive Psychology 8 (4): 67–69. doi:10.1080/15265160802147140.
  • Avramenko, Richard. 2011. Courage: The Politics of Life and Limb. University of Notre Dame Press.
  • Becker, Ernest. 1973. The Denial of Death. Novi Eboraci: The Free Press.
  • Bussey, K. 1992. "Lying and truthfulness: Children's definitions, standards, and evaluative reactions." Child Development 63, 129–37.
  • Deci, E. L., R. M. Ryan. 2000. "The 'what' and 'why' of gal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior." Psychological Inquiry 4: 227–68.
  • Deutsch, M. 1961. "Courage as a concept in social psychology." The Journal of Positive Psychology 55 (1): 49–58. doi:10.1080/00224545.1961.9922158.
  • Eisenberger, R. 1992. "Learned industriousness." Psychological Review 99: 248–67.
  • Evans, P. D., et D. G. White. 1981. "Towards an empirical definition of courage." Behaviour Research and Therapy 19: 419–24.
  • Fleury, Cynthia. 2010. La fin du courage: la reconquête d'une vertu démocratique. Lutetiae: Fayard.
  • Hobbes, Thomas. 1972. De Homine et De Cive, ed. Bernard Gert. Indianapoli: Hackett Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-8446-4756-2.
  • Hobbes, Thomas. 1991. Leviathan, ed. Richard Tuck. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hume, David. 1751. An Enquiry Concerning The Principles Of Morals. Lanhamiae Terrae Mariae: Start Publishing LLC.
  • Hume, David. 2009. A Treatise On Human Nature: Being an Attempt to Introduce the Experimental Method of Reasoning into Moral Subjects. The Floating Press.
  • Jeanmart, G., L. Blésin, eds. 2009. "Figures du courage politique dans la philosophie moderne et contemporaine, numéro thématique de la revue Dissensus." Revue de philosophie politique de l'Université de Liège 2 (autumnus).\ Editio interretialis.
  • Kerfoot, K. M. 2012. "Courage as a concept in social psychology." Nursing Economics 30 (3): 176–78.
  • Kühne, Ulrich, ed. 2006.l Mutige Menschen: Frauen und Männer mit Zivilcourage. Monaci: Elisabeth Sandmann Verlag.
  • McDonnell, Myles. 2006. "Roman Manliness: 'Virtus' and the Roman Republic." Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-5218-2788-1.
  • Meyer, Gerd. 2007. Lebendige Demokratie: Zivilcourage und Mut im Alltag: Forschungsergebnisse und Praxisperspektiven. Ed. 2a. Baden-Baden: Nomos. ISBN 3-8329-0444-1.
  • Miller, William Ian. 2000. The Mystery of Courage. Cantabrigiae Massachusettae: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-00826-7.
  • Nietzsche, Friedrich. 1989. Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future. Novi Eboraci: Vintage. ISBN 978-0-521-77078-1.
  • Osho. 1999. Courage: The Joy of Living Dangerously. Londinii: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-20517-1.
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  • Pianalto, Matthew. 2012. "Moral Courage and Facing Others." Philosophical Studies 20 (2): 165–84. doi:10.1080/09672559.2012.668308.
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  • Putman, Daniel. 2001. "The Emotions of Courage." Journal of Social Philosophy 32 (4): 463–70. doi:10.1111/0047-2786.00107.
  • Rate, Christopher R., Jennifer A. Clarke, Lindsay Sternberg, et Robert J. Sternberg. 2007. "Implicit theories of courage." The Journal of Positive Psychology 2 (2): 80–98. doi:10.1080/17439760701228755.
  • Rousseau, Félicien. 1985. Courage ou résignation et violence. Lutetiae: Editions Le Cerf.
  • Ryan, R. M., et C. Frederick. 1997. "On energy, personality, and health: Subjective vitality as a dynamic reflection of well-being." Journal of Personality 65: 529–65.
  • Tillich, Paul. 1952. The Courage To Be. Portu Nobo: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08471-9.
  • Walton, Douglas N. 1986. Courage: A Philosophical Investigation. Agelopoli: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-05443-1.
  • Woodard, C. R. 2004. "Hardiness and the concept of courage." Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research 56: 173–185.
  • Zimmerman, Barry J. 1995. "Self-regulation involves more than meta cognition: a social cognitive perspective." Educational Psychologist 30, 217–21.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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